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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Perfluoroalkyl (Aryl) Sulfonimide Zwitterions, Hua Mei Dec 2006

Perfluoroalkyl (Aryl) Sulfonimide Zwitterions, Hua Mei

All Dissertations

This research focuses on superacid perfluoroalkyl(aryl) sulfonimides and their derivatives as a source of stable zwitterionic salts. The strong resonance stabilization of sulfonimides imparts unexpected stability to the zwitterions.
Two types of zwitterions were investigated. The first are symmetrical diaryliodonium zwitterions (DZs) as potential photo acid generators (PAGs) for microlithography. Driven by the demand for smaller feature sizes in the microelectronics industry, microlithography using shorter wavelength light has evolved and new PAGs are of interest. New DZs are potentially useful because they have good thermal stability and may be structurally modified to alter their spectral absorption characteristics. As an ...


Production Of Ethanol From Hardwood, Jay Mitchell Dec 2006

Production Of Ethanol From Hardwood, Jay Mitchell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diminishing crude oil and natural gas supplies, along with concern about greenhouse gas are major driving forces in the search for efficient renewable energy sources. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to energy and useful chemicals is a component of the solution. Ethanol is most commonly produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates to simple sugars followed by fermentation using yeast.

C6Hl0O5 + H2O −Enxymes→ C6H12O6 −Yeast→ 2CH3CH2OH + 2C02

In the U.S. corn is the primary starting raw material for commercial ethanol production. However ...


(Acetonitrile-Κn){2-[Bis­(2-Pyridylethyl)­Amino]Ethanol-Κ4n,N′,N′′,O}Zinc(Ii) Bis­(Perchlorate) Monohydrate, Hong-Chang Liang, Marcel M. Hetu, Kraig A. Wheeler, Lev N. Zakharov, Arnold L. Rheingold Nov 2006

(Acetonitrile-Κn){2-[Bis­(2-Pyridylethyl)­Amino]Ethanol-Κ4n,N′,N′′,O}Zinc(Ii) Bis­(Perchlorate) Monohydrate, Hong-Chang Liang, Marcel M. Hetu, Kraig A. Wheeler, Lev N. Zakharov, Arnold L. Rheingold

Kraig A. Wheeler

In the title compound, [Zn(C2H3N)(C16H21N3O)](ClO4)2·H2O, the ZnII ion is coordinated by two pyridyl N atoms, one amine N atom, and an ethanol O atom from the N,N′,N′′,O-tetra­dentate 2-[bis­(2-pyridylethyl)amino]­ethanol donor ligand. The fifth coordination site is filled by an acetonitrile N atom, and there is one solvent water mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. The 2+ charge of the cationic portion of the complex is balanced by two perchlorate counter-anions.


Bis(1,2-Dihydroxy­Benzene) Hexa­Methyl­Ene­Tetra­Mine, Philias Daka, Kraig A. Wheeler Nov 2006

Bis(1,2-Dihydroxy­Benzene) Hexa­Methyl­Ene­Tetra­Mine, Philias Daka, Kraig A. Wheeler

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

The title binary complex, 2C6H6O2·C6H12N4, is constructed from hexa­methyl­ene­tetra­mine, positioned about a twofold symmetry operator, and 1,2-dihydroxy­benzene. Each of the four tertiary amine N atoms participates in O—H⋯N contacts that produce mol­ecular strands that propagate along the c axis.


Bis(1,2-Dihydroxy­Benzene) Hexa­Methyl­Ene­Tetra­Mine, Philias Daka, Kraig A. Wheeler Nov 2006

Bis(1,2-Dihydroxy­Benzene) Hexa­Methyl­Ene­Tetra­Mine, Philias Daka, Kraig A. Wheeler

Kraig A. Wheeler

The title binary complex, 2C6H6O2·C6H12N4, is constructed from hexa­methyl­ene­tetra­mine, positioned about a twofold symmetry operator, and 1,2-dihydroxy­benzene. Each of the four tertiary amine N atoms participates in O—H⋯N contacts that produce mol­ecular strands that propagate along the c axis.


