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Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Size Exclusion Chromatography Based Liposomal Protein Extraction (Selpe), Carolyn Barnes May 2018

Size Exclusion Chromatography Based Liposomal Protein Extraction (Selpe), Carolyn Barnes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks Dec 2017

Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks

Doctoral Dissertations

Phosphorylated myo-inositol compounds including inositol phosphates (InsPs) as well as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (PIPns) are critical biomolecules that regulate many of the most important biological processes and pathways. They are aberrant in many disease states due to their regulatory function. The same is true of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) which can serve as a marker to begin apoptosis. However, the full scope of activities of these structures is not clear, particularly since techniques that enable global detection and analysis of the production of these compounds spatially and temporally are lacking. With all of these obstacles in ...


Development And Implementation Of Redox-Active Olefin Polymerization Catalysts, William Curtis Anderson Jr. Dec 2017

Development And Implementation Of Redox-Active Olefin Polymerization Catalysts, William Curtis Anderson Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

Investigating homogeneous polymerization catalysts has been a thriving area of chemistry in the academic realm for several decades now, and has helped drive the development of a range of materials, from designer plastics to cheap commodity polymers. Billions of pounds of these materials are produced every year, which ensures that continuing research in the area will be necessary to improve current processes and enable more economic use of our resources.

This dissertation showcases the Long group’s research in homogeneous polymerization catalysis and our impact on the field thus far. We show that intelligent design of redox-active catalysts allows for ...


Design-Structure-Property Relationships Of Purine-Based Copolymers And Chromophores, Graham Smith Collier May 2017

Design-Structure-Property Relationships Of Purine-Based Copolymers And Chromophores, Graham Smith Collier

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the relationship between monomer design and polymer properties is imperative for developing polymeric systems that can find applicability in targeted technologies. Purines have been extensively studied across many scientific disciplines and are useful due to the diverse properties they possess, which is due in part to the broad scope of precise synthetic transformations that are used to tailor their properties. The overarching goal of my dissertation involves developing the synthesis of “poly(purine)s” and investigating the effect of purine monomer design on polymer properties. In this vein, poly(purine)s and purine-based donor-acceptor small-molecules are synthesized via Stille ...


Ion Separations: Achieving Selectivity Through Rational Design In Solvent Extraction And Crystallization Systems, Neil Justin Williams May 2017

Ion Separations: Achieving Selectivity Through Rational Design In Solvent Extraction And Crystallization Systems, Neil Justin Williams

Doctoral Dissertations

The selective separation of ions from aqueous solutions has been a difficult challenge to address in the separation sciences. The difficulties associated with selective separations of ions are due to a multitude of chemical and physical differences between them. Additionally, the term ions encompass both positively charged cations and their counter parts the negatively charge anions. The work covered in this dissertation discusses the difficulties encountered during the selective separation of both oxoanions and cations. Apart from the Introduction Chapter 1 and Conclusion Chapter 10, the selective separations oxoanions and cations will be discussed separately with the dissertation being divided ...


Thermally Robust And Redox Active Catalysts: Studying Their Behavior For Ethylene And L-Lactide Polymerization, Lauren Ashley Brown May 2017

Thermally Robust And Redox Active Catalysts: Studying Their Behavior For Ethylene And L-Lactide Polymerization, Lauren Ashley Brown

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of homogenous single-site catalysts has significantly impacted the field of organometallic chemistry. The well-defined structures of homogenous catalysts make it less cumbersome to understand and develop methods to tailor these compounds for specific catalytic processes. Currently, polymerization catalysis is a major division in organometallic chemistry due to the global demand for polymeric materials such as polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), based on their low-cost feedstock, remarkable mechanical properties, and their use in a wide range of applications. However, bioplastics have become a highly sought-after alternative to conventional petrochemical-based plastics due to their biodegradability and derivatization from renewable resources ...


