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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee Jun 2019

Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a natural process for an organism to transfer genetic material to another organism that is a completely different species, for example, from a blue-green alga to a non-photosynthetic bacterium. The phenomenon of HGT is not only of an interest to the science of molecular genetics and biology, but also to the biosafety issue of genetic engineering. The novel protocol reported here for the first time teaches how to measure HGT from a genetically engineered (GE) blue-green alga (gene donor) to wild-type E. coli (recipient). This novel protocol can be used to measure HGT frequency for ...


Functionality Of Membrane Proteins Overexpressed And Purified From E. Coli Is Highly Dependent Upon The Strain, Khadija Mathieu, Waqas Javed, Sylvain Vallet, Christian Lesterlin, Marie-Pierre Candusso, Feng Ding, Xiaohong Nancy Xu, Christine Ebel, Jean-Michel Jault, Cédric Orelle Jan 2019

Functionality Of Membrane Proteins Overexpressed And Purified From E. Coli Is Highly Dependent Upon The Strain, Khadija Mathieu, Waqas Javed, Sylvain Vallet, Christian Lesterlin, Marie-Pierre Candusso, Feng Ding, Xiaohong Nancy Xu, Christine Ebel, Jean-Michel Jault, Cédric Orelle

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Overexpression of correctly folded membrane proteins is a fundamental prerequisite for functional and structural studies. One of the most commonly used expression systems for the production of membrane proteins is Escherichia coli. While misfolded proteins typically aggregate and form inclusions bodies, membrane proteins that are addressed to the membrane and extractable by detergents are generally assumed to be properly folded. Accordingly, GFP fusion strategy is often used as a fluorescent proxy to monitor their expression and folding quality. Here we investigated the functionality of two different multidrug ABC transporters, the homodimer BmrA from Bacillus subtilis and the heterodimer PatA/PatB ...


Exomol Line List - Xxxiv. A Rovibrational Line List For Phosphinidene (Ph) In Its X³Σ¯ And A¹Δ Electronic States, Jonathan Langleben, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Peter Bernath Jan 2019

Exomol Line List - Xxxiv. A Rovibrational Line List For Phosphinidene (Ph) In Its X³Σ¯ And A¹Δ Electronic States, Jonathan Langleben, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Peter Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A rovibronic line list for the ground (X3Σ) and first excited (a1Δ) states of phosphinidene, 31PH, is computed. The line list is designed for studies of exoplanetary and cool stellar atmospheres with temperatures up to 4000 K. A combination of empirical and ab initio data is used to produce the line list: potential energy curves (PECs) are fitted using experimental transition frequencies; these transitions are reproduced with a root mean square error of 0.01 cm−1. The nuclear Schrödinger equation is solved using these PECs plus Born–Oppenheimer and spin splitting correction terms. Line ...


Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn Jan 2019

Metaproteomics Reveal That Rapid Perturbations In Organic Matter Prioritize Functional Restructuring Over Taxonomy In Western Arctic Ocean Microbiomes, Molly P. Mikan, H. Rodger Harvey, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Michael Riffle, Damon H. May, Ian Salter, William S. Noble, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

We examined metaproteome profiles from two Arctic microbiomes during 10-day shipboard incubations to directly track early functional and taxonomic responses to a simulated algal bloom and an oligotrophic control. Using a novel peptide-based enrichment analysis, significant changes (p-value < 0.01) in biological and molecular functions associated with carbon and nitrogen recycling were observed. Within the first day under both organic matter conditions, Bering Strait surface microbiomes increased protein synthesis, carbohydrate degradation, and cellular redox processes while decreasing C1 metabolism. Taxonomic assignments revealed that the core microbiome collectively responded to algal substrates by assimilating carbon before select taxa utilize and metabolize nitrogen intracellularly. Incubations of Chukchi Sea bottom water microbiomes showed similar, but delayed functional responses to identical treatments. Although 24 functional terms were shared between experimental treatments, the timing, and degree of the remaining responses were highly variable, showing that organic matter perturbation directs community functionality prior to alterations to the taxonomic distribution at the microbiome class level. The dynamic responses of these two oceanic microbial communities have important implications for timing and magnitude of responses to organic perturbations within the Arctic Ocean and how community-level functions may forecast biogeochemical gradients in oceans.