(Acetonitrile-Κn){2-[Bis­(2-Pyridylethyl)­Amino]Ethanol-Κ4n,N′,N′′,O}Zinc(Ii) Bis­(Perchlorate) Monohydrate, Hong-Chang Liang, Marcel M. Hetu, Kraig A. Wheeler, Lev N. Zakharov, Arnold L. Rheingold Nov 2006

(Acetonitrile-Κn){2-[Bis­(2-Pyridylethyl)­Amino]Ethanol-Κ4n,N′,N′′,O}Zinc(Ii) Bis­(Perchlorate) Monohydrate, Hong-Chang Liang, Marcel M. Hetu, Kraig A. Wheeler, Lev N. Zakharov, Arnold L. Rheingold

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

In the title compound, [Zn(C2H3N)(C16H21N3O)](ClO4)2·H2O, the ZnII ion is coordinated by two pyridyl N atoms, one amine N atom, and an ethanol O atom from the N,N′,N′′,O-tetra­dentate 2-[bis­(2-pyridylethyl)amino]­ethanol donor ligand. The fifth coordination site is filled by an acetonitrile N atom, and there is one solvent water mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. The 2+ charge of the cationic portion of the complex is balanced by two perchlorate counter-anions.


Use Of Allylic Strain To Enforce Stereochemistry. Direct Syntheses Of 7,8-Dihydroxycalamenene And Mansonone C, George A. Kraus, Insik Jeon Oct 2006

Use Of Allylic Strain To Enforce Stereochemistry. Direct Syntheses Of 7,8-Dihydroxycalamenene And Mansonone C, George A. Kraus, Insik Jeon

Chemistry Publications

Direct syntheses of 7,8-dihydroxycalamenene and mansonone C were achieved. The cis-stereochemistry required for the synthesis of 7,8-dihydroxycalamenene was introduced by an intramolecular cyclization directed by allylic strain.


Synthesis And Natural Distribution Of Anti-Inflammatory Alkamides From Echinacea, George A. Kraus, Jaehoon Bae, Lankun Wu, Evve S. Wurtele Oct 2006

Synthesis And Natural Distribution Of Anti-Inflammatory Alkamides From Echinacea, George A. Kraus, Jaehoon Bae, Lankun Wu, Evve S. Wurtele

Chemistry Publications

The synthesis of the alkamides 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (1) and 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (5) was accomplished by organometallic coupling followed by introduction of the doubly unsaturated amide moiety. The distribution of these two amides in accessions of the nine species of Echinacea was determined.


Evaluation Of Corn Furan Fatty Acid Putative Endocrine Disruptors On Reproductive Performance In Adult Female Chickens, K. W. Wilhelms, George A. Kraus, J. D. Schroeder, J. W. Kim, S. A. Cutler, M. A. Rasmussen, L. L. Anderson, C. G. Scanes Oct 2006

Evaluation Of Corn Furan Fatty Acid Putative Endocrine Disruptors On Reproductive Performance In Adult Female Chickens, K. W. Wilhelms, George A. Kraus, J. D. Schroeder, J. W. Kim, S. A. Cutler, M. A. Rasmussen, L. L. Anderson, C. G. Scanes

Chemistry Publications

Based on evidence from rodent models, it was hypothesized that furan fatty acids found in corn would inhibit reproduction in the laying hen. An isomeric mixture of furan fatty acids [9, (12)-oxy-10,13-dihydroxystearic acid and 10, (13)-oxy-9,12-dihydroxystearic acid] was administered for a period of 3 wk via the diet (1 and 3 ppm) at levels greater than those in corn to 20-wk-old pullets. There were no overt indications of acute or chronic toxicity (no effects on mortality, feed intake, or average daily gain). Similarly, there was no dose-dependent effect on reproductive parameters [egg production, egg weight, shell ...


A 2:1 Complex Of 1,3-Bis­(9h-Carbazol-9-Yl)Propane And Tetra­Chloro-P-Benzoquinone (P-Chloranil), Mustafa Arslan, Randolph B. Krafcik, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker Sep 2006

A 2:1 Complex Of 1,3-Bis­(9h-Carbazol-9-Yl)Propane And Tetra­Chloro-P-Benzoquinone (P-Chloranil), Mustafa Arslan, Randolph B. Krafcik, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker

Chemistry Faculty Publications

In the title electron donor–acceptor complex, C27H22N2·0.5C6Cl4O2, the p-chloranil mol­ecule lies on a crystallographic inversion center, which is located at the center of the benzene ring. In the crystal structure, one p-chloranil mol­ecule lies above and below the central rings of each donor group of two neighboring 1,3-bis­(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propane mol­ecules, with a ring-centroid separation of 3.444 (1) Å. The angle between the planes of the stacking rings of the carbazole and p-chloranil mol­ecules is 3 ...


