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Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Modification Of 2d Materials Utilizing Functional Polymer Interfacial Layers, Ryan Selhorst Jan 2019

Modification Of 2d Materials Utilizing Functional Polymer Interfacial Layers, Ryan Selhorst

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the modification of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). These materials exhibit unique electronic properties, ranging from metallic to insulating, and can transport either electrons (n-type) or holes (p-type). Polymers containing electronically-active moieties offer a path to control the electronic properties of a 2D material without altering the inherent structure of the semiconductor. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis of polymers bearing chalcogen-rich or zwitterionic moieties to alter the electronic and solution properties of 2D materials.

Chapter 2 describes polymers containing sulfur-rich tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and their effects as electroactive coatings on the TMDC molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). These ...


Design, Synthesis And Study Of Functional Amphiphilic Polymers And Their Applications, Huan He Jan 2019

Design, Synthesis And Study Of Functional Amphiphilic Polymers And Their Applications, Huan He

Doctoral Dissertations

Amphiphilic homopolymers with high densities of functional groups are synthetically challenging. Thiol-yne nucleophilic click reactions have been investigated to introduce multiple functional groups in polymers with high density. An electron deficient alkyne group bearing methacrylate monomer was polymerized using reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Subsequently, the electron deficient alkyne group on polymer side chain was readily reacted with a thiol reagent using triethylamine (TEA) as the organocatalyst. This reaction was found to be very efficient under mild conditions. The resultant homopolymer bearing thiol vinyl ether functional groups could perform a second thiol addition with a stronger base, such as ...


Providing Molecular Insight For Understanding Anion Exchange Membrane Conductivity, Michael Kwasny Jan 2019

Providing Molecular Insight For Understanding Anion Exchange Membrane Conductivity, Michael Kwasny

Doctoral Dissertations

Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are notorious for having both low alkaline stability and poor ion conductivity in fuel cell operation conditions, with solutions to these two challenges often being developed independent of each other. The chemical instability of an AEM is viewed through degradation of the polymer backbone and the cationic species and improving a material’s stability is approached by altering the polymer backbone, the cation, or both. On the other hand, poor ion conductivity is typically addressed by modifying bulk membrane properties such as increasing the ion exchange capacity (IEC), changing the morphology, or increasing the water uptake ...


Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao Jan 2019

Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) has played an increasingly prominent role in proteomics and structure biology because it shows superior capabilities in identification, quantification and structural characterization of proteins. To realize its full potential in protein analysis, significant progress has been made in developing innovative techniques and reagents that can couple to MS detection. This dissertation demonstrates the use of polymeric supramolecular assemblies for enhanced protein detection in complex biological mixtures by MS. An amphiphilic random co-polymer scaffold is developed to form functional supramolecular assemblies for protein/ peptide enrichment. The influences of charge density and functional group pKa on host-guest interactions ...


Light-Harvesting And Light-Responsive Materials For Optoelectronic And Biological Applications, Youngju Bae Jan 2018

Light-Harvesting And Light-Responsive Materials For Optoelectronic And Biological Applications, Youngju Bae

Doctoral Dissertations

In photodynamic therapy, several critical standards are required of photosensitizers including high singlet oxygen quantum yield, biocompatibility in dark, and long term photochemical stability. In addition, current PDT systems lack active targeting strategies to tumor cells, and instead mainly rely on the natural distribution of PS in the body following injection and application of near-infrared light treatment in the tumor region. This thesis describes a series of BODIPY-based molecules that were designed, synthesized and studied as photosensitizers with high singlet oxygen generation capacity through utilizing the heavy atom effect. Additionally, aqueous solubility and active targeting capability were introduced by photosensitizer ...