Shelf Inputs And Lateral Transport Of Mn, Co, And Ce In The Western North Pacific Ocean, Peter L. Morton, William M. Landing, Alan M. Shiller, Amy Moody, Thomas D. Kelly, Michael Bizimis, John R. Donat, Eric H. De Carlo, Joseph Shacat Jan 2019

Shelf Inputs And Lateral Transport Of Mn, Co, And Ce In The Western North Pacific Ocean, Peter L. Morton, William M. Landing, Alan M. Shiller, Amy Moody, Thomas D. Kelly, Michael Bizimis, John R. Donat, Eric H. De Carlo, Joseph Shacat

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The margin of the western North Pacific Ocean releases redox-active elements like Mn, Co, and Ce into the water column to undergo further transformation through oxide formation, scavenging, and reductive dissolution. Near the margin, the upper ocean waters enriched in these elements are characterized by high dissolved oxygen, low salinity, and low temperature, and are a source of the North Pacific Intermediate Water. High dissolved concentrations are observed across the Western Subarctic Gyre, with a rapid decrease in concentrations away from the margin and across the subarctic-subtropical front. The particulate concentrations of Mn, Co, and Ce are also high in ...


Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon Jul 2018

Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids comprise up to 50% of organic matter in cellular material and are a major fraction of oceanic organic carbon. Amino acids are also considered highly labile during organic matter recycling, making them useful proxies for organic carbon cycling. Nevertheless, analysis of individual amino acids has been burdened by lengthy derivatization and complex analysis since the 1950s. In this thesis, I describe the modification of advanced analytical techniques, developed in the biomedical field, for analysis of marine matrices which allow the determination of at least 40 amino acids without the need for lengthy sample preparation and derivatization, twice the ...


Effect Of Curing Rate On The Microstructure And Macroscopic Properties Of Epoxy Fiberglass Composites, Ammar Patel, Olesksandr Kravchenko, Ica Manas-Zloczower Jan 2018

Effect Of Curing Rate On The Microstructure And Macroscopic Properties Of Epoxy Fiberglass Composites, Ammar Patel, Olesksandr Kravchenko, Ica Manas-Zloczower

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Curing rates of an epoxy amine system were varied via different curing cycles, and glass-fiber epoxy composites were prepared using the same protocol, with the aim of investigating the correlation between microstructure and composite properties. It was found that the fast curing cycle resulted in a non-homogenous network, with a larger percentage of a softer phase. Homogenized composite properties, namely storage modulus and quasi-static intra-laminar shear strength, remained unaffected by the change in resin microstructure. However, fatigue tests revealed a significant reduction in fatigue life for composites cured at fast curing rates, while composites with curing cycles that allowed a ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Application Of Sugar-Based Low Molecular Weight Gelators, Ifeanyi Simeon Okafor Oct 2017

Synthesis, Characterization And Application Of Sugar-Based Low Molecular Weight Gelators, Ifeanyi Simeon Okafor

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) are an interesting class of compound that have gained considerable attention especially because of their potential applications for soft biomaterials. Carbohydrate based low molecular weight hydrogelators and organogelators are able to selfassemble and form ordered supramolecular structures, which are useful for exploring biomedical applications. The resulting gelators are responsive to external stimuli because of the weak noncovalent intermolecular forces and interaction that influences self-assembly. Stimuli-responsive supramolecular organogels with interesting properties in response to external environmental stimuli have gained considerable attention due to their applications in biomaterials, sensors and for drug delivery.

One of the major ...


