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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman Jun 2019

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2019

The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The sunlight photochemistry of the organic chromophore pyruvic acid (PA) in water generates ketyl and acetyl radicals that contribute to the production and processing of atmospheric aerosols. The photochemical mechanism is highly sensitive to dissolved oxygen content, [O2(aq)], among other environmental conditions. Thus, herein we investigate the photolysis (λ ≥ 305 nm) of 10–200 mM PA at pH 1.0 in water covering the relevant range 0 ≤ [O2(aq)] ≤ 1.3 mM. The rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen by the intermediate photolytic radicals is monitored in real time with a dissolved oxygen electrode. In addition, the rate ...


Oxidative Degradation Of Lignin And Investigation Of Utilization Of Lignin-Derived Materials As Building Blocks For Epoxy Resins, Zhen Fang Jan 2019

Oxidative Degradation Of Lignin And Investigation Of Utilization Of Lignin-Derived Materials As Building Blocks For Epoxy Resins, Zhen Fang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Lignin, the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, is potentially a replaceable source for bulky fuels and chemical feedstocks. There have been numerous reports on methods for the oxidative cleavage of β-O-4 linkages but relatively few reports of how those methods affect other linkages that are present in lignin. We investigated how the β-1 and β-5 linkages respond under oxidative conditions proposed for lignin deconstruction based on their effect on β-O-4 linkages. Mechanochemical treatment of lignin can greatly improve the yield of monomer products and we applied a mechanochemical approach, using powerful ring-and-puck milling to promote lignin degradation. Along with ...


Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin To Low Molecular Weight Aromatics, Yang Song Jan 2019

Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin To Low Molecular Weight Aromatics, Yang Song

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

To date, most lignocellulosic biorefinery strategies have focused on optimizing conversion of cellulose to ethanol, leaving lignin as an underutilized biomass constituent. Lignin is engineered by nature with the intent to protect plants from chemical and biological attack; this leaves lignin with high structural irregularity and recalcitrance, rendering conversion of the lignin macromolecule to valuable products particularly challenging. Nevertheless, given that the economics of cellulosic ethanol production are strongly dependent on the value that can be obtained for the lignin co-product, the successful valorization of lignin is a crucial step in the transition towards a bio-based economy.

This thesis focuses ...


An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2018

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Oxidation Of N-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes And Formation Of Discontinuous Spiraled Carbon Nanoribbons, Aman Preet Kaur, Mark S. Meier, Rodney Andrews, Dali Qian Jun 2018

Oxidation Of N-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes And Formation Of Discontinuous Spiraled Carbon Nanoribbons, Aman Preet Kaur, Mark S. Meier, Rodney Andrews, Dali Qian

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The effects of five commonly used wet chemical oxidations were studied for the extent of oxidation of graphitized nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs). KMnO4/ H2SO4 was the most potent oxidant, as it produced the highest fraction of oxygen-containing functional groups. Electron microscopy studies showed that the treatment of annealed N-MWCNTs (G-N-MWCNTs) with H2SO4/HNO3 and H2SO4/KMnO4 mixtures leads to interesting spiraled ribbon textures. A structural model, involving the stacking of coiled subunits to form a discontinuous carbon nanoribbon rather than a continuous ribbon is proposed to explain ...


Study Of The Effect Of Steric Bulk Of Side Chains On The Properties Of Conjugated Polymers, Bei Zhang Jan 2018

Study Of The Effect Of Steric Bulk Of Side Chains On The Properties Of Conjugated Polymers, Bei Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Donor-acceptor conjugated polymers opened a new era for conjugated polymer research due to the abundant selection and combination of different conjugated units. This class of polymers function as semiconductor materials with potential application in plastic consumer electronics. The frontier molecular orbital energies of the polymers are generally determined by the selection of donor and acceptor units in the backbone structure, and their substituents. The side chains attached to the backbone not only affect the solubility of the materials, but also their self-assembly and morphological characteristics, which indirectly govern optoelectronic properties. It is important therefore to consider backbone architectures and the ...


