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Chemistry Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman Jun 2019

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2019

The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The sunlight photochemistry of the organic chromophore pyruvic acid (PA) in water generates ketyl and acetyl radicals that contribute to the production and processing of atmospheric aerosols. The photochemical mechanism is highly sensitive to dissolved oxygen content, [O2(aq)], among other environmental conditions. Thus, herein we investigate the photolysis (λ ≥ 305 nm) of 10–200 mM PA at pH 1.0 in water covering the relevant range 0 ≤ [O2(aq)] ≤ 1.3 mM. The rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen by the intermediate photolytic radicals is monitored in real time with a dissolved oxygen electrode. In addition, the rate ...


An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2018

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Oxidation Of N-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes And Formation Of Discontinuous Spiraled Carbon Nanoribbons, Aman Preet Kaur, Mark S. Meier, Rodney Andrews, Dali Qian Jun 2018

Oxidation Of N-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes And Formation Of Discontinuous Spiraled Carbon Nanoribbons, Aman Preet Kaur, Mark S. Meier, Rodney Andrews, Dali Qian

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The effects of five commonly used wet chemical oxidations were studied for the extent of oxidation of graphitized nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs). KMnO4/ H2SO4 was the most potent oxidant, as it produced the highest fraction of oxygen-containing functional groups. Electron microscopy studies showed that the treatment of annealed N-MWCNTs (G-N-MWCNTs) with H2SO4/HNO3 and H2SO4/KMnO4 mixtures leads to interesting spiraled ribbon textures. A structural model, involving the stacking of coiled subunits to form a discontinuous carbon nanoribbon rather than a continuous ribbon is proposed to explain ...


A Galactomannoglucan Derived From Agaricus Brasiliensis: Purification, Characterization And Macrophage Activation Via Mapk And Ikappab/Nfkappab Pathways, Yanqing Zhang, Danting Liu, Leilei Fang, Xiaotong Zhao, Aimin Zhou, Junbo Xie Jan 2018

A Galactomannoglucan Derived From Agaricus Brasiliensis: Purification, Characterization And Macrophage Activation Via Mapk And Ikappab/Nfkappab Pathways, Yanqing Zhang, Danting Liu, Leilei Fang, Xiaotong Zhao, Aimin Zhou, Junbo Xie

Chemistry Faculty Publications

In this study, a novel galactomannoglucan named as TJ2 was isolated from Agaricus brasiliensis with microwave extraction, macroporous resin, ion exchange resin and high resolution gel chromatography. TJ2 is composed of glucose, mannose and galactose in the ratio 99.2:0.2:0.6. Infrared spectra (IR), methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated that TJ2 mainly contained a b-(1?3) – linked glucopyranosyl backbone. Interestingly, TJ2 significantly promoted RAW264.7 cell proliferation, and was able to activate the cells to engulf E. coli. In addition, TJ2 induced the expression of Interleukin 1b (IL-1b), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis ...


Sphingomyelin And Gm1 Influence Huntingtin Binding To, Disruption Of, And Aggregation On Lipid Membranes, Maxmore Chaibva, Xiang Gao, Pranav Jain, Warren A. Campbell, Shelli L. Frey, Justin Legleiter Jan 2018

Sphingomyelin And Gm1 Influence Huntingtin Binding To, Disruption Of, And Aggregation On Lipid Membranes, Maxmore Chaibva, Xiang Gao, Pranav Jain, Warren A. Campbell, Shelli L. Frey, Justin Legleiter

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion beyond a critical threshold of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract near the N-terminus of the huntingtin (htt) protein. Expanded polyQ promotes the formation of a variety of oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates of htt that accumulate into the hallmark proteinaceous inclusion bodies associated with HD. htt is also highly associated with numerous cellular and subcellular membranes that contain a variety of lipids. As lipid homeostasis and metabolism abnormalities are observed in HD patients, we investigated how varying both the sphingomyelin (SM) and ganglioside (GM1) contents modifies the interactions between htt ...


Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2017

Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman Jun 2016

Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging ...