Characterization Of 3-Ester And 3-Carbamate Derivatives Of N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine And Their Use In Controlled Drug Delivery, Consuelo Garcia Jul 2017

Characterization Of 3-Ester And 3-Carbamate Derivatives Of N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine And Their Use In Controlled Drug Delivery, Consuelo Garcia

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) are a class of compounds which reversibly form a network that traps solvents to form gels. Gelation by LMWGs is driven solely by non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, π - π stacking, and hydrophobic interactions. LMWGs can be designed such that the gel-sol and sol-gel transitions happen as a response to a specific stimulus. These stimulus responsive gels or “smart” gels can be used in a wide variety of applications including tissue regeneration, biosensing, and controlled drug delivery.

Among the different types of compounds that are LMWGs, carbohydrate based systems are especially interesting. Carbohydrates are ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Amide Linked Triazolyl Glycolipids As Molecular Hydrogelators And Organogelators, Guijun Wang, Anji Chen, Hari P. R. Mangunuru, Jayasudhan Reddy Yerabolu Jan 2017

Synthesis And Characterization Of Amide Linked Triazolyl Glycolipids As Molecular Hydrogelators And Organogelators, Guijun Wang, Anji Chen, Hari P. R. Mangunuru, Jayasudhan Reddy Yerabolu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Carbohydrate based small molecular gelators are important classes of compounds which can form useful soft materials with many practical applications. Although many different types of effective gelators have been reported, the rational design of a molecular hydrogelator is still challenging. In this research, we combined the structural features of two classes of monosaccharide based molecular gelators and obtained a new class of glycolipids that can function as molecular gelators. These new compounds were synthesized by introducing a triazole functional group to a protected 2-glucosamine through Cu(i) catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC). A series of eighteen new glycolipids containing ...


Synthesis, Morphological Control, Dispersion Stabilization And In Situ Self-Assembly Of Noble Metal Nanostructures Using Multidentate Resorcinarene Surfactants, Sangbum Han Apr 2016

Synthesis, Morphological Control, Dispersion Stabilization And In Situ Self-Assembly Of Noble Metal Nanostructures Using Multidentate Resorcinarene Surfactants, Sangbum Han

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

In this dissertation, a detailed investigation on the influence of various macrocyclic resorcinarene surfactants in determining the morphology, stabilization and self-assembly of mono- and bi- metallic nanoparticles was undertaken. Chapter 2 describes the influence of resorcinarene surfactants functionalized with amine- and thiol- headgroups in determining the morphology of monometallic Pt nanoparticles synthesized via the Brust-Schiffrin reaction. We found that while resorcinarene benzylthiol can lead to the formation of highly branched Pt nanostructures, resorcinarene amine can lead to the formation of anisotropic crystalline Pt nanoparticles. Further, we have evaluated the influence of resorcinarene ligands in determining the catalytic activity of these ...


Low-Temperature Artificial Maturation Studies Of Type Ii And Type Iii Kerogens: Implications For Biogenic Gas Production, Albert Willy Nguena Kamga Apr 2016

Low-Temperature Artificial Maturation Studies Of Type Ii And Type Iii Kerogens: Implications For Biogenic Gas Production, Albert Willy Nguena Kamga

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Ancient organic matter (OM) in shales and coals, known mainly as Type II and Type III OM are known to produce both biogenic, thermogenic gas and oil. In this dissertation, mild artificial maturation, via closed system pyrolysis, is employed to determine the thermal reactivity of Type II and Type III OM beyond diagenesis. We select three Type II kerogens: i) Type II kerogen isolated from recent cores (3.3 Ma, Ro = 0.28) recovered from an upwelling basin in Namibia, Africa referred to as ODP Sediment, ii) Type II-S isolated from sediments (150 Ma, Ro = 0.38) recovered from an ...


Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Spectroscopy For Study Of The Efflux Function Of Multidrug Abc Membrance Transporters Of Single Live Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Kerry J. Lee, Pavan K. Cherukuri, Prakash D. Nallathamby, Seth Warren, Jean-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2016

Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Spectroscopy For Study Of The Efflux Function Of Multidrug Abc Membrance Transporters Of Single Live Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Kerry J. Lee, Pavan K. Cherukuri, Prakash D. Nallathamby, Seth Warren, Jean-Michel Jault, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters exist in all living organisms and play key roles in a wide range of cellular and physiological functions. The ABC transporters can selectively extrude a wide variety of structurally and functionally unrelated substrates, leading to multidrug resistance. Despite extensive study, their efflux molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we synthesized and characterized purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (97 ± 13 nm in diameter), and used them as photostable optical imaging probes to study efflux kinetics of ABC membrane transporters (BmrA) of single live cells (B. subtilis). The NPs with concentrations up to 3.7 pM ...


Experimental Demonstration Of Localized Excess Protons At A Water-Membrane Interface, Haitham A. Saeed, James W. Lee Jan 2015

Experimental Demonstration Of Localized Excess Protons At A Water-Membrane Interface, Haitham A. Saeed, James W. Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The widespread Mitchellian proton motive force equation has recently been revised with the proton-electrostatics localization hypothesis, which, for the first time, successfully elucidates the 30-year longstanding energetic conundrum of ATP synthesis in alkalophilic bacteria. To demonstrate the fundamental behavior of localized protons in a pure water-membrane-water system in relation to the newly derived pmf equation, excess protons and excess hydroxyl anions were generated by utilizing an "open-circuit" water-electrolysis system and their distributions were tested using a proton-sensing aluminum membrane. The proton-sensing film placed at the membrane-water interface displayed dramatic localized proton activity while that placed into the bulk water phase ...


Long-Term Litter Decomposition Controlled By Manganese Redox Cycling, Marco Keiluweit, Peter Nico, Mark E. Harmon, Jingdong Mao, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Markus Kleber Jan 2015

Long-Term Litter Decomposition Controlled By Manganese Redox Cycling, Marco Keiluweit, Peter Nico, Mark E. Harmon, Jingdong Mao, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Markus Kleber

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter ...


Effect Of Methoxy Substituents On The Activation Barriers Of The Glutathione Peroxidase-Like Mechanism Of An Aromatic Cyclic Seleninate, Craig A. Bayse, Ashley L. Shoaf Jan 2015

Effect Of Methoxy Substituents On The Activation Barriers Of The Glutathione Peroxidase-Like Mechanism Of An Aromatic Cyclic Seleninate, Craig A. Bayse, Ashley L. Shoaf

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Density functional theory (DFT) models including explicit water molecules have been used to model the redox scavenging mechanism of aromatic cyclic seleninates. Experimental studies have shown that methoxy substitutions affect the rate of scavenging of reactive oxygen species differently depending upon the position. Activities are enhanced in the para position, unaffected in the meta, and decreased in the ortho. DFT calculations show that the activation barrier for the oxidation of the selenenyl sulfide, a proposed key intermediate, is higher for the ortho methoxy derivative than for other positions, consistent with the low experimental conversion rate.


Redox Active Motifs In Selenoproteins, Fei Li, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Elias S. J. Arner, Craig A. Bayse, Sharon Rozovsky May 2014

Redox Active Motifs In Selenoproteins, Fei Li, Yuliya Pepelyayeva, Elias S. J. Arner, Craig A. Bayse, Sharon Rozovsky

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Selenoproteins use the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) to act as the first line of defense against oxidants, which are linked to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many selenoproteins are oxidoreductases in which the reactive Sec is connected to a neighboring Cys and able to form a ring. These Sec-containing redox motifs govern much of the reactivity of selenoproteins. To study their fundamental properties, we have used Se-77 NMR spectroscopy in concert with theoretical calculations to determine the conformational preferences and mobility of representative motifs. This use of Se-77 as a probe enables the direct recording of the properties of ...