Catalytic Conversion Of Monosaccharides Into 5-(Hydroxymethyl)Furfural In Ionic Liquids Using Aluminum Complexes Bearing Bidentate (Aminomethyl)Phenolate Ligands, Daudi Sayialel Saang'onyo Jan 2018

Catalytic Conversion Of Monosaccharides Into 5-(Hydroxymethyl)Furfural In Ionic Liquids Using Aluminum Complexes Bearing Bidentate (Aminomethyl)Phenolate Ligands, Daudi Sayialel Saang'onyo

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Currently, the major sources of fuel, energy, and chemicals are nonrenewable fossil resources such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Additionally, petroleum is used for the production of most transportation fuels and for the production of about 95% of organic chemicals. However, the production and use of non-renewable fossil fuels are unsustainable. For economic and environmental sustainability, there is a need to search for new and/or renewable resources and technologies for energy, fuels, and chemicals production that have the potential of effectively substituting fossil resources. In this context, lignocellulosic biomass is one of the candidates that meet these requirements ...


Oxidation Of Β-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds And Application To Lignin Linkage Degradation Facilitated By Mechanochemical Treatment And Two-Step Oxidative Depolymerization, Soledad G. Yao Jan 2018

Oxidation Of Β-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds And Application To Lignin Linkage Degradation Facilitated By Mechanochemical Treatment And Two-Step Oxidative Depolymerization, Soledad G. Yao

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The oxidation of lignin model compounds was studied in conventional solvents in parallel with oxidations in ionic liquid solvents. Catalyst systems were investigated in ionic liquid solvents to determine how reaction rates and the selectivity for benzylic carbon oxidation were affected. Oxidation rates were often lower in ionic liquids than in conventional solvents ‒ as indicated by lower conversion in a standard reaction time ‒ likely due, at least in part, to the higher viscosity of ionic liquids. Mechano chemical treatment of Indulin AT kraft lignin by ball milling with KOH and toluene produced significant carbonyl functionality, among other changes. The chemical ...


The Role Of Catalytic Residue PKA On The Hydrolysis/Transglycosylation Partition In Family 3 Β-Glucosidases, Inacrist Geronimo, Christina M. Payne, Mats Sandgren Dec 2017

The Role Of Catalytic Residue PKA On The Hydrolysis/Transglycosylation Partition In Family 3 Β-Glucosidases, Inacrist Geronimo, Christina M. Payne, Mats Sandgren

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

β-Glucosidases (βgls) primarily catalyze the hydrolysis of the terminal glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of β-glucosides, although glycosidic bond synthesis (called transglycosylation) can also occur in the presence of another acceptor. In the final reaction step, the glucose product or another substrate competes with water for transfer to the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The factors governing the balance between the two pathways are not fully known; however, the involvement of ionizable residues in binding and catalysis suggests that their pKa may play a role. Through constant pH molecular dynamics simulations of a glycoside hydrolase Family 3 (GH3) βgl, we ...


Layer-By-Layer Assembled Membranes With Immobilized Porins, Sebastián Hernández, Cassandra Porter, Xinyi Zhang, Yinan Wei, Dibakar Bhattacharyya Dec 2017

Layer-By-Layer Assembled Membranes With Immobilized Porins, Sebastián Hernández, Cassandra Porter, Xinyi Zhang, Yinan Wei, Dibakar Bhattacharyya

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

New and advanced opportunities are arising for the synthesis and functionalization of membranes with selective separation, reactivity, and stimuli-responsive behavior. One such advancement is the integration of bio-based channels in membrane technologies. By a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes, outer membrane protein F trimers (OmpF) or “porins” from Escherichia coli with central pores ∼2 nm in diameter at their opening and ∼0.7 × 1.1 nm at their constricted region are immobilized within the pores of poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes, in contrast to traditional ruptured lipid bilayer or vesicle processes. These OmpF-membranes demonstrate selective rejection of non-charged organics over ...


Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2017

Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...


Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2017

Reactivity Of Ketyl And Acetyl Radicals From Direct Solar Actinic Photolysis Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The variable composition of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) contributes to the large uncertainty for predicting radiative forcing. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms leading to aerosol formation such as for the photochemical reaction of aqueous pyruvic acid (PA) at λ ≥ 305 nm can contribute to constrain these uncertainties. Herein, the photochemistry of aqueous PA (5-300 mM) continuously sparged with air is re-examined in the laboratory under comparable irradiance at 38° N at noon on a summer day. Several analytical methods are employed to monitor the time series of the reaction, including (1) the derivatization of carbonyl (C═O) functional ...