To Bend Or Not To Bend – Are Heteroatom Interactions Within Conjugated Molecules Effective In Dictating Conformation And Planarity?, Gary Conboy, Howard J. Spencer, Enrico Angioni, Alexander L. Kanibolotsky, Neil J. Findlay, Simon J. Coles, Claire Wilson, Mateusz B. Pitak, Chad Risko, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas, Peter J. Skabara Apr 2016

To Bend Or Not To Bend – Are Heteroatom Interactions Within Conjugated Molecules Effective In Dictating Conformation And Planarity?, Gary Conboy, Howard J. Spencer, Enrico Angioni, Alexander L. Kanibolotsky, Neil J. Findlay, Simon J. Coles, Claire Wilson, Mateusz B. Pitak, Chad Risko, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas, Peter J. Skabara

Chemistry Faculty Publications

We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.


Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2016

Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is an important central biosynthetic pathway that fixes CO2 into carboxylic acids. Among the five reductive steps in the rTCA cycle, the two-electron reduction of fumarate to succinate proceeds nonenzymatically on the surface of photoexcited sphalerite (ZnS) colloids suspended in water. This model reaction is chosen to systematically study the surface photoprocess occurring on ZnS in the presence of [Na2S] (1–10 mM) hole scavenger at 15 °C. Experiments at variable pH (5–10) indicate that monodissociated fumaric acid is the primary electron acceptor forming the monoprotic form of succinic acid ...


Reducing Dynamic Disorder In Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductors By Suppressing Large-Amplitude Thermal Motions, Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Lang Jiang, Chris Warwick, Mark Nikolka, Guillaume Schweicher, Stephen G. Yeates, Yves Henri Geerts, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus Feb 2016

Reducing Dynamic Disorder In Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductors By Suppressing Large-Amplitude Thermal Motions, Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Lang Jiang, Chris Warwick, Mark Nikolka, Guillaume Schweicher, Stephen G. Yeates, Yves Henri Geerts, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Thermal vibrations and the dynamic disorder they create can detrimentally affect the transport properties of van der Waals bonded molecular semiconductors. The low-energy nature of these vibrations makes it difficult to access them experimentally, which is why we still lack clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. In this study we discuss the promising organic semiconductors rubrene, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothio-phene and 2,9-di-decyl-dinaphtho-[2,3-b:20,30-f]-thieno-[3,2-b]-thiophene in terms of an exceptionally low degree of dynamic disorder. In particular, we analyse diffuse scattering in transmission electron microscopy, to ...


Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2015

Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Natural and anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning, agro-industrial settings, and fossil fuel combustion contribute precursors to secondary aerosol formation (SOA). How these compounds are processed under humid tropospheric conditions is the focus of current attention to understand their environmental fate. This work shows how catechol thin films, a model for oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in biomass burning and combustion aerosols, undergo heterogeneous oxidation at the air–solid interface under variable relative humidity (RH = 0–90%). The maximum reactive uptake coefficient of O3(g) by catechol γO3 = (7.49 ± 0.35) × 10–6 occurs for ...


Synthesis And Flammability Testing Of Epoxy Functionalized Phosphorous-Based Flame Retardants, Vladimir Benin, Xuemei Cui, Alexander Morgan, Karl Seiwert Aug 2015

Synthesis And Flammability Testing Of Epoxy Functionalized Phosphorous-Based Flame Retardants, Vladimir Benin, Xuemei Cui, Alexander Morgan, Karl Seiwert

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Several potential new phosphorus-containing flame retardant molecules were evaluated for heat release reduction potential by incorporation of the molecules into a polyurethane, generated from methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and 1,3-propane diol. The heat release reduction potential of these substances was evaluated using the pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter (PCFC). The polyurethanes were prepared in the presence of the potential flame retardants via solvent mixing and copolymerization methods to qualitatively evaluate their potential reactivity into the polyurethane prior to heat release testing. The functionality of the flame retardants was epoxide based that would potentially react with the diol during polyurethane synthesis. Flammability ...


Catechol Oxidation By Ozone And Hydroxyl Radicals At The Air-Water Interface, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Robert C. Camm, Marcelo I. Guzman Nov 2014

Catechol Oxidation By Ozone And Hydroxyl Radicals At The Air-Water Interface, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Robert C. Camm, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons promptly react with hydroxyl radicals undergoing oxidation to form phenols and polyphenols (e.g., catechol) typically identified in the complex mixture of humic-like substances (HULIS). Because further processing of polyphenols in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) can continue mediated by a mechanism of ozonolysis at interfaces, a better understanding about how these reactions proceed at the air–water interface is needed. This work shows how catechol, a molecular probe of the oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in SOA, can contribute interfacial reactive species that enhance the production of HULIS under atmospheric conditions. Reactive semiquinone radicals are quickly ...