Spectroscopic Characterization Of Dissolved Organic Matter: Insights Into The Linkage Between Sources And Chemical Composition, Xiaoyan Cao Jan 2014

Spectroscopic Characterization Of Dissolved Organic Matter: Insights Into The Linkage Between Sources And Chemical Composition, Xiaoyan Cao

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation investigated the chemical structure of DOM by advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) techniques, as well as isotopic measurements and UV-visible spectroscopy, to shed light on the linkages between DOM sources and DOM composition. Unique and extensive sets of DOM samples studied here were isolated from various aquatic systems, covering end-member environments in which DOM is considered either microbially derived or terrestrially derived, and areas in which DOM has characteristics intermediate between the two end members. Important insights into specific site-related questions were also gained such as ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Sugar Based Low Molecular Weight Gelators And The Preparation Of Chiral Sulfinamides, Hari Prasad Reddy Mangunuru Jan 2014

Synthesis And Characterization Of Sugar Based Low Molecular Weight Gelators And The Preparation Of Chiral Sulfinamides, Hari Prasad Reddy Mangunuru

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) have received considerable attention in the field of chemistry from last few decades. These compounds form self-assembled fibrous networks like micelles, cylindrical, sheets, fibers, layers and so on. The fibrous network entraps the solvent and forms gel, because of the self-assembly phenomenon and their demonstrated potential uses in a variety of areas, ranging from environmental to medicinal applications.

Sugars are good starting materials to synthesize the new class of LMWG's, because these are different from some expensive materials, these are natural products. We have synthesized and characterized the LMGS's based on D-glucose ...


Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver Jan 2014

Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver

Bioelectrics Publications

Science increasingly involves complex modeling. Here we describe a model for cell electroporation in which membrane properties are dynamically modified by poration. Spatial scales range from cell membrane thickness (5 nm) to a typical mammalian cell radius (10 μm), and can be used with idealized and experimental pulse waveforms. The model consists of traditional passive components and additional active components representing nonequilibrium processes. Model responses include measurable quantities: transmembrane voltage, membrane electrical conductance, and solute transport rates and amounts for the representative "long" and "short" pulses. The long pulse-1.5 kV/cm, 100 μs-evolves two pore subpopulations with a valley ...


Role Of Extractable And Residual Organic Matter Fractions On Sorption Of Phenanthrene In Sediments, Yulong Zhang, Yong Ran, Jingdong Mao Jan 2013

Role Of Extractable And Residual Organic Matter Fractions On Sorption Of Phenanthrene In Sediments, Yulong Zhang, Yong Ran, Jingdong Mao

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Two sediments were demineralized and sequentially fractionated into extracted fractions [free lipid (FL), bound lipid (BL) and lignin (LG)] and residual fractions [free lipid free (FLF), bound lipid free (BLF) and lignin free (LGF)]. The sorption isotherms of phenanthrene (Phen) were examined to evaluate the importance of various fractions on sorption. A lignin extraction procedure was for the first time applied to separate the lignin or degraded lignin fraction from sediment organic matter (SOM). The extracted LG was similar to model lignin in terms of elemental ratios and sorption behavior. FL and LG fractions were quite important, as their contents ...


Interaction Mechanism Of Benzene And Phenanthrene In Condensed Organic Matter: Importance Of Adsorption (Nanopore-Filling), Ke Sun, Yong Ran, Yu Yang, Baoshan Xing, Jingdong Mao Jan 2013

Interaction Mechanism Of Benzene And Phenanthrene In Condensed Organic Matter: Importance Of Adsorption (Nanopore-Filling), Ke Sun, Yong Ran, Yu Yang, Baoshan Xing, Jingdong Mao

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Although microporosity and surface area of natural organic matter (NOM) are crucial to mechanistic evaluation of the sorption process for nonpolar organic contaminants (NOCs), they have wrongly been estimated by the N2 adsorption technique. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR), and benzene, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen adsorption techniques were used to characterize structural and surface properties for different condensed NOM samples, which were related to the sorption behavior of phenanthrene (Phen). It was found that the revised Freundlich model by taking the chemical activity into account can well describe the isotherms for benzene and Phen. The benzene and ...


