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2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 159

Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

#44 - Introducing Biocatalysis In An Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory Using A Cyclopropanation Reaction, Sarah Youngblood Nov 2019

#44 - Introducing Biocatalysis In An Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory Using A Cyclopropanation Reaction, Sarah Youngblood

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Introducing Biocatalysis in an Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory Using a Cyclopropanation Reaction

Sarah Youngblood

Faculty Sponsor: Gopeekrishnan Sreenilayam

Biocatalysis is the use of enzymes and proteins to perform chemical transformations. Enzymes and proteins are increasingly used in organic reactions due to excellent chemo-, regio- and stereo- selectivity, environmental sustainability, milder reaction conditions, improved productivity, simplified work-streams and greater economical saving potential. The purpose of this project is to design a biocatalysis experiment that we can incorporate into an undergraduate organic chemistry teaching laboratory. In recent years, there have been a number of studies reported regarding the use of heme containing proteins ...


Functionalization Of Indoles And Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes And Their Application Towards The Total Synthesis Of Tronocarpine And Dippinine B, Lauren C. Irwin Oct 2019

Functionalization Of Indoles And Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes And Their Application Towards The Total Synthesis Of Tronocarpine And Dippinine B, Lauren C. Irwin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The work disclosed in this dissertation outlines novel reactions involving indoles and their applications towards the total synthesis of natural products, tronocarpine and dippinine B.

Showcased in Chapter 2 is a novel mode of activation for donor-acceptor cyclopropanes via an external hydrogen bond. The hydrogen bond increases the cyclopropane’s electrophilicity permitting indole nucleophiles to open the ring. The result is 3-postion functionalized indoles.

An external hydrogen-bond donor, HFIP (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol), is used as a solvent to provide the medium necessary for favourable hydrogen-bond interaction with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. Hydrogen bond activation of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes was successful ...


Methodologies For Metal Functionalization Of Phosphorus Based Photopolymer Networks, Vanessa Béland Oct 2019

Methodologies For Metal Functionalization Of Phosphorus Based Photopolymer Networks, Vanessa Béland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Photopolymer networks with phosphonium cation, alkyl phosphine and olefin functionality were designed, synthesized and functionalized with metals by metathesis, coordination and hydrometallation reactions, respectively. The materials were strategically designed so that the metal functionalization step could be monitored and quantified. In some cases, this involved characterization by IR, NMR, or X-ray spectroscopic techniques, or by comparison to molecular analogues. It was found that by using a bi-functional photopolymer network, the material could be bi-metallized by orthogonal mechanisms. All metallized polymer networks were tested for their suitability as precursors to metal-containing ceramics. The polymers were pyrolyzed, and on analysis it was ...


Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh Oct 2019

Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh

Open Educational Resources

Organic chemistry is a two-semester course (Organic Chemistry I, SCC 251 and Organic Chemistry II, SCC 252) required for majors in Biology. The SCC 251 course has been designated for the Integrative Learning Core Competency as well the Digital Communication Ability. This course emphasizes the synthesis, structure, reactivity, and mechanisms of reaction of organic compounds. Laboratory stresses various organic synthetic and analytic techniques (distillation, extraction, chromatography and spectroscopy).

This lab provided an opportunity for students to go deeper with the chemistry content by correlating to the concepts they learned in General Chemistry courses such as Valence shell electron pair repulsion ...


Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow Sep 2019

Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow

Igor I. Slowing

Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI(3)THF(n) and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe2)(3). X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a-d are isostructural, pseudo-C-3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Li <- HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe2)(3)}(3) and DFT calculations. The Ln <- HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activation parameters for the exchange process in la (Delta H-double dagger = 8.2(4) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -1(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)) and 1a-d(9) (Delta H-double dagger = 7.7(3) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -4(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants, (k(H)/k(D)), and slopes of ln (k/T) vs 1/T plots for la and 1a-d(9) reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five beta-Si-H -> Ln and one gamma-C-H -> Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln <- HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe2)(3) ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln-C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 degrees C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox(Me2))(2)) give {MeC(Ox(Me2))(2)}Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(2), and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).


Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow Sep 2019

Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow

Aaron D. Sadow

Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI(3)THF(n) and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe2)(3). X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a-d are isostructural, pseudo-C-3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Li <- HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe2)(3)}(3) and DFT calculations. The Ln <- HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activation parameters for the exchange process in la (Delta H-double dagger = 8.2(4) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -1(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)) and 1a-d(9) (Delta H-double dagger = 7.7(3) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -4(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants, (k(H)/k(D)), and slopes of ln (k/T) vs 1/T plots for la and 1a-d(9) reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five beta-Si-H -> Ln and one gamma-C-H -> Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln <- HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe2)(3) ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln-C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 degrees C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox(Me2))(2)) give {MeC(Ox(Me2))(2)}Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(2), and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive Programmable Polymers Through Ring-Opening–Metathesis Cross-Metathesis (Rom-Cm), Courtney S. Dziewior, Sharon M. S. Strickland, Ping Li, Ken D. Shimizu Aug 2019

Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive Programmable Polymers Through Ring-Opening–Metathesis Cross-Metathesis (Rom-Cm), Courtney S. Dziewior, Sharon M. S. Strickland, Ping Li, Ken D. Shimizu

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Stimuli-responsive polymers can change their physical and/or chemical properties in response to external stimuli. These polymers have found great success in a number of important areas including molecular gels and biomedical engineering, as well as success in applications such as targeted drug delivery and biosensors. We have been working toward the development of programmable polymers that remember the response after a stimulus is withdrawn. To this end, we set out to synthesize specific functional monomers. While different types of reactions could potentially result in the desired target monomer, we studied the ring-opening metathesis–cross-metathesis reaction (ROM-CM). Previous work of ...


Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian Aug 2019

Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian

LSU Master's Theses

During crude oil spill events, vegetation in marsh environments sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the crude oil by partitioning from the air phase through the waxy cuticle on the leaf surface. Recent studies from Macondo oil-impacted marshes have demonstrated that cycling of low molecular weight petrogenic PAHs occurs through the cuticle and other leaf tissue. At present, our understanding of how PAHs travel through the cuticle is coarse and limited by grab samples across the entire leaf, which preventing a full understanding the dynamics of PAH cycling in this environment. Multiphoton (MP) confocal microscopy visualizes the distribution of PAHs ...


Effect Of Structure On The Spin Switching And Magnetic Bistability Of Solid-State Aryl Dicyanomethyl Monoradicals And Diradicals, Joshua P. Peterson, Rui Zhang, Arthur H. Winter Aug 2019

Effect Of Structure On The Spin Switching And Magnetic Bistability Of Solid-State Aryl Dicyanomethyl Monoradicals And Diradicals, Joshua P. Peterson, Rui Zhang, Arthur H. Winter

Chemistry Publications

Stable organic radicals with switchable spin states have applications in medicine, biology, and material science. An emerging class of such spin-switchable radicals is based on dicyanomethyl radicals, which are typically thermally and air-stable species that form weakly bonded (closed-shell singlet) dimers at a lower temperature that rupture into electron paramagnetic resonance-active diradicals at a higher temperature. However, thus far, the study of these dicyanomethyl radicals has focused on their solution-phase behavior. An understanding of how chemical structure affects the solid-state spin switching behavior for these radicals is unknown. Here, we examine the solid-state spin crossover behavior of 6 monoradicals and ...


The Roundtable Of Scientific Communication: From Classroom To Course Creation, Back To Classroom And Beyond, Sean P. Hickey Aug 2019

The Roundtable Of Scientific Communication: From Classroom To Course Creation, Back To Classroom And Beyond, Sean P. Hickey

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This research encompasses many aspects of chemical education research including curriculum and pedagogical changes to the freshman and sophomore courses. Curriculum changes included the addition of recitations to the general chemistry and organic chemistry lectures and the creation of four new classes, CHEM 1001, 1002, 3091, and 3092. The addition of recitations was not limited to but was focused on improving DFW rates for these courses.

CHEM 3091 and 3092 are chemistry internship and undergraduate teaching assistant classes. These courses were necessary to offer outside internship opportunities and training for undergraduate teaching assistants, respectively. CHEM 1001 and 1002 are chemistry ...


Design And Synthesis Of Stable Aminyl And Nitroxide Radical Precursors, Joshua Bryan Lovell Aug 2019

Design And Synthesis Of Stable Aminyl And Nitroxide Radical Precursors, Joshua Bryan Lovell

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Aminyl diradicals with sterically-hindered tert-butyl groups have yet to be fully investigated for their increased stability due to their difficulty in synthesis. The first chapter of this thesis details design and synthesis towards sterically-hindered aminyl radical and diradical precursors.

Structural features effecting nitroxide radical stability have been well investigated except for the impact on the ring-size of stability of nitroxides towards reduction by ascorbate. Two 7-membered nitroxides derived from TEMPONE and TEMPOL have been synthesized and characterized. The alcohol nitroxide shows increased stability towards reduction by ascorbate compared to the corresponding TEMPOL, while the other nitroxide shows decreased stability compared ...