(E,E)-1,3-Bis[9,10-Dihydro-9-Nitro-10-(Trinitro­Meth­Yl)-9-Anthr­Yl]Propane, Mustafa Arslan, Erol Asker, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker Sep 2006

(E,E)-1,3-Bis[9,10-Dihydro-9-Nitro-10-(Trinitro­Meth­Yl)-9-Anthr­Yl]Propane, Mustafa Arslan, Erol Asker, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The title compound, C33H24N8O16, was obtained as a product of the photoreaction between 1,3-di-9-anthrylpropane and tetra­nitro­methane. The mol­ecule occupies a special position on a twofold axis. The trinitro­methyl and nitro substituents on the 9,10-dihydro­acridine system are E oriented.


N-(2-Aminobenzyl)-N,N-Bis(Quinolin- 2-Ylmethyl)Amine, Abhijit Mitra, Pamela J. Seaton, Kraig A. Wheeler Sep 2006

N-(2-Aminobenzyl)-N,N-Bis(Quinolin- 2-Ylmethyl)Amine, Abhijit Mitra, Pamela J. Seaton, Kraig A. Wheeler

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

The title new diquinaldine derivative, C27H24N4, forms mol­ecular assemblies organized by inter­molecular quinoline π–π stacking [3.356 (3) and 3.440 (3) Å] and both inter- and intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds [3.039 (3)–3.104 (3) Å and 129 (2)–172 (2)°]. The combination of such inter­actions provides readily definable contacts that propagate along each crystallographic axis.


N-(2-Aminobenzyl)-N,N-Bis(Quinolin- 2-Ylmethyl)Amine, Abhijit Mitra, Pamela J. Seaton, Kraig A. Wheeler Sep 2006

N-(2-Aminobenzyl)-N,N-Bis(Quinolin- 2-Ylmethyl)Amine, Abhijit Mitra, Pamela J. Seaton, Kraig A. Wheeler

Kraig A. Wheeler

The title new diquinaldine derivative, C27H24N4, forms mol­ecular assemblies organized by inter­molecular quinoline π–π stacking [3.356 (3) and 3.440 (3) Å] and both inter- and intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds [3.039 (3)–3.104 (3) Å and 129 (2)–172 (2)°]. The combination of such inter­actions provides readily definable contacts that propagate along each crystallographic axis.


Oxidative Carbonylation And Conjugated Processes With Carbon Monoxide Participation Catalyzed By Palladium Complexes (In Russian), Lev G. Bruk, Irina V. Oshanina, Sergey N. Gorodsky, Oleg N. Temkin Aug 2006

Oxidative Carbonylation And Conjugated Processes With Carbon Monoxide Participation Catalyzed By Palladium Complexes (In Russian), Lev G. Bruk, Irina V. Oshanina, Sergey N. Gorodsky, Oleg N. Temkin

Sergey N. Gorodsky

No abstract provided.


Strychninium (S)-2-(2-Bromo­Phen­Oxy)Propanoate 1.4-Hydrate, Kraig A. Wheeler, Aaron M. Lineberry Aug 2006

Strychninium (S)-2-(2-Bromo­Phen­Oxy)Propanoate 1.4-Hydrate, Kraig A. Wheeler, Aaron M. Lineberry

Kraig A. Wheeler

In the title mol­ecular salt, C21H23N2O2+·C9H8BrO3−·1.4H2O, the components are linked by inter­molecular C—O−⋯H—+N and OW—H⋯O inter­actions.


Strychninium (S)-2-(2-Bromo­Phen­Oxy)Propanoate 1.4-Hydrate, Kraig A. Wheeler, Aaron M. Lineberry Aug 2006

Strychninium (S)-2-(2-Bromo­Phen­Oxy)Propanoate 1.4-Hydrate, Kraig A. Wheeler, Aaron M. Lineberry

Faculty Research and Creative Activity

In the title mol­ecular salt, C21H23N2O2+·C9H8BrO3−·1.4H2O, the components are linked by inter­molecular C—O−⋯H—+N and OW—H⋯O inter­actions.


10,10′-Dinitro-10,10′-(Butane-1,4-Di­Yl)Dianthracen-9(10h)-One, Mustafa Arslan, Erol Asker, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker Jul 2006

10,10′-Dinitro-10,10′-(Butane-1,4-Di­Yl)Dianthracen-9(10h)-One, Mustafa Arslan, Erol Asker, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The title compound, C32H24N2O6, was obtained as the decomposition product of (E,E)-1,4-bis­[9,10-dihydro-9-nitro-10-(trinitro­meth­yl)-9-anthr­yl]butane, which was synthesized via a photochemical reaction of 1,4-bis­(9-anthr­yl)butane with tetra­nitro­methane. The asymmetric unit contains one half-mol­ecule; the complete mol­ecule is generated by a center of inversion. The crystal packing is determined mainly by inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions.