Silver Nanoparticles Induce Developmental Stage-Specific Embryonic Phenotypes In Zebrafish, Kerry J. Lee, Lauren M. Browning, Prakash D. Nallathamby, Christopher J. Osgood, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2013

Silver Nanoparticles Induce Developmental Stage-Specific Embryonic Phenotypes In Zebrafish, Kerry J. Lee, Lauren M. Browning, Prakash D. Nallathamby, Christopher J. Osgood, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Much is anticipated from the development and deployment of nanomaterials in biological organisms, but concerns remain regarding their biocompatibility and target specificity. Here we report our study of the transport, biocompatibility and toxicity of purified and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 13.1 ± 2.5 nm in diameter) upon the specific developmental stages of zebrafish embryos using single NP plasmonic spectroscopy. We find that single Ag NPs passively diffuse into five different developmental stages of embryos (cleavage, early-gastrula, early-segmentation, late-segmentation, and hatching stages), showing stage-independent diffusion modes and diffusion coefficients. Notably, the Ag NPs induce distinctive stage and dose-dependent phenotypes ...


Isotopic Characterization Of Aerosol Organic Carbon Components Over The Eastern United States, Andrew S. Wozniak, James E. Bauer, Rebecca M. Dickhut, Xu Li, Ann P. Mcnichol Jan 2012

Isotopic Characterization Of Aerosol Organic Carbon Components Over The Eastern United States, Andrew S. Wozniak, James E. Bauer, Rebecca M. Dickhut, Xu Li, Ann P. Mcnichol

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Carbon isotopic signatures (δ13C, Δ14C) of aerosol particulate matter total organic carbon (TOC) and operationally defined organic carbon (OC) components were measured in samples from two background sites in the eastern U.S. TOC and water-soluble OC (WSOC)δ13C values (−27 to −24‰) indicated predominantly terrestrial C3 plant and fossil derived sources. Total solvent extracts (TSE) and their aliphatic, aromatic, and polar OC components were depleted in δ13C (−30 to −26‰) relative to TOC and WSOC. Δ14C signatures of aerosol TOC and TSE (−476 to +25‰) suggest variable fossil ...


The Nature, Origin And Preservation Of Amide Organic Nitrogen In Organic Matter, Georgina Anne Mckee Jul 2011

The Nature, Origin And Preservation Of Amide Organic Nitrogen In Organic Matter, Georgina Anne Mckee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Past studies have found much of nonliving sedimentary/aqueous nitrogen-containing organic matter (NCOM) is composed of amides, assumed to be peptides/proteins. Their lability calls into question their survival, and several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this. Using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy I investigated the molecular amide composition in sedimentary/aqueous systems while reassessing their preservation and formation routes.

Development of a suitable methodology is essential for successful NCOM study due to electrospray ionisation source requirements: sediment samples need to be rendered into solution. Based on NMR and FT-ICR-MS ...


Characterization Of Metastasis-Associated Cell Surface Glycoproteins In Prostate Cancer, Lifang Yang Oct 2010

Characterization Of Metastasis-Associated Cell Surface Glycoproteins In Prostate Cancer, Lifang Yang

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health problem in males in the United States. Its lethality is mostly attributed to the primary tumor metastasizing to distant sites that are highly resistant to conventional therapies. Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the only protein biomarker used in clinic for prediction of prostate cancer recurrence following local therapies. Nonetheless, PSA lacks the ability to predict the behavior of an individual tumor in an individual patient. Therefore, development of reliable biomarkers for detection of metastatic potential in primary tumors, as well as discovery of new therapeutic targets, is in a great need for ...