Design And Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanogels Towards Therapeutic Translation, Mallory R. Gordon Jan 2018

Design And Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanogels Towards Therapeutic Translation, Mallory R. Gordon

Doctoral Dissertations

In the application of delivery of therapeutics, nanostructures of various composition have been employed due to their capacity to act as a host for lipophilic payloads. Advances in the synthetic preparation, size, morphology, and chemical or physical characteristics of polymers have impacted their development and versatility. A detailed understanding of polymeric nanoparticle host-guest properties is crucial to their practical translation to specific delivery applications. Further, these features must be highly tailorable to overcome biological barriers, stably encapsulate their therapeutic contexts, and exhibit payload release selectively in the target environment. In this dissertation, we aim to rationally design polymeric nano-scale assemblies ...


Impact Of Chemical Doping On The Thermoelectric Charge Transport Of Organic Semiconductors, Connor J. Boyle Jan 2018

Impact Of Chemical Doping On The Thermoelectric Charge Transport Of Organic Semiconductors, Connor J. Boyle

Doctoral Dissertations

The thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors allow them to directly convert heat into electricity without the use of moving parts and to directly convert electricity into heat without the use of working fluids. These properties offer opportunities for the generation of electricity from non-conventional or renewable sources of heat and for refrigeration without the risk of leaking harmful working fluids at any length scale down to the nanoscale. Since organic materials are lightweight, flexible, and made from abundant resources, these opportunities could one day become affordable for widespread use and could be expanded to include specialized and otherwise difficult to ...


Formulation And Characterization Of Lipogels As A Tunable Delivery Scaffold, Celia Homyak Jan 2018

Formulation And Characterization Of Lipogels As A Tunable Delivery Scaffold, Celia Homyak

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanomedicines within the clinic commonly utilize lipid-based scaffolds due to their aqueous assembly and non-covalent dual-guest loading capabilities. Nevertheless, poor stability in vivo and premature guest release remains a challenge with these systems. Polymeric nanomaterials are a popular alternative due to their good stability in vivo with controllable guest release. A caveat to polymeric scaffolds though, is the excess synthetic effort involved for non-covalent dual-drug encapsulation. Benefit lies in harnessing advantages of lipid and polymeric materials via lipid-polymer hybrid scaffold. Such materials have promise due to their dual-encapsulation and dual-stimuli-sensitive characteristics. The need to better understand these materials led us ...


Study Of Self-Assembly And Stimuli Responsive Behavior In Polymeric And Dendritic Amphiphiles, Poornima Rangadurai Jan 2018

Study Of Self-Assembly And Stimuli Responsive Behavior In Polymeric And Dendritic Amphiphiles, Poornima Rangadurai

Doctoral Dissertations

Natural processes are intricately detailed and able to convert molecular-level events into macroscopic or visually observable properties. This is made possible through multiple interactions at the molecular level, signaling due to covalent and non-covalent interactions, and supramolecular networks that rely on dynamic, non-equilibrium structures. Detailing processes in this manner is the current quest for material science research and designing materials for this purpose is usually via a key process known as self-assembly. Self-assembly is a process in which a material with varied components organizes itself into a particular pattern due to various specific inter and intra molecular interactions. By understanding ...


Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks Dec 2017

Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks

Doctoral Dissertations

Phosphorylated myo-inositol compounds including inositol phosphates (InsPs) as well as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (PIPns) are critical biomolecules that regulate many of the most important biological processes and pathways. They are aberrant in many disease states due to their regulatory function. The same is true of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) which can serve as a marker to begin apoptosis. However, the full scope of activities of these structures is not clear, particularly since techniques that enable global detection and analysis of the production of these compounds spatially and temporally are lacking. With all of these obstacles in ...


Development And Implementation Of Redox-Active Olefin Polymerization Catalysts, William Curtis Anderson Jr. Dec 2017

Development And Implementation Of Redox-Active Olefin Polymerization Catalysts, William Curtis Anderson Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

Investigating homogeneous polymerization catalysts has been a thriving area of chemistry in the academic realm for several decades now, and has helped drive the development of a range of materials, from designer plastics to cheap commodity polymers. Billions of pounds of these materials are produced every year, which ensures that continuing research in the area will be necessary to improve current processes and enable more economic use of our resources.