Kinetics, Mechanism, And Computational Studies Of Rhenium-Catalyzed Desulfurization Reactions Of Thiiranes (Thioepoxides), Abdellatif Ibdah, William S. Jenks, James H. Espenson Jun 2006

Kinetics, Mechanism, And Computational Studies Of Rhenium-Catalyzed Desulfurization Reactions Of Thiiranes (Thioepoxides), Abdellatif Ibdah, William S. Jenks, James H. Espenson

Chemistry Publications

The oxorhenium(V) dimer {MeReO(edt)}2 (1; where edt = 1,2-ethanedithiolate) catalyzes S atom transfer from thiiranes to triarylphosphines and triarylarsines. Despite the fact that phosphines are more nucleophilic than arsines, phosphines are less effective because they rapidly convert the dimer catalyst to the much less reactive catalyst [MeReO(edt)(PAr3)] (2). With AsAr3, which does not yield the monomer, the rate law is given by v = k[thiirane][1], independent of the arsine concentration. The values of k at 25.0 °C in CDCl3 are 5.58 ± 0.08 L mol-1 s-1 for cyclohexene sulfide and ca. 2 ...


10,10′-Dinitro-10,10′-(Propane-1,3-Di­Yl)Di-10h-Anthracen-9-One, Mustafa Arslan, Erol Asker, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker May 2006

10,10′-Dinitro-10,10′-(Propane-1,3-Di­Yl)Di-10h-Anthracen-9-One, Mustafa Arslan, Erol Asker, John Masnovi, Ronald J. Baker

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The title compound, C31H22N2O6, was obtained as the decomposition product of (E,E)-1,3-bis­[9,10-dihydro-9-nitro-10-(trinitro­meth­yl)-9-anthr­yl]propane, which was synthesized via a photochemical reaction of 1,3-di-9-anthrylpropane with tetra­nitro­methane. Inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions are the most prominent features of the crystal packing; no indications of any inter­molecular π–π stacking were found.


Secondary N-Nitrosocarbamate Anions: Structure And Alkylation Reactions. A Dft Study, Vladimir Benin May 2006

Secondary N-Nitrosocarbamate Anions: Structure And Alkylation Reactions. A Dft Study, Vladimir Benin

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The current article reports theoretical studies (DFT: B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) on the structure and alkylation reactions of the anions of some secondary N-nitrosocarbamates, a class of ambident nucleophiles whose chemistry has been little explored. Several anions (1–4), with an increasing size of the carbamate alkyl (aryl) group were investigated, in an attempt to establish the influence of the size of that group on the thermal stability and regioselectivity of alkylation of the title anions. The conclusion is that thermal stability and the mode of reaction are affected significantly only in the presence of very large and branched ...


Toward Synthesizing A Selective Dopamine Binding Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent, Judy Lau May 2006

Toward Synthesizing A Selective Dopamine Binding Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent, Judy Lau

Senior Honors Projects

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic methodology used to provide a two-dimensional view of an internal organ or structure, especially the brain and spinal cord. Magnetic resonance contrast agents are usually injected into necessary parts of the body prior to imaging to increase the differences between different tissues or between normal and abnormal tissue, making it easier for a radiologist or doctor to interpret the image that is taken. The development of new and more efficient, effective, and selective contrast agents for various biological processes or chemicals is a growing field of research and study. My project allowed ...


9-Ethyl-3-(9h-9-Ethyl­Carbazol-3-Yl)-4-Nitro­-9h-Carbazole, Erol Asker, John Masnovi Apr 2006

9-Ethyl-3-(9h-9-Ethyl­Carbazol-3-Yl)-4-Nitro­-9h-Carbazole, Erol Asker, John Masnovi

Chemistry Faculty Publications

In the mol­ecule of the title compound, C28H23N3O2, the nitro group is almost perpendicular to the carbazole ring to which it is attached. The crystal packing is determined by C—H⋯O and π–π inter­actions, where the nitrated carbazole ring of one mol­ecule associates in a shifted parallel planar orientation with the centrosymmetrically related non-nitrated carbazole ring of a neighbouring mol­ecule.