Thermal Conductivities Of Organic Semiconductors, Yulong Yao Jan 2017

Thermal Conductivities Of Organic Semiconductors, Yulong Yao

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Organic semiconductors have gained a lot of interest due to their ease of processing, low-cost and inherent mechanical flexibility. Although most of the research has been on their electronic and optical properties, knowledge of the thermal properties is important in the design of electronic devices as well. Our group has used ac-calorimetric techniques to measure both in-plane and transverse thermal conductivities of a variety of organic semiconductors including small-molecule crystals and polymer blends. For layered crystals composed of molecules with planar backbones and silylethynyl (or germylethynyl) sidegroups projecting between the layers, very high interplanar thermal conductivities have been observed, presumably ...


Formation Of The Ether Bridge In The Loline Alkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway, Minakshi Bhardwaj Jan 2017

Formation Of The Ether Bridge In The Loline Alkaloid Biosynthetic Pathway, Minakshi Bhardwaj

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Lolines are specialized metabolites produced by endophytic fungi, such as Neotyphodium and Epichloë species, that are in symbiotic relationships with cool-season grasses. Lolines are vital for the survival of the grasses because their insecticidal and antifeedant properties protect the plant from insect herbivory. Although lolines have various bioactivities, they do not have any concomitant antimammalian activities.

Lolines have complex structures that are unique among naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Lolines have four contiguous stereocenters, and they contain an ether bridge connecting C(2) and C(7) of the pyrrolizidine ring. An ether bridge connecting bridgehead C atoms is unusual in natural ...


Acenes, Heteroacenes And Analogous Molecules For Organic Photovoltaic And Field Effect Transistor Applications, Devin B. Granger Jan 2017

Acenes, Heteroacenes And Analogous Molecules For Organic Photovoltaic And Field Effect Transistor Applications, Devin B. Granger

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of benzenoid rings fused in a linear fashion comprise the class of compounds known as acenes. The structures containing three to six ring fusions are brightly colored and possess band gaps and charge transport efficiencies sufficient for semiconductor applications. These molecules have been investigated throughout the past several decades to assess their optoelectronic properties. The absorption, emission and charge transport properties of this series of molecules has been studied extensively to elucidate structure-property relationships. A wide variety of analogous molecules, incorporating heterocycles in place of benzenoid rings, demonstrate similar properties to the parent compounds and have ...


Towards The Total Synthesis Of 7-Epi-Clusianone, Shubhankar Dutta Jan 2017

Towards The Total Synthesis Of 7-Epi-Clusianone, Shubhankar Dutta

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are plant- (Guttiferae) derived natural products. They have fascinating bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione or [3.2.1]nonane-2,4,8-trione cores decorated with prenyl or geranyl groups. More than 200 PPAPs have been isolated, but only a few of them have been synthesized, although most of the synthesized PPAPs are of type A and have an exo substituent at C (7). Here, we are trying to make a type B 7-endo PPAP, 7-epi-clusianone. The synthetic plan involves an alkynylation–aldol strategy to construct the bicyclic core. Having established the bicyclic core ...


Mechanisms Of Heterogeneous Oxidations At Model Aerosol Interfaces By Ozone And Hydroxyl Radicals, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little Jan 2017

Mechanisms Of Heterogeneous Oxidations At Model Aerosol Interfaces By Ozone And Hydroxyl Radicals, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. An aerosol’s optical or nucleation properties are driven by its chemical composition. Chemical aging of aerosols by atmospheric oxidants, such as ozone, alters the physiochemical properties of aerosol to become more hygroscopic, light absorbing, and viscous during transport. However the mechanism of these transformations is poorly understood. While ozone is a protective and beneficial atmospheric gas in the stratosphere, it is a potent greenhouse gas in the troposphere that traps heat near the Earth’s surface. It also impacts ...