This dissertation showcases the Long group’s research in homogeneous polymerization catalysis and our impact on the field thus far. We show that intelligent design of redox-active catalysts allows for ...


Design-Structure-Property Relationships Of Purine-Based Copolymers And Chromophores, Graham Smith Collier May 2017

Design-Structure-Property Relationships Of Purine-Based Copolymers And Chromophores, Graham Smith Collier

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the relationship between monomer design and polymer properties is imperative for developing polymeric systems that can find applicability in targeted technologies. Purines have been extensively studied across many scientific disciplines and are useful due to the diverse properties they possess, which is due in part to the broad scope of precise synthetic transformations that are used to tailor their properties. The overarching goal of my dissertation involves developing the synthesis of “poly(purine)s” and investigating the effect of purine monomer design on polymer properties. In this vein, poly(purine)s and purine-based donor-acceptor small-molecules are synthesized via Stille ...


Ion Separations: Achieving Selectivity Through Rational Design In Solvent Extraction And Crystallization Systems, Neil Justin Williams May 2017

Ion Separations: Achieving Selectivity Through Rational Design In Solvent Extraction And Crystallization Systems, Neil Justin Williams

Doctoral Dissertations

The selective separation of ions from aqueous solutions has been a difficult challenge to address in the separation sciences. The difficulties associated with selective separations of ions are due to a multitude of chemical and physical differences between them. Additionally, the term ions encompass both positively charged cations and their counter parts the negatively charge anions. The work covered in this dissertation discusses the difficulties encountered during the selective separation of both oxoanions and cations. Apart from the Introduction Chapter 1 and Conclusion Chapter 10, the selective separations oxoanions and cations will be discussed separately with the dissertation being divided ...


Thermally Robust And Redox Active Catalysts: Studying Their Behavior For Ethylene And L-Lactide Polymerization, Lauren Ashley Brown May 2017

Thermally Robust And Redox Active Catalysts: Studying Their Behavior For Ethylene And L-Lactide Polymerization, Lauren Ashley Brown

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of homogenous single-site catalysts has significantly impacted the field of organometallic chemistry. The well-defined structures of homogenous catalysts make it less cumbersome to understand and develop methods to tailor these compounds for specific catalytic processes. Currently, polymerization catalysis is a major division in organometallic chemistry due to the global demand for polymeric materials such as polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), based on their low-cost feedstock, remarkable mechanical properties, and their use in a wide range of applications. However, bioplastics have become a highly sought-after alternative to conventional petrochemical-based plastics due to their biodegradability and derivatization from renewable resources ...


Development Of High Performance Gas Separation Membranes Through Intelligent Catalyst And Monomer Design, Kevin Richard Gmernicki May 2017

Development Of High Performance Gas Separation Membranes Through Intelligent Catalyst And Monomer Design, Kevin Richard Gmernicki

Doctoral Dissertations

Polymer membranes are a valuable tool for separating components of liquid and gas mixtures. Heavily inspired by biological systems, the idea of using the intrinsic properties of polymers to perform otherwise energy-intensive tasks is attractive for applications such as water desalination, natural gas sweetening, and post-combustion carbon capture. Of particular interest to our research group, post-combustion carbon capture is a promising potential solution aimed at reducing the carbon footprint involved with production, transportation, and storage of electrical energy generation.

Every year, the United States produces close to seven billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, of which a significant portion is ...


All Acrylic Based Thermoplastic Elastomers: Design And Synthesis For Improved Mechanical Performance, Wei Lu May 2017

All Acrylic Based Thermoplastic Elastomers: Design And Synthesis For Improved Mechanical Performance, Wei Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have been widely studied because of their recyclability, good processability, low production cost and distinct performance. Compared to the widely-used styrenic TPEs, acrylate based TPEs have potential advantages including exceptional chemical, heat, oxygen and UV resistance, optical transparence, and oil resistance. However, their high entanglement molecular weight lead to “disappointing” mechanical performance as compared to styrenic TPEs. The work described in this dissertation is aimed at employing various approaches to develop the all acrylic based thermoplastic elastomers with improved mechanical performance.