Synthesis Of Diazonium N-(Perfluoroalkyl) Benzenesulfonimide Polymers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Helal Alharbi Aug 2019

Synthesis Of Diazonium N-(Perfluoroalkyl) Benzenesulfonimide Polymers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Helal Alharbi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the research is to synthesize the diazonium N-(perfluoroalkyl) benzenesulfonimide (PFSI)zwitterionicpolymers as electrolytes in polymerelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The proposed diazoniumPFSI zwitterionic polymer (I) is expected to enhance the thermal and chemical stability, increase the proton conductivity of electrolytes, and improve the catalyst efficiency for PEM fuel cells. Synthesis of the perfluorobenzoyl peroxide initiator, homopolymerization of perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride,coupling reaction with4-sulfamonylacetanilide, couplingreaction with 4-nitrobenzene sulfonyl amide, n-deacetylation reaction, and diazotization reactionhave been carried outsuccessfully in the lab. The intermediate chemicals are characterized by GC-MS, IR, NMR, and GPC spectroscopies.


A Study In Molecular Recognition: Synthesis Of A Β-Sheet Mimic & Quantitation Of Metal Ions In Aqueous Solutions Through Solid Supported Semi-Selective Chemosensors, Tyler G. Fenske Aug 2019

A Study In Molecular Recognition: Synthesis Of A Β-Sheet Mimic & Quantitation Of Metal Ions In Aqueous Solutions Through Solid Supported Semi-Selective Chemosensors, Tyler G. Fenske

Theses and Dissertations

From the hydrophobic effect, which is responsible for the organization of amphipathic molecules into cellular membranes, to the highly specific hydrogen binding patterns found in DNA base pairs that keeps our genetic material “zipped up”, non-covalent and reversible interactions are critical to properly functioning biological processes. Molecular recognition is an area of study that seeks to better understand these observed phenomena. In a general sense, association of “Host” and “Guest” molecules are based on ionic forces, hydrophobic interactions, cation-π effects, π-π stacking, conformational restriction, and many others. This dissertation will primarily focus on two projects that have an emphasis on ...


Phosphonate-Directed Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroboration: Synthesis Of Functionalized Chiral Secondary And Tertiary Boronic Esters And Mechanistic Insights, Suman Chakrabarty Jul 2019

Phosphonate-Directed Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroboration: Synthesis Of Functionalized Chiral Secondary And Tertiary Boronic Esters And Mechanistic Insights, Suman Chakrabarty

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Over the past 30 years, catalytic asymmetric hydroboration (CAHB) of alkenes has emerged as a leading methodology to access chiral primary and secondary boronic esters. However, it wasn’t until 2015 that directed-CAHB was for the first time shown to efficiently access chiral tertiary boronic esters. The latter are excellent precursors to synthetically challenging structural motifs such as chiral tertiary alcohols, carbinamines and all-carbon quaternary stereocenters via stereospecific C-B bond substitutions. This dissertation focuses on phosphonate-directed CAHB of diverse alkene substrates, including challenging stereodefined trisubstituted alkenes, to efficiently access multifunctional chiral secondary and tertiary boronic esters. Mechanistic insights obtained via ...


Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee Jul 2019

Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Exploring the metabolic differences directly on tissues is essential for the comprehensive understanding of how multicellular organisms function. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an attractive technique toward this goal; however, MSI in metabolomics scale has been hindered by multiple limitations. This is most notable for single cell level high-spatial resolution imaging because of the limited number of molecules in small sampling size and the low ionization yields of many metabolites. Several on-tissue chemical derivatization approaches have been reported to increase MSI signals of targeted compounds, especially in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)- MSI. Herein, we adopt a combination of chemical ...


Organic Chemistry With A Biographical Emphasis: Solutions To In-Chapter Exercises, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biographical Emphasis: Solutions To In-Chapter Exercises, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The solutions to the in-chapter exercises of Organic Chemistry with a Biological Emphasis volume 1 and 2.


Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis: Solutions To Selected End-Of-Chapter Problems, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis: Solutions To Selected End-Of-Chapter Problems, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The solutions to the in-chapter exercises of Organic Chemistry with a Biological Emphasis volume 1 and 2.


Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume I, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume I, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The traditional approach to teaching Organic Chemistry, taken by most of the textbooks that are currently available, is to focus primarily on the reactions of laboratory synthesis, with much less discussion - in the central chapters, at least - of biological molecules and reactions. This is despite the fact that, in many classrooms, a majority of students are majoring in Biology or Health Sciences rather than in Chemistry, and are presumably taking the course in order to learn about the chemistry that takes place in living things.