Heterogeneous Base Metal Catalyzed Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin And Lignin Model Compounds, John Adam Jennings Jan 2017

Heterogeneous Base Metal Catalyzed Oxidative Depolymerization Of Lignin And Lignin Model Compounds, John Adam Jennings

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

With the dwindling availability of petroleum, focus has shifted to renewable energy sources such as lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Due to the low value of cellulosic ethanol, utilization of the lignin component is necessary for the realization of an economically sustainable biorefinery model. Once depolymerized, lignin has the potential to replace petroleum-derived molecules used as bulk and specialty aromatic chemicals. Numerous lignin depolymerization strategies focus on cleavage of β-aryl ether linkages, usually at high temperatures and under reductive conditions.

Alternatively, selective benzylic oxidation strategies have recently been explored for ...


Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman Jun 2016

Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging ...


To Bend Or Not To Bend – Are Heteroatom Interactions Within Conjugated Molecules Effective In Dictating Conformation And Planarity?, Gary Conboy, Howard J. Spencer, Enrico Angioni, Alexander L. Kanibolotsky, Neil J. Findlay, Simon J. Coles, Claire Wilson, Mateusz B. Pitak, Chad Risko, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas, Peter J. Skabara Apr 2016

To Bend Or Not To Bend – Are Heteroatom Interactions Within Conjugated Molecules Effective In Dictating Conformation And Planarity?, Gary Conboy, Howard J. Spencer, Enrico Angioni, Alexander L. Kanibolotsky, Neil J. Findlay, Simon J. Coles, Claire Wilson, Mateusz B. Pitak, Chad Risko, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas, Peter J. Skabara

Chemistry Faculty Publications

We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.


Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Apr 2016

Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is an important central biosynthetic pathway that fixes CO2 into carboxylic acids. Among the five reductive steps in the rTCA cycle, the two-electron reduction of fumarate to succinate proceeds nonenzymatically on the surface of photoexcited sphalerite (ZnS) colloids suspended in water. This model reaction is chosen to systematically study the surface photoprocess occurring on ZnS in the presence of [Na2S] (1–10 mM) hole scavenger at 15 °C. Experiments at variable pH (5–10) indicate that monodissociated fumaric acid is the primary electron acceptor forming the monoprotic form of succinic acid ...


Reducing Dynamic Disorder In Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductors By Suppressing Large-Amplitude Thermal Motions, Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Lang Jiang, Chris Warwick, Mark Nikolka, Guillaume Schweicher, Stephen G. Yeates, Yves Henri Geerts, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus Feb 2016

Reducing Dynamic Disorder In Small-Molecule Organic Semiconductors By Suppressing Large-Amplitude Thermal Motions, Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Lang Jiang, Chris Warwick, Mark Nikolka, Guillaume Schweicher, Stephen G. Yeates, Yves Henri Geerts, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Thermal vibrations and the dynamic disorder they create can detrimentally affect the transport properties of van der Waals bonded molecular semiconductors. The low-energy nature of these vibrations makes it difficult to access them experimentally, which is why we still lack clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. In this study we discuss the promising organic semiconductors rubrene, 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothio-phene and 2,9-di-decyl-dinaphtho-[2,3-b:20,30-f]-thieno-[3,2-b]-thiophene in terms of an exceptionally low degree of dynamic disorder. In particular, we analyse diffuse scattering in transmission electron microscopy, to ...


Organometallic Materials: Ferroceno[C]Thiophenes And 1,2-Bisthienylmetallocenes, Surya R. Banks Jan 2016

Organometallic Materials: Ferroceno[C]Thiophenes And 1,2-Bisthienylmetallocenes, Surya R. Banks

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Development of synthetic routes toward two general organometallic frameworks was undertaken. The first project involved synthetic attempts of substituted and unsubstituted ferroceno[c]thiophene while the second one was the synthesis of 1,2-dithienylmetallocenes. The long-term goal of this work is to lay the foundations for study of electronic, electrochromic, redox, and optical properties of thiophene-based materials integrated with organometallic systems such as ferrocene, ruthenocene and cymantrene. The synthetic pathway for the target molecule in the first project involved converting 1,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)ferrocene to 1,2-bis(thiouroniummethyl)ferrocene with thiourea under acidic conditions. Refluxing the salt in base followed ...