The first part of this work focuses on the introduction of acrylic polymers with high glass ...


Nanoparticle As Supramolecular Platform For Delivery And Bioorthogonal Catalysis, Gulen Yesilbag Tonga Jan 2017

Nanoparticle As Supramolecular Platform For Delivery And Bioorthogonal Catalysis, Gulen Yesilbag Tonga

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are being investigated widely for many applications including imaging, drug delivery, therapeutics, materials, and catalysis due to their unique and tunable physical and chemical properties. Among NPs, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted great attention due to ease of synthesis and surface functionalization, inertness of the core, biocompatibility, and functional versatility. Introducing supramolecular chemistry into the nanoparticle-based platforms brings out controllable properties, dynamic self assembly processes, and adjustable performance. My research has focused on the synthesis of AuNPs bearing different surface functionalities and their host-guest interactions with synthetic small molecules or commercially available hydrophobic catalysts for delivery and therapeutic ...


Analytical Methods To Support Design And Optimization Of Protein Drug Conjugate: Focusing On Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex As A Drug Carrier, Shengsheng Xu Jan 2017

Analytical Methods To Support Design And Optimization Of Protein Drug Conjugate: Focusing On Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex As A Drug Carrier, Shengsheng Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains one of the most serious public health challenges and a significant cause of mortality for certain populations. Despite the large number of antiretrovirals (mostly nucleotide and nucleoside analogs) developed in the past two decades, the inability of small molecule therapeutics to target HIV reservoirs directly creates a significant obstacle to their effective utilization. Indeed, achieving the desired therapeutic effect in the absence of the effective targeted delivery must rely on dosage escalation, which frequently causes severe toxicity. This problem may be solved by conjugation of antiretroviral agents to endogenous proteins (e.g., hemoglobin haptoglobin complex ...


Design And Synthesis Of Lipid Probes Used For Membrane Derivatization And Fusion, Stuart Allen Whitehead Dec 2016

Design And Synthesis Of Lipid Probes Used For Membrane Derivatization And Fusion, Stuart Allen Whitehead

Doctoral Dissertations

Lipids control a variety of complex biological processes. Bulk lipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) represent the major components of cellular membranes. In addition, unilamellar vesicles composed of lipids (liposomes) are valuable for delivery applications since they can encapsulate and transport drugs and other agents. In order to maximize delivery efficiency and target specific membranes, the ability to trigger and control vesicle-vesicle fusion is desirable. Such approaches generally seek to mimic the membrane fusion machinery present in nature while imparting specificity in the membranes that undergo fusion. The goal of this work is selective drug delivery ...


Self-Assembly And Stimuli Responsive Disassembly Of Dendritic And Oligomeric Amphiphiles, Krishna Reddy Raghupathi Jan 2016

Self-Assembly And Stimuli Responsive Disassembly Of Dendritic And Oligomeric Amphiphiles, Krishna Reddy Raghupathi

Doctoral Dissertations

Stimuli response is a fundamental process prevalent in all living systems, where a specific function (response) is generated in the presence of a given environmental cue (stimulus). Engineering materials for this process is often accomplished through another basic process, “self-assembly”. By understanding the key aspects of these processes scientists have developed a broad range of materials for a wide array of applications. This dissertation will primarily focus on developing stimuli responsive nanocarriers based on supramolecular assemblies of amphiphilic dendrimers and oligomers for safe transport and selective release of molecular cargo. Our concurrent goal is to also investigate several parameters which ...