Development Of High Performance Gas Separation Membranes Through Intelligent Catalyst And Monomer Design, Kevin Richard Gmernicki May 2017

Development Of High Performance Gas Separation Membranes Through Intelligent Catalyst And Monomer Design, Kevin Richard Gmernicki

Doctoral Dissertations

Polymer membranes are a valuable tool for separating components of liquid and gas mixtures. Heavily inspired by biological systems, the idea of using the intrinsic properties of polymers to perform otherwise energy-intensive tasks is attractive for applications such as water desalination, natural gas sweetening, and post-combustion carbon capture. Of particular interest to our research group, post-combustion carbon capture is a promising potential solution aimed at reducing the carbon footprint involved with production, transportation, and storage of electrical energy generation.

Every year, the United States produces close to seven billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, of which a significant portion is ...


All Acrylic Based Thermoplastic Elastomers: Design And Synthesis For Improved Mechanical Performance, Wei Lu May 2017

All Acrylic Based Thermoplastic Elastomers: Design And Synthesis For Improved Mechanical Performance, Wei Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) have been widely studied because of their recyclability, good processability, low production cost and distinct performance. Compared to the widely-used styrenic TPEs, acrylate based TPEs have potential advantages including exceptional chemical, heat, oxygen and UV resistance, optical transparence, and oil resistance. However, their high entanglement molecular weight lead to “disappointing” mechanical performance as compared to styrenic TPEs. The work described in this dissertation is aimed at employing various approaches to develop the all acrylic based thermoplastic elastomers with improved mechanical performance.

The first part of this work focuses on the introduction of acrylic polymers with high glass ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Ligand For Use On Rhodium Paddlewheel Complexes, Gavin J. Rustin Dec 2016

Synthesis And Characterization Of Novel Ligand For Use On Rhodium Paddlewheel Complexes, Gavin J. Rustin

Masters Theses

Dirhodium (II) paddlewheel complexes have proven to be useful catalysts in many transformations including C-H insertions, cyclopropanation, and silane insertion reactions. One deficiency of these catalysts is the inability to modulate the enantioselectivity with reactive diazo compounds. One avenue for potential improvement of paddlewheel complexes is coordinating ligands in the axial site to increase enantioselectivity. The axial site has been occupied by various ligands including Nheterocyclic carbenes, nitrogen compounds, and phosphorous compounds. This work examines compounds that can be used as ligands on dirhodium complexes that have a pendant chain containing a dibenzyl phosphite and dibenzyl phosphate, both of which ...


Three Body Interactions Of Rare Gas Solids Calculated Within The Einstein Model, Dan D'Andrea Dec 2016

Three Body Interactions Of Rare Gas Solids Calculated Within The Einstein Model, Dan D'Andrea

Masters Theses

Three body interactions can become important in solids at higher pressures and densities as the molecules can come into close contact. At low temperatures, accurate studies of three body interactions in solids require averaging the three-body terms over the molecules' zero point motions. An efficient, but approximate, averaging approach is based on a polynomial approximation of the three-body term. The polynomial approximation can be developed as a function of the symmetry coordinates of a triangle displaced from its average geometry and also as a function of the Cartesian zero point displacements from each atom’s average position. The polynomial approximation ...


Design And Synthesis Of Lipid Probes Used For Membrane Derivatization And Fusion, Stuart Allen Whitehead Dec 2016

Design And Synthesis Of Lipid Probes Used For Membrane Derivatization And Fusion, Stuart Allen Whitehead

Doctoral Dissertations

Lipids control a variety of complex biological processes. Bulk lipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) represent the major components of cellular membranes. In addition, unilamellar vesicles composed of lipids (liposomes) are valuable for delivery applications since they can encapsulate and transport drugs and other agents. In order to maximize delivery efficiency and target specific membranes, the ability to trigger and control vesicle-vesicle fusion is desirable. Such approaches generally seek to mimic the membrane fusion machinery present in nature while imparting specificity in the membranes that undergo fusion. The goal of this work is selective drug delivery ...