Silyl Trifluoromethanesulfonate-Activated Para-Methoxybenzyl Methyl Ether As An Alkylating Agent For Thiols And Aryl Ketones, C. Wade Downey, Sarah E. Covington, Derek C. Obenschain, Evan Halliday, James T. Rague, Danielle N. Confair Sep 2014

Silyl Trifluoromethanesulfonate-Activated Para-Methoxybenzyl Methyl Ether As An Alkylating Agent For Thiols And Aryl Ketones, C. Wade Downey, Sarah E. Covington, Derek C. Obenschain, Evan Halliday, James T. Rague, Danielle N. Confair

Chemistry Faculty Publications

para-Methoxybenzyl methyl ether acts as an alkylating agent for thiols in the presence of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and trialkylamine base in good yields (58-96%). Aryl ketones are alkylated under similar conditions, probably through an enol silane intermediate, also in high yields (67-95%). The active alkylating species is likely a p-methoxybenzyl cation.


Scalable Synthesis Of 5,11-Diethynylated Indeno[1,2-B]Fluorene-6,12-Diones And Exploration Of Their Solid State Packing, Bradley D. Rose, Peter J. Santa Maria, Aaron G. Fix, Chris L. Vonnegut, Lev N. Zakharov, Sean R. Parkin, Michael M. Haley Sep 2014

Scalable Synthesis Of 5,11-Diethynylated Indeno[1,2-B]Fluorene-6,12-Diones And Exploration Of Their Solid State Packing, Bradley D. Rose, Peter J. Santa Maria, Aaron G. Fix, Chris L. Vonnegut, Lev N. Zakharov, Sean R. Parkin, Michael M. Haley

Chemistry Faculty Publications

We report a new synthetic route to 5,11-disubstituted indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-diones that is amenable to larger scale reactions, allowing for the preparation of gram amounts of material. With this new methodology, we explored the effects on crystal packing morphology for the indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-diones by varying the substituents on the silylethynyl groups.


Silyl Triflate-Accelerated Additions Of Catalytically Generated Zinc Acetylides To N-Phenyl Nitrones, C. Wade Downey, Erin N. Maxwell, Danielle N. Confair Aug 2014

Silyl Triflate-Accelerated Additions Of Catalytically Generated Zinc Acetylides To N-Phenyl Nitrones, C. Wade Downey, Erin N. Maxwell, Danielle N. Confair

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Terminal alkynes readily form zinc acetylides in the presence of iPr2NEt and 20 mol% ZnBr2, then attack N-phenyl nitrones activated by trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. Deprotection with aqueous acid yields the N-hydroxyl propargylamine. Yields are generally high for nitrones derived from aromatic aldehydes. Control experiments suggest that the silyl triflate has a significant accelerating effect upon the reaction.


Heat Release Of Polyurethanes Containing Potential Flame Retardants Based On Boron And Phosphorus Chemistries, Vladimir Benin, Bastien Gardelle, Alexander Morgan Aug 2014

Heat Release Of Polyurethanes Containing Potential Flame Retardants Based On Boron And Phosphorus Chemistries, Vladimir Benin, Bastien Gardelle, Alexander Morgan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Using a polyurethane of methylene diphenyl isocyanate and 1,3-propane diol, several new non-halogenated aromatic boron and phosphorus flame retardants were evaluated for heat release reduction potential using the pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter (PCFC). The polyurethanes were prepared in the presence of the potential flame retardants via solvent mixing and copolymerization methods, and were then analyzed via spectroscopic methods to determine if the flame retardant was still present in the final product. PCFC testing on the resulting products showed that the flame retardant molecule can have different effects on heat release depending upon how it is mixed into the polyurethane ...


Determination Of Corrosion Inhibitor Lubricity Improver In Jet Fuel By Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, David W. Johnson, Milissa Flake, Ryan Adams Jul 2014

Determination Of Corrosion Inhibitor Lubricity Improver In Jet Fuel By Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, David W. Johnson, Milissa Flake, Ryan Adams

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Military jet fuel (JP-8) is very similar to commercial jet fuel (Jet A) except for the presence of three additives, fuel system icing inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor–lubricity improver (CI-LI), and antistatic additive, which are added to improve characteristics of JP-8. Of particular interest is the CI-LI additive; the most common active ingredient is a dimer of linoleic acid. This article focuses on quantification of the active ingredient in the CI-LI additive by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). This method will allow the determination of CI-LI content in military jet fuel samples.