Supramolecular Strategies For The Generation Of Nanoparticle Assemblies And Biomolecular Thin Films, Bradley P. Duncan Jan 2016

Supramolecular Strategies For The Generation Of Nanoparticle Assemblies And Biomolecular Thin Films, Bradley P. Duncan

Doctoral Dissertations

The conceptual framework of supramolecular chemistry elucidates a powerful set of strategies for chemists to generate functional nanomaterials based on intermolecular forces. My research focused on tuning the molecular interactions of nanoscale components to create larger structures with enhanced properties. In one approach, I developed and optimized an additive-free, nanoimprint lithography-based methodology to generate stable thin films from a variety of proteins. The generalized process retains intrinsic properties of the protein as demonstrated by selective cellular adhesion. The heat and pressure of the nanoimprinting process induces slight structural reorganization of the peptide side chains to yield highly stable films held ...


Photolysis Of Triazenylbenzoic Acids For Click Chemistry, Adam Gann Jan 2016

Photolysis Of Triazenylbenzoic Acids For Click Chemistry, Adam Gann

Doctoral Dissertations

Copper catalyzed cycloaddition of terminal alkynes and azides has revolutionized the field of bioconjugate chemistry. Unfortunately, typical copper catalysts are known to disrupt relevant biological systems, so it has become necessary to develop new, copper-free methods that are less cytotoxic. particular interest are "click" probes which can be activated with an outside light source, giving the user spatial and temporal control over the system being investigated. We have developed a method in which an aryl diazonium salt is rapidly generated using photolysis of the triazene functional group, and subsequently coupled with an electron rich aromatic nucleophile to yield an azobenzene ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Evaluation Of Lectin-Binding Properties Of 1,2-Cis-Glycosides, Bo Meng Aug 2015

Synthesis, Characterization And Evaluation Of Lectin-Binding Properties Of 1,2-Cis-Glycosides, Bo Meng

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents a state-of-the-art research of 1,2-cis-glycosides, including synthetic methodology development, combinatorial total synthesis of galactoside ligands, construction of glycomicroarray surfaces, and quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate–lectin binding properties.

In Chapter 1, as a general introduction, various strategies that have been developed for the stereoselective construction of 1,2-cis-O-glycosidic bond are reviewed. 1,2-cis-O-Glycoside structural units are ubiquitous in nature, and they are extensively involved in numerous biological activities. The systematic identification and evaluation of the roles of carbohydrates usually relies on practical synthetic approaches to afford pure carbohydrates in ...


An Investigation Of Inorganic Compound Scattering., Karl Jay Bernstein May 2015

An Investigation Of Inorganic Compound Scattering., Karl Jay Bernstein

Doctoral Dissertations

Raman and its associated forms of spectroscopy are powerful tools that have been under-utilized. Presented within are three inorganic compounds studied with some form of Raman spectroscopy: normal Raman, hyper-Raman (HR), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), surface-enhanced hyper-Raman spectroscopy (SEHRS), or resonance Raman spectroscopy (RR).

The first study involves the investigation of phosphine binding with silver metal. Phosphines find wide use in synthetic circles yet have had little study into their method of binding, unlike similar compounds comprised of sulfur. In order to understand the binding of phosphines, several tertiary phosphines, secondary phosphines and secondary phosphine oxides are examined with SERS ...


Microfluidic Syntheses Of Pet Radiotracers Via Fluorodenitration, Thomas Madison Moore May 2015

Microfluidic Syntheses Of Pet Radiotracers Via Fluorodenitration, Thomas Madison Moore

Doctoral Dissertations

This research study is focused on the syntheses of radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography [PET] via fluorodenitration and fluorodehalogenation under microfluidic conditions. Methodology has been developed for radiolabeling via fluorodenitration under microfluidic conditions and comparisons made to dehalogenation reactions. Developmental work was carried out on commercially available compounds containing a variety of functional groups. Subsequent production of radiotracers has been performed with precursors provided by collaborators as well as those synthesized in our laboratory.