Synthesis Of A Novel Cox-2 Inhibitor Analog For Pet Scan Imaging, Rebecca Neighbor May 2016

Synthesis Of A Novel Cox-2 Inhibitor Analog For Pet Scan Imaging, Rebecca Neighbor

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Developing Synthetic Methods To Prepare Discrete Metal-Organic Nanotubes, Derek L. Mull May 2016

Developing Synthetic Methods To Prepare Discrete Metal-Organic Nanotubes, Derek L. Mull

Masters Theses

Metal-organic nanotubes (MONTs) are an emerging class of discrete materials that are the 1D variant of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). MONTs have potential to become an alternative 1D material to carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes, and boron nitride nanotubes because they possess an organic ligand that can be functionalized and tuned for specific applications. Despite this potential, only a handful of structures have been reported and only two examples of discrete MONTs exist in the literature. It is thus imperative to develop general methods to prepare and characterize discrete MONTs to bring them to the forefront of the scientific literature.

Efforts ...


Chemical Investigations Of Diabetes Mellitus, Malaria, And Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Maggie Sparks Lookadoo Dec 2015

Chemical Investigations Of Diabetes Mellitus, Malaria, And Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Maggie Sparks Lookadoo

Masters Theses

This work studies a variety of molecules and the systems they are involved in to further understand disease and treatment of diabetes mellitus, malaria, and castrate resistant prostate cancer. The first system studied, diabetes mellitus, involves synthesis of 5 different steroidal compounds, while the other two systems, malaria and castrate-resistant prostate cancer, apply mass spectrometric-based untargeted metabolomics to study both known metabolites and unknown spectral features.

Diabetes mellitus is a result of the dysfunction and death of islet beta cells caused by the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in reduced insulin secretion and uncontrollable blood glucose levels. Glucocorticoids can reduce ...


Siloxane And Silane-Functionalized Polynorbornenes As Membranes For Passive Carbon Dioxide Separation, Eunice Koheun Hong Dec 2015

Siloxane And Silane-Functionalized Polynorbornenes As Membranes For Passive Carbon Dioxide Separation, Eunice Koheun Hong

Masters Theses

In 2012, carbon dioxide (CO2) [carbon dioxide] accounted for approximately 82% [percent] of all U.S greenhouse gas emissions.1 These excessive CO2 levels have been attributed to climate changes that have a range of negative effects on human health and welfare.1 In an effort to decrease these emissions, polymeric membranes consisting of silane- and siloxane-functionalized norbornene units have been targeted as a potential solution for the passive separation of CO2 from other non-greenhouse gases. These substituted norbornene-based polymers were synthesized via vinyl-addition polymerization. Through a series of catalyst trials, commercially available palladium and nickel catalysts were compared ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Evaluation Of Lectin-Binding Properties Of 1,2-Cis-Glycosides, Bo Meng Aug 2015

Synthesis, Characterization And Evaluation Of Lectin-Binding Properties Of 1,2-Cis-Glycosides, Bo Meng

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents a state-of-the-art research of 1,2-cis-glycosides, including synthetic methodology development, combinatorial total synthesis of galactoside ligands, construction of glycomicroarray surfaces, and quantitative evaluation of carbohydrate–lectin binding properties.

In Chapter 1, as a general introduction, various strategies that have been developed for the stereoselective construction of 1,2-cis-O-glycosidic bond are reviewed. 1,2-cis-O-Glycoside structural units are ubiquitous in nature, and they are extensively involved in numerous biological activities. The systematic identification and evaluation of the roles of carbohydrates usually relies on practical synthetic approaches to afford pure carbohydrates in ...


An Investigation Of Inorganic Compound Scattering., Karl Jay Bernstein May 2015

An Investigation Of Inorganic Compound Scattering., Karl Jay Bernstein

Doctoral Dissertations

Raman and its associated forms of spectroscopy are powerful tools that have been under-utilized. Presented within are three inorganic compounds studied with some form of Raman spectroscopy: normal Raman, hyper-Raman (HR), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), surface-enhanced hyper-Raman spectroscopy (SEHRS), or resonance Raman spectroscopy (RR).

The first study involves the investigation of phosphine binding with silver metal. Phosphines find wide use in synthetic circles yet have had little study into their method of binding, unlike similar compounds comprised of sulfur. In order to understand the binding of phosphines, several tertiary phosphines, secondary phosphines and secondary phosphine oxides are examined with SERS ...