The Development Of Colorimetric Assays To Determine The Identity And Frequency Of Specific Nucleobases In Dna Oligomers, Elizabeth Marie Thomas Jan 2016

The Development Of Colorimetric Assays To Determine The Identity And Frequency Of Specific Nucleobases In Dna Oligomers, Elizabeth Marie Thomas

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Colorimetric methods combined with color-changing chemical probes are widely used as simple yet effective tools for identifying and quantifying a wide variety of molecules in solution. For nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), perhaps the most commonly used colorimetric probe is potassium permanganate, which can be used to identify single-stranded pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine) in polymers. Unfortunately, permanganate is not an effective probe for identifying purines (adenine and guanine), especially in the presence of the more reactive pyrimidines. Therefore, robust methods for discriminating between the purines remain elusive, thereby creating a barrier toward developing more complex colorimetric applications. In this dissertation ...


Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2015

Heterogeneous Oxidation Of Catechol, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Natural and anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning, agro-industrial settings, and fossil fuel combustion contribute precursors to secondary aerosol formation (SOA). How these compounds are processed under humid tropospheric conditions is the focus of current attention to understand their environmental fate. This work shows how catechol thin films, a model for oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in biomass burning and combustion aerosols, undergo heterogeneous oxidation at the air–solid interface under variable relative humidity (RH = 0–90%). The maximum reactive uptake coefficient of O3(g) by catechol γO3 = (7.49 ± 0.35) × 10–6 occurs for ...


Unhindered Triangulene Salt Pairs: Substitution-Dependent Contact Ion Pairing And Complex Solvent-Separated Discotic Ions In Solution, Subrahmanyam Modekrutti Jan 2015

Unhindered Triangulene Salt Pairs: Substitution-Dependent Contact Ion Pairing And Complex Solvent-Separated Discotic Ions In Solution, Subrahmanyam Modekrutti

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

This work sought to enforce aromatic interactions between compatible π-molecular orbital systems with ionic bonding. In this case the interacting partners are oppositely charged discotic triangulene derivatives. The observed properties of the heterodimeric ion-pairs likely arise due to a hypothetical synergy between electrostatics and π-interactions. The work presented here describes investigation of putative covalency arising from this hypothetical synergy in the electrostatics driven π-stacking. In order to probe this, various hypotheses were made and experiments were designed to test their validity. The results from the experiments show existence of contact ion-pairs and complex solvent-separated discotic ions in solution. The formation ...


Spectroscopic Characterization Of Lanthanum-Mediated Hydrocarbon Activation, Dilrukshi C. Hewage Jan 2015

Spectroscopic Characterization Of Lanthanum-Mediated Hydrocarbon Activation, Dilrukshi C. Hewage

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Lanthanum (La)-promoted hydrocarbon activation reactions were carried out in a laser vaporization metal cluster beam source. Reaction products were identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the approximate ionization thresholds of La-hydrocarbon complexes were located with photoionization efficiency spectroscopy. The accurate ionization energies and vibrational frequencies of the La complexes were measured using mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. Their molecular structures and electronic states were investigated by combing the MATI spectroscopic measurements with quantum chemical and Franck-Condon factor calculations.

In this dissertation, La-mediated C-H and C-C bond activation reactions were investigated for several small alkynes (acetylene, propyne) and alkenes ...


Design, Synthesis, And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Three Series Of Lobelane Analogs As Inhibitors Of The Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (Vmat2), John P. Culver Jan 2015

Design, Synthesis, And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Three Series Of Lobelane Analogs As Inhibitors Of The Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (Vmat2), John P. Culver

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a serious problem in the United States and worldwide. The reward experienced by METH users is due to the increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations caused by an interaction between METH and the DA transporter (DAT) as well as the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 (VMAT2). The reward felt by users of METH leads to further use of the drug and subsequent abuse. The current project examined the ability of three novel series of lobelane analogs to interact with a binding site on the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 (VMAT2) in an attempt to inhibit the effects of METH. Lobelane ...


Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen Jan 2015

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most ...