Design, Syntheses And Study Of Bodipy-Based Materials For Use As Electron Transporters In Organic Electronics, Ambata Poe Feb 2015

Design, Syntheses And Study Of Bodipy-Based Materials For Use As Electron Transporters In Organic Electronics, Ambata Poe

Doctoral Dissertations

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are desirable for the harvesting of solar energy. They provide distinct advantages over their inorganic counterparts, especially the high absorption coefficients of organic materials and their ability to be processed using inexpensive solution methods. This allows for potential development of lightweight and flexible devices for portable electronics. One of the drawbacks of organic photovoltaics is the low power conversion efficiency of the devices. Efforts to improve the efficiency often take place through molecular design of the electron rich donor material to improve light absorption of the active layer. However, significantly less effort has been put into modifying ...


Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence Jan 2015

Functional Nanostructures From Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Jimmy Lawrence

Doctoral Dissertations

Advances in the synthetic strategies of engineered nanomaterials, multifunctional molecules and polymers have opened pathways for the development of functional nanomaterials having unique optoelectronic, mechanical, and biological properties. By designing the chemistry of surface ligands, the organic interface of nanoparticles, one can further the versatility and utilization of engineered nanomaterials, opening pathways for breakthroughs in sensing, catalysis, and delivery using nanomaterials.

This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of small molecule and polymer ligand functionalized inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., metal, semiconducting). Embedding specific chemical functionality into the ligand periphery of nanoparticles enables the resulting functional nanoparticles to react selectively with ...


From Molecular Scale To Mesoscale: Establishing Structural Control Organic Photovoltaics Using Organic Nanoparticles, Timothy S. Gehan Jan 2015

From Molecular Scale To Mesoscale: Establishing Structural Control Organic Photovoltaics Using Organic Nanoparticles, Timothy S. Gehan

Doctoral Dissertations

Organic photovoltaic devices use an active layer of organic materials that absorbs light and creates free charges to generate electricity. Such organic photovoltaics have many desirable properties as the final devices can be very lightweight, thin, flexible, have low manufacturing costs, and be semitransparent. These properties make them particularly advantageous for myriad of applications: e.g., use on non-planar surfaces, as tinted coatings on windows, any use for charging low power devices. One of the biggest problems preventing organic photovoltaics from being commercialized is controlling the packing of the organic materials within the active layer from the molecular scale through ...


Structure-Property Relationships At The Nano-Bio Interface: Engineering The Nanoparticle Surface For Immunomodulation, Daniel Fernando Moyano Marino Jan 2015

Structure-Property Relationships At The Nano-Bio Interface: Engineering The Nanoparticle Surface For Immunomodulation, Daniel Fernando Moyano Marino

Doctoral Dissertations

Each year, a variety of novel nanomaterials are being developed with the objective of treating different diseases. However, since nanomaterials are foreign to the human body, one of the principal factors that limit their use is the encounter with the first line of defense from the body: the immune system. If this interaction is not taken into account, an undesired recognition takes place and the efficiency of nanoparticle based therapies is dramatically reduced. As such, understanding the rules that govern this recognition is of prime importance in the field of nanomedicine. Following this line of thoughts (the driving force), the ...


Design And Application Of Organic Electronic Materials: Pendant Tuning In Polymeric And Molecular Systems, Jonathan S. Tinkham Jan 2015

Design And Application Of Organic Electronic Materials: Pendant Tuning In Polymeric And Molecular Systems, Jonathan S. Tinkham

Doctoral Dissertations

Designing and synthesizing materials for use in organic electronic materials requires fine control over their optical and electronic properties. Variations through substitution can be used to tune solubility and electronic properties, but this can result in degradation of other properties. Substitution with orthogonal pendant groups in both molecular and polymeric systems has the potential for allowing tunability while decreasing the perturbation of other desirable properties of the parent system.

This idea was explored through experimental and computational work. Computational modelling was used to understand and predict the properties of molecular and polymeric systems to narrow the wide number of choices ...