Microfluidic Syntheses Of Pet Radiotracers Via Fluorodenitration, Thomas Madison Moore May 2015

Microfluidic Syntheses Of Pet Radiotracers Via Fluorodenitration, Thomas Madison Moore

Doctoral Dissertations

This research study is focused on the syntheses of radiotracers for use in positron emission tomography [PET] via fluorodenitration and fluorodehalogenation under microfluidic conditions. Methodology has been developed for radiolabeling via fluorodenitration under microfluidic conditions and comparisons made to dehalogenation reactions. Developmental work was carried out on commercially available compounds containing a variety of functional groups. Subsequent production of radiotracers has been performed with precursors provided by collaborators as well as those synthesized in our laboratory.


Photo-Switchable Control Of Membrane Properties Of Liposomes And Biochemical Processes, Andrew Michael Bayer Dec 2014

Photo-Switchable Control Of Membrane Properties Of Liposomes And Biochemical Processes, Andrew Michael Bayer

Doctoral Dissertations

Liposomes are promising agents for drug delivery. They have the ability to encapsulate therapeutic drugs, resulting in decreased toxicity and prolonged circulation time. However, many obstacles to achieving broad utility in liposomal drug delivery still exist, including the ability to control release of therapeutic drugs and modulate surface reactivity. A primary focus of this dissertation involves the development of synthetic photocleavable lipids for controlled release from membranes.

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a natural lipid that comprises the majority of structural membranes. It contributes heavily to the formation of lipid bilayers in cell membranes, and modifications to the bilayer can induce membrane ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling May 2014

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Sultams As Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Of Hiv Reverse Transcriptase, Brian Chadwick Lecroix Dec 2013

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Sultams As Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Of Hiv Reverse Transcriptase, Brian Chadwick Lecroix

Doctoral Dissertations

The compound 2-methyl-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,2-benzisothiazole 1,1-dioxide (NSC 108406) was identified as an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor by the National Cancer Institute. Using this lead, the Baker group has developed a series of analogues with various groups at the 3-position that show a spectrum of biological activities. In the end, the substituents used could not compare to the biological activity of the inhibitor efavirenz (Sustiva® [trademark]), and so it was decided to synthesize sultams with alkylethynyl substituents at the 3-position of the sultams in an attempt to mimic the activity of efavirenz.

Previous research analyzed the proposed novel sultams in ...


Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5–Trisphosphate Probe Synthesis And Microarray Protein Binding Studies To Investigate Multivalency And Detect Proteins Upregulated In Cancer, Benjamin Michael Smith Aug 2013

Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5–Trisphosphate Probe Synthesis And Microarray Protein Binding Studies To Investigate Multivalency And Detect Proteins Upregulated In Cancer, Benjamin Michael Smith

Masters Theses

Protein–lipid binding interactions control many processes at the cellular level. Many of these biological events between proteins and lipids are often associated with signaling pathway diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Therefore, increasing our knowledge of protein–lipid binding interactions will provide a better understanding of the signaling pathways of living systems. Pursuing this further, the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates (PIPs) are an important family of signaling lipids that control key biological processes. Thus, the work described in this thesis was aimed at developing methods to validate these types of lipid–protein binding interactions. The goals of these projects were to ...


Copper Mediated, Transmetallation Coupling Reactions Using High Intensity Ultrasound, Bryan J. Musolino Aug 2013

Copper Mediated, Transmetallation Coupling Reactions Using High Intensity Ultrasound, Bryan J. Musolino

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation summarizes research efforts focused on the use of boron and copper acetate to form new carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Two new methods were developed using high intensity ultrasound as the reaction energy source. The first focused on the homocoupling of various aryl compounds using a commercially available polymer support. The use of this polymer support allows the reaction to proceed in an aqueous solvent system with only minimal preparation. The product yields were better than values reported in the literature using traditional reaction conditions and reaction times were decreased from 24-72 hours to 6 hours. The second method ...