Effluent Organic Nitrogen (Eon): Bioavailability And Photochemical And Salinity-Mediated Release, Deborah A. Bronk, Quinn N. Roberts, Marta P. Sanderson, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Patrick G. Hatcher, Rajaa Mesfioui, Katherine C. Filippino, Margaret R. Mulholland, Nancy G. Love Jan 2010

Effluent Organic Nitrogen (Eon): Bioavailability And Photochemical And Salinity-Mediated Release, Deborah A. Bronk, Quinn N. Roberts, Marta P. Sanderson, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Patrick G. Hatcher, Rajaa Mesfioui, Katherine C. Filippino, Margaret R. Mulholland, Nancy G. Love

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The goal of this study was to investigate three potential ways that the soluble organic nitrogen (N) fraction of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, termed effluent organic N (EON), could contribute to coastal eutrophication - direct biological removal, photochemical release of labile compounds, and salinity-mediated release of ammonium (NH4+). Effluents from two WWTPs were used in the experiments. For the bioassays, EON was added to water from four salinities (∼0 to 30) collected from the James River (VA) in August 2008, and then concentrations of N and phosphorus compounds were measured periodically over 48 h. Bioassay results, based on changes ...


Sequence And Structural Analysis Of The Chitinase Insertion Domain Reveals Two Conserved Motifs Involved In Chitin Binding, Hai Li, Lesley H. Greene Jan 2010

Sequence And Structural Analysis Of The Chitinase Insertion Domain Reveals Two Conserved Motifs Involved In Chitin Binding, Hai Li, Lesley H. Greene

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Background: Chitinases are prevalent in life and are found in species including archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They break down chitin, which is the second most abundant carbohydrate in nature after cellulose. Hence, they are important for maintaining a balance between carbon and nitrogen trapped as insoluble chitin in biomass. Chitinases are classified into two families, 18 and 19 glycoside hydrolases. In addition to a catalytic domain, which is a triosephosphate isomerase barrel, many family 18 chitinases contain another module, i.e., chitinase insertion domain. While numerous studies focus on the biological role of the catalytic domain in chitinase ...


Theoretical Studies Of 2,3 -Sigmatropic Rearrangements Of Allylic Selenoxides And Selenimides, Craig A. Bayse, Sonia Antony Sep 2009

Theoretical Studies Of 2,3 -Sigmatropic Rearrangements Of Allylic Selenoxides And Selenimides, Craig A. Bayse, Sonia Antony

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Density-functional theory is used to model the endo and exo transition states for [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of allylic aryl-selenoxides and -selenimides. The endo transition state is generally preferred for selenoxides if there is no substitution at the 2 position of the allyl group. Based upon the relative energies of the endo and exo transition states, enantioselectivity of rearrangements is expected to be greatest for molecules with substitutions at the 1- or (E)-3- position of the allyl group. Ortho substitution of a nitro group on the ancillary selenoxide phenyl ring reduces the activation barriers, increases the difference between the ...


Lignin Degradation In Wood-Feeding Insects, Scott M. Geib, Timothy R. Filley, Patrick G. Hatcher, Kelli Hoover, John E. Carlson, Maria Del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, Akiko Nakagawa-Izumi, Rachel L. Sleighter, Ming Tien Jan 2008

Lignin Degradation In Wood-Feeding Insects, Scott M. Geib, Timothy R. Filley, Patrick G. Hatcher, Kelli Hoover, John E. Carlson, Maria Del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, Akiko Nakagawa-Izumi, Rachel L. Sleighter, Ming Tien

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The aromatic polymer lignin protects plants from most forms of microbial attack. Despite the fact that a significant fraction of all lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. Using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, we show lignin degradation by two insect species, the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and the Pacific dampwood termite (Zootermopsis angusticollis). In both the beetle and termite, significant levels of propyl side-chain oxidation (depolymerization) and demethylation of ring methoxyl groups is detected; for the termite, ring hydroxylation is also observed. In addition, culture-independent fungal gut community analysis of A ...