Science Classics, Mark Masthay Jan 2014

Science Classics, Mark Masthay

Chemistry Faculty Publications

An essay on the impact of the works in the Imprints and Impressions: Milestones in Human Progress, an exhibition of rare books from the collection of Stuart Rose. Exhibition was held Sept. 29-Nov. 9, 2014, at the University of Dayton.


Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters And Metal Thiophosphates As Lubricant Additives, David W. Johnson, John E. Hils Dec 2013

Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters And Metal Thiophosphates As Lubricant Additives, David W. Johnson, John E. Hils

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.


Structure, Theoretical Studies And Coupling Reactions Of Some New Cyclic Boronic Esters, Andrew Kuttler, Sravanthi Durganala, Albert Fratini, Alexander Morgan, Vladimir Benin Sep 2013

Structure, Theoretical Studies And Coupling Reactions Of Some New Cyclic Boronic Esters, Andrew Kuttler, Sravanthi Durganala, Albert Fratini, Alexander Morgan, Vladimir Benin

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The present report describes the X-ray structural and theoretical studies of some new pinacolboronate esters, and it also outlines the use of the target structures in Suzuki coupling reactions to produce new aromatic or heteroaromatic esters and amides. X-ray structural analysis of the studied compounds revealed that the pinacolborane ring's position with respect to the benzene ring varies, depending on the particular environment. An ortho-positioned carboxylic ester (methyl ester) causes a nearly perpendicular orientation of the pinacolborane unit with respect to the benzene ring, whereas an ortho-positioned amide (N,N-dimethylamide) causes the pinacolborane unit to orient itself nearly coplanar ...


One-Pot Enol Silane Formation-Mukaiyama–Mannich Addition Of Ketones, Amides, And Thioesters To Nitrones In The Presence Of Trialkylsilyl Trifluoromethanesulfonates, C. Wade Downey, Carolyn M. Dombrowski, Erin N. Maxwell, Chelsea L. Safran, Odamea A. Akomah Sep 2013

One-Pot Enol Silane Formation-Mukaiyama–Mannich Addition Of Ketones, Amides, And Thioesters To Nitrones In The Presence Of Trialkylsilyl Trifluoromethanesulfonates, C. Wade Downey, Carolyn M. Dombrowski, Erin N. Maxwell, Chelsea L. Safran, Odamea A. Akomah

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Ketones, amides, and thioesters form enol silanes and add to N-phenylnitrones in one pot in the presence of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and trialkylamine. The reaction is general to a range of silyl trifluoromethanesulfonates and N-phenylnitrones. The b-(silyloxy)amino carbonyl products are stable to chromatography and can be isolated in 63-99% yield.


Characterization By Nmr Of Reactants And Products Of Hydrofluoroether Isomers, Cf3(Cf2)3och3 And (Cf3)2c(F)Cf2och3, Reacting With Isopropyl Alcohol, Howard Knachel, Vladimir Benin, William E. Moddeman, Janine C. Birkbeck, Thomas A. Kestner, Tayna L. Young Jul 2013

Characterization By Nmr Of Reactants And Products Of Hydrofluoroether Isomers, Cf3(Cf2)3och3 And (Cf3)2c(F)Cf2och3, Reacting With Isopropyl Alcohol, Howard Knachel, Vladimir Benin, William E. Moddeman, Janine C. Birkbeck, Thomas A. Kestner, Tayna L. Young

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The 3M Company product Novec™ 71IPA DL, a mixture of methoxyperfluorobutane, methoxyperfluoroisobutane and 4.5 wt.% isopropyl alcohol, has been found to be very stable at ambient temperature, producing fluoride at the rate of ~1 ppm/year. Our earlier kinetic and theoretical studies have identified the reaction mechanism. This paper identifies the 1H and 19F NMR chemical shifts, multiplicities, and coupling constants of reactants and the major products that result from aging the mixture in sealed Pyrex NMR tubes for periods up to 1.8 years at temperatures from 26 °C to 102 °C. Chemical shifts and coupling ...