In an effort to address this disconnect, I have developed a textbook for a two-semester ...


Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume Ii, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume Ii, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The traditional approach to teaching Organic Chemistry, taken by most of the textbooks that are currently available, is to focus primarily on the reactions of laboratory synthesis, with much less discussion - in the central chapters, at least - of biological molecules and reactions. This is despite the fact that, in many classrooms, a majority of students are majoring in Biology or Health Sciences rather than in Chemistry, and are presumably taking the course in order to learn about the chemistry that takes place in living things.

In an effort to address this disconnect, I have developed a textbook for a two-semester ...


Photoswitchable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Suendues Noori, James A. Wisner Jun 2019

Photoswitchable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Suendues Noori, James A. Wisner

Western Research Forum

Background: Photochromism is the reversible transformation of a chemical material to another form by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (light), where the two metastable forms have distinct absorption spectra and other properties. Photochromism in materials allows for the switching of their function solely based on irradiation with light. Polymers are used frequently as the building blocks for materials as they are versatile, multifunctional, can carry charge and be processed by solution-based deposition methods. Supramolecular polymers share the same definition as polymers with the exception that they are held together by reversible and directional non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Synthesizing ...


Development Of Bioorthogonal Molecular Tools On Gold Nanoparticles, Wilson Luo Jun 2019

Development Of Bioorthogonal Molecular Tools On Gold Nanoparticles, Wilson Luo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis describes the development of bioorthogonal chemical tools — originally designed to form bonds cleanly and selectively in living systems — on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model reactive nanomaterial template to showcase chemical modifications in a facile and robust manner. To achieve this goal, new methodologies to cleanly incorporate strained alkyne (SA) and cargo-bearing triarylphosphine derivatives onto AuNPs were developed. The protocols described herein provide well-defined reactive AuNP interfaces that undergo bioorthogonal bond-forming and breaking reactions cleanly, selectively, and rapidly to enable chemical tuning of their properties and function.

In order to circumvent the high reactivity of SAs, which hindered ...


The Other Sio2: Investigating Oxidation Of Alcohols Using (Nh4)2cr2o7 In Sand, John Lepore, Emily Toy, Robert Torregrosa Jun 2019

The Other Sio2: Investigating Oxidation Of Alcohols Using (Nh4)2cr2o7 In Sand, John Lepore, Emily Toy, Robert Torregrosa

McNair Scholars Program

Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones is one of the classical reactions in organic chemistry which is utilized frequently in medicine, industry, and pharmaceuticals. Classical effective reagents in oxidation include pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium permanganate, Jones reagent, bleach, and Swern conditions. There has been an increasing interest throughout the years to use supported-based reagents in tandem with these reagents, particularly with silica gel especially towards Cr-based oxidizing agents. Despite the abundance of reported reactions in the literature pertaining to silica gel, little is known about sand, despite both are silicon dioxide and exhibit similar porosity and crystallinity. It is not ...


Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee Jun 2019

Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a natural process for an organism to transfer genetic material to another organism that is a completely different species, for example, from a blue-green alga to a non-photosynthetic bacterium. The phenomenon of HGT is not only of an interest to the science of molecular genetics and biology, but also to the biosafety issue of genetic engineering. The novel protocol reported here for the first time teaches how to measure HGT from a genetically engineered (GE) blue-green alga (gene donor) to wild-type E. coli (recipient). This novel protocol can be used to measure HGT frequency for ...


Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman Jun 2019

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


Efficient, Scalable Syntheses Of Ginkgolic Acids, Joshua L. Alterman, George A. Kraus Jun 2019

Efficient, Scalable Syntheses Of Ginkgolic Acids, Joshua L. Alterman, George A. Kraus

Chemistry Publications

Ginkgolic acids were directly synthesized from 6-methylsalicylic acid using a sequence involving protection of the phenol and acid as methoxymethyl ethers and esters, lateral alkylation and deprotection under mild aqueous acid conditions.


Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d). Module 4. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d). Module 4. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches about aromatic compounds.


Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d) Module 7. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d) Module 7. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches carboxylic acids and their derivatives.


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d)-3rd Module-Sample B- Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d)-3rd Module-Sample B- Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches Resonace, Using curved arrows and Acid-base reactions


Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem 2220d). Module 10. Biochemistry., Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem 2220d). Module 10. Biochemistry., Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module is an introduction to biochemistry