Comparison Of Methodologies For Synthesis Of 3-(Cyclopropylethynyl)Benzisothiazole 1,1-Dioxide, Rachel Lee Naramore May 2013

Comparison Of Methodologies For Synthesis Of 3-(Cyclopropylethynyl)Benzisothiazole 1,1-Dioxide, Rachel Lee Naramore

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Synthesis Of Isotopologues And Nanoparticles For Hyper Raman Spectroscopy, Burton K. Mandrell May 2013

Synthesis Of Isotopologues And Nanoparticles For Hyper Raman Spectroscopy, Burton K. Mandrell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Quorum Sensing And Metabolism In Marine Environments, Amanda May May 2013

Quorum Sensing And Metabolism In Marine Environments, Amanda May

Doctoral Dissertations

Quorum sensing (QS) is a phenomenon that allows bacteria to communicate with each other. Small molecules known as autoinducers are synthesized and released by bacteria, and once enough members of the community are around to ensure survival, i.e. quorum, a phenotype, e.g. bioluminescence, is expressed. There are two types of QS molecules, intra- and inter-species.

S-4,5-Dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is a byproduct of the activated methyl cycle which recycles methionine. This has led to the discussion as to whether DPD is a metabolic byproduct or is the interspecies signal as proposed previously. The detection and quantitation of ...


New Applications Of Boron Dihalides And Organotrifluoroborates In Organic Synthesis, Kelly Elizabeth Hall May 2013

New Applications Of Boron Dihalides And Organotrifluoroborates In Organic Synthesis, Kelly Elizabeth Hall

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation summarizes research focused on the use of boron dihalides and organotrifluoroborates in organic synthesis. The boron dihalide mediated aryl propargyl ether cleavage reactions to generate the corresponding aryl alcohols were investigated to explain the mechanistic pathway of using boron trihalides and boron dihalides in propargyl ether cleavage reactions. The results of this study strongly support that the mechanistic pathway for these reactions follows the pathway shown in this dissertation. In addition, the use of polymer-supported organotrifluoroborates for radiolabeling reactions was also investigated. The results of these studies support the use of polymer supported organotrifluoroborates in radiolabeling reactions as ...


1,2,4-Triazine-Accelerated Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition And Synthesis Of Metalloenzyme Inhibitors, Belinda Shea Lady May 2013

1,2,4-Triazine-Accelerated Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition And Synthesis Of Metalloenzyme Inhibitors, Belinda Shea Lady

Doctoral Dissertations

The work of this dissertation describes the design and synthesis of 1,2,4-triazine ligands and other N-containing heterocycles and their use in the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). A variety of ligands were synthesized to probe the steric and electronic demands required for use in the CuAAC reaction. Substituents on the 1,2,4-triazine were systematically altered and the core 1,2,4-triazine modified to determine the most active ligand. Additional experiments explored the variability in the reaction conditions, such as solvent choice, use of reducing agents, and optimal stoichiometry. Under optimum conditions 5,6-diphenyl-3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine and ...


Boron And Metal Catalyzed C-C And C-H Bond Formation, Adam Barret Pippin Dec 2012

Boron And Metal Catalyzed C-C And C-H Bond Formation, Adam Barret Pippin

Doctoral Dissertations

Research efforts focused on the use of boron and metals to form new carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds are summarized in this dissertation. Several novel reactions have been developed. These include: the deoxygenation of benzylic alcohols using chloroboranes; alkenylation of benzylic alcohols using boron trichloride; and dialkynlation of aryl aldehydes using dialkynylboron chloride. Numerous applications of these novel reactions have been developed. These include alternate routes to diphenylmethanes and 1,4-diynes from easily prepared dialkynylboron chlorides. In addition, E and Z alkenyl halides can now be prepared using boron trichloride without the use of butyllithium. The stereochemistry of the alkenyl halide ...


Synthesis, Evaluation And Applications Of Biologically Significant Molecules And Their Analogues, Sneha Ashesh Belapure Dec 2012

Synthesis, Evaluation And Applications Of Biologically Significant Molecules And Their Analogues, Sneha Ashesh Belapure

Doctoral Dissertations

Synthetic chemists are always looking for challenging problems to solve. Design and synthesis of novel molecules that can act as agents of chemical and biological modification are one of the foremost goals of a synthetic chemist. This dissertation describes advances and efforts made in this area.

Obesity is one of the critical problems of the modern age. Molecules that can remediate this condition are highly sought after. The first chapter of this dissertation describes synthetic strategies explored to prepare these valuable natural products along with their structural and stereochemical analogues to study structure and activity relationships (SAR). This method gives ...