Interaction Between Lubricants Containing Phosphate Ester Additives And Stainless Steels, David W. Johnson, Matthew Bachus, John E. Hils May 2013

Interaction Between Lubricants Containing Phosphate Ester Additives And Stainless Steels, David W. Johnson, Matthew Bachus, John E. Hils

Chemistry Faculty Publications

One way to improve fuel efficiency in today’s jet aircraft engines is to create an environment for higher operating temperatures and speeds. New and improved lubricants and bearing materials must be developed to remain stable in these elevated operating temperatures. Three lubricants, with varying amounts of tricresyl phosphate added as an anti-wear/extreme pressure additive were tested on two different stainless steels at varying temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 350 °C in vacuum. Significant decomposition of the lubricant base-stocks and the phosphate ester additive did occur in most of the trials resulting in the formation of carboxylic acids ...


Preparation Of Phosphonoterephthalic Acids Via Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Of Aromatic Iodoesters, Nathaniel Ivan, Vladimir Benin, Alexander Morgan Jan 2013

Preparation Of Phosphonoterephthalic Acids Via Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Of Aromatic Iodoesters, Nathaniel Ivan, Vladimir Benin, Alexander Morgan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The current article reports in detail the preparation of two phosphonoterephthalic acids: 2-phosphonoterephthalic acid (1) and 2,5-diphosphonoterephthalic acid (2). Efficient, scalable syntheses have been developed for both compounds based on Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions of iodinated terephthalate esters. Phosphonoterephthalic acids are potentially useful as flame-retardant additives or as monomers for the construction of acid-pendant polymer chains.


Reaction Between Polyol-Esters And Phosphate Esters In The Presence Of Metal Carbides, David W. Johnson, Carolyn Iacullo, John E. Hils Jan 2013

Reaction Between Polyol-Esters And Phosphate Esters In The Presence Of Metal Carbides, David W. Johnson, Carolyn Iacullo, John E. Hils

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reaction of metal carbides with polyol esters found in aerospace lubricants and phosphate esters commonly used as additives was investigated. Carbides were of particular interest since modern materials under consideration at high temperature bearings have surfaces that are primarily metal carbides. Vanadium and chromium carbide were found to react with the ester and phosphate ester by a transesterification reaction, producing an alkyl phosphate which is less stable than the aromatic phosphate esters. In the process, the metal carbide is converted to the metal phosphate and metal polyphosphate, evidenced by the infrared and Raman spectra of the solid residue and ...


One-Pot Three-Step Thioconjugate Addition-Oxidation-Diels–Alder Reactions Of Ethyl Propiolate, C. Wade Downey, Smaranda Craciun, Christina A. Vivelo, Ana M. Neferu, Carly J. Mueller, Stephanie Corsi Oct 2012

One-Pot Three-Step Thioconjugate Addition-Oxidation-Diels–Alder Reactions Of Ethyl Propiolate, C. Wade Downey, Smaranda Craciun, Christina A. Vivelo, Ana M. Neferu, Carly J. Mueller, Stephanie Corsi

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Ethyl propiolate undergoes one-pot three-step thioconjugate addition-oxidation-Diels–Alder cycloaddition when treated with a variety of thiols in the presence of catalytic base, meta-chloroperbenzoic acid, lithium perchlorate, and cyclopentadiene. The reaction of S‑aryl thiols is catalyzed by trialkylamines, and the reaction of aliphatic thiols requires catalytic alkoxide base. Yields of the major diastereomer of the conveniently functionalized bicyclic products range from 47 to 81% depending upon the thiol reactant, which compares favorably to yields observed when the entire synthesis is performed step by step.


One-Pot Synthesis Of (Z)-B-Sulfonyl Enoates From Ethyl Propiolate, C. Wade Downey, Smaranda Craciun, Ana M. Neferu, Christina A. Vivelo, Carly J. Mueller, Brian C. Southall, Stephanie Corsi, Eric W. Etchill, Ryan J. Sault Oct 2012

One-Pot Synthesis Of (Z)-B-Sulfonyl Enoates From Ethyl Propiolate, C. Wade Downey, Smaranda Craciun, Ana M. Neferu, Christina A. Vivelo, Carly J. Mueller, Brian C. Southall, Stephanie Corsi, Eric W. Etchill, Ryan J. Sault

Chemistry Faculty Publications

B-Sulfonyl enoates may be synthesized through a one-pot two-step sequence from ethyl propiolate with good to excellent selectivity for the Z isomer. Trialkylamines catalyze thioconjugate additions of aryl thiols, and alkoxides catalyze the addition of aliphatic thiols. Addition of meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA) and LiClO4 to the reaction mixture provides rapid access to the sulfonyl enoates. Yields of the pure Z isomer range from 51 – 90%.