Bis(9-Ethyl­Carbazol-3-Yl)Ethane, Erol Asker, John Masnovi Apr 2006

Bis(9-Ethyl­Carbazol-3-Yl)Ethane, Erol Asker, John Masnovi

Chemistry Faculty Publications

In the title compound, C30H28N2, each carbazole skeleton is essentially planar. The planes of the two carbazole ring systems are nearly parallel, with a dihedral angle of 2.33 (19)°. The crystal packing is stabilized only by van der Waals forces and weak C—H⋯π inter­actions.


Synthesis Of Aspernigrin A, Erica Joerger Apr 2006

Synthesis Of Aspernigrin A, Erica Joerger

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

Aspernigrin A is a compound correlated with inhibiting the growth of cancer cells in the colon. A five-step synthesis was designed for aspernigrin A, projected to yield four intermediates and the final product. The intermediates were analyzed by high field 1HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy before proceeding to the next step. A model pyridone ring system was successfully prepared from a commercially available pyrone precursor in two steps. These results provide a proof of concept that the synthetic scheme should successfully yield the natural product.


9,9′-Diethyl-3,3′-Di-9h-Carbazol­Yl, Erol Asker, John Masnovi Mar 2006

9,9′-Diethyl-3,3′-Di-9h-Carbazol­Yl, Erol Asker, John Masnovi

Chemistry Faculty Publications

In the title compound, C28H24N2, the carbazole ring systems are essentially planar to within 0.076 (3) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes of the ring systems is 40.38 (4)°. The contribution of inter­molecular π–π inter­actions to the mol­ecular stacking is observed.


Bis(9-Ethyl­Carbazol-3-Yl)Methane, Erol Asker, John Masnovi Mar 2006

Bis(9-Ethyl­Carbazol-3-Yl)Methane, Erol Asker, John Masnovi

Chemistry Faculty Publications

In the title compound, C29H26N2, the carbazole ring systems are essentially planar. There is no indication of π–π interactions in the crystal structure, adjacent carbazole groups being non-parallel.


New Oscillating Reaction – Phenylacetylene Oxidative Carbonylation To Anhydride Of Phenylmaleic Acid (In Russian), Sergey N. Gorodsky, Olga V. Kasatkina, Lev G. Bruk, Oleg N. Temkin Feb 2006

New Oscillating Reaction – Phenylacetylene Oxidative Carbonylation To Anhydride Of Phenylmaleic Acid (In Russian), Sergey N. Gorodsky, Olga V. Kasatkina, Lev G. Bruk, Oleg N. Temkin

Sergey N. Gorodsky

No abstract provided.


Ecoscale, A Semi-Quantitative Tool To Select An Organic Preparation Based On Economical And Ecological Parameters, Koen Van Aken, Lucjan Strekowski, Luc Patiny Jan 2006

Ecoscale, A Semi-Quantitative Tool To Select An Organic Preparation Based On Economical And Ecological Parameters, Koen Van Aken, Lucjan Strekowski, Luc Patiny

Chemistry Faculty Publications

A novel post-synthesis analysis tool is presented which evaluates quality of the organic preparation based on yield, cost, safety, conditions and ease of workup/purification. The proposed approach is based on assigning a range of penalty points to these parameters. This semi-quantitative analysis can easily be modified by other synthetic chemists who may feel that some parameters should be assigned different relative penalty points. It is a powerful tool to compare several preparations of the same product based on safety, economical and ecological features.


Density Functional Studies Of The Structure And Bonding In Piano Stool Carbene Complexes, John P. Graham, Robbie Davis Jan 2006

Density Functional Studies Of The Structure And Bonding In Piano Stool Carbene Complexes, John P. Graham, Robbie Davis

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Preparation, Characterization And Dft Studies Of Some New N-Nitrosocarbamates And N-Nitrosoureas, Ragavan Narayanan, Helene Hedian, Eric Shamo, Vladimir Benin Jan 2006

Preparation, Characterization And Dft Studies Of Some New N-Nitrosocarbamates And N-Nitrosoureas, Ragavan Narayanan, Helene Hedian, Eric Shamo, Vladimir Benin

Chemistry Faculty Publications

We are presenting the preparation, characterization and density functional theory (DFT) studies {B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) of several reiated classes of N-nitrosocarbamates and N-nitrosoureas. The iong-range goal is the design and preparation of compounds, which would undergo photochemical or hydrolytic decomposition, to yield stabilized cyclic cations that can serve as alkylating agents at various nucleophilic centers, including DNA bases.