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Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince Feb 2019

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


The Chemical Analysis And Biological Activities Of The Secondary Metabolites From Dalea Mollis And Dalea Albiflora, Nicholas Peter Hansen Jan 2019

The Chemical Analysis And Biological Activities Of The Secondary Metabolites From Dalea Mollis And Dalea Albiflora, Nicholas Peter Hansen

All Master's Theses

Multidrug resistance has increased since the introduction of drugs used to prevent growth and kill microorganisms in a host. This has caused a worldwide search to discover new drugs effective against microorganisms. Mechanisms of drug resistance include, but are not limited to, the production of biofilms and efflux pumps. Efflux pumps prevent antimicrobial drugs from reaching their biological target, so the coordinated use of efflux pump inhibitors and antimicrobial drugs has been identified as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The secondary metabolites of Dalea mollis and Dalea albiflora were tested against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and engineered strains of the fungi ...


Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson Jan 2019

Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Chemonic™ CCG-6 surfactant is a water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated alkyl glyceride emollient. This surfactant exists as a complex mixture of a glycerol cores conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) branches (PEGylation) that were partially esterified with caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acids. These may be esterified on one, two, or all three arms of the glyceride. The architecture of the structures in this mixture was studied using multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometry was interfaced with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ion mobility (IM) separation. The mixture was separated by reversed-phase LC, oligomers of the star-branched polymer were separated ...


Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao Jan 2019

Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) has played an increasingly prominent role in proteomics and structure biology because it shows superior capabilities in identification, quantification and structural characterization of proteins. To realize its full potential in protein analysis, significant progress has been made in developing innovative techniques and reagents that can couple to MS detection. This dissertation demonstrates the use of polymeric supramolecular assemblies for enhanced protein detection in complex biological mixtures by MS. An amphiphilic random co-polymer scaffold is developed to form functional supramolecular assemblies for protein/ peptide enrichment. The influences of charge density and functional group pKa on host-guest interactions ...


Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner May 2018

Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollutants released by industrialized nations between 1960 and 2004 have been transported northward through atmospheric processes and deposited into glaciated alpine ecosystems. Many of these chemicals retain their original structure and are absorbed into the biota thousands of miles away from where they were originally utilized. With a warming climate increasing the melt of alpine glaciers, these glaciers may be introducing growing amounts of toxins into the watershed. While studies have demonstrated the existence of resident pollutants within glaciated ecosystems, no one has developed a risk assessment to identify sources and quantity of risk posed by these compounds when released ...


Organocatalyzed Synthesis Of Epoxides From Chalcones Utilizing Amino Acids, Sabrina N. Kegeler Apr 2018

Organocatalyzed Synthesis Of Epoxides From Chalcones Utilizing Amino Acids, Sabrina N. Kegeler

Master's Theses

The epoxide functional group is important throughout the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in nature. In the chemical industry, epoxides are present in resins and fragrances. In the pharmaceutical industry, epoxide-containing compounds are used as intermediates in the manufacturing of drugs. In nature, many natural products contain epoxide groups and are used for medicinal purposes, and for models to create synthetic molecules.

One approach to epoxide synthesis involves the use of an alkene precursor, a base, and an oxidizing agent. This is where my investigations began. The first step was to optimize the epoxidation reaction, examining substrate scope ...


Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett May 2017

Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a group of naturally occurring compounds that were discovered in the cultures of Streptomyces in the 1960s. Some natural PBDs discovered in these cultures, such as anthramycin and sibiromycin, were shown to possess a broad spectrum of anti-tumor activity. Since cancer is still a leading cause of death globally, the development of novel anti-proliferative derivatives of PBDs is essential for human welfare worldwide. Further synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the parent natural products and their tetracyclic analogs will lead to the discovery of drug candidates. In this work, thirteen PBD analogues were synthesized using no ...


Utilization Of Unnatural Amino Acids In Novel Bioconjugates And Probing Applications, Christina A. Howard Apr 2017

Utilization Of Unnatural Amino Acids In Novel Bioconjugates And Probing Applications, Christina A. Howard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bioconjugations are utilized in many fields including materials science, biochemistry and medicine, despite the limited chemistries available in biomolecules. Unnatural amino acids can be used to expand the chemical diversity in proteins, affording a greater variety of functional groups for bioconjugations which. The site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids confers greater control and specificity over the reactions. Applications of unnatural amino acid based bioconjugations will be explored in this thesis. Optimization of solid supported immobilization of GFP and the extension of the technology to a carboxylesterase will be described. Fluorescent labeling of a medically relevant enzyme, Utag, will be optimized ...


A Diversity-Oriented Synthesis Approach To Functionalized Azaheterocycles Using Cyclic Alpha-Halo Eneformamides, Spencer A. Langevin Jan 2017

A Diversity-Oriented Synthesis Approach To Functionalized Azaheterocycles Using Cyclic Alpha-Halo Eneformamides, Spencer A. Langevin

All Master's Theses

Functionalized piperidines, azepanes, azamacrocycles, morpholines, and thiomorpholines are common structural motifs found in a wide range of pharmaceuticals such as carmegliptine, levofloxacin, thioridazine, claviciptic acid, and azithomycin. As a result, there is a strong desire to construct highly functionalized nitrogen-bearing ring scaffolds in order to construct a wide range of drug possibilities. There are several non-modular and step-uneconomical synthetic methods used in the construction of these aforementioned motifs such as ring closing metathesis, ring expansions, and intramolecular reductive amination. In this research, we present a step-economical, cost-effective, scalable, and diversity-oriented synthesis approach to highly functionalized N-heterocycles through the intermediacy of ...


Synthesis Of Multifunctional Polyacrylates And A Binding Group To Hemoglobin For The Treatment Of Traumatic Brain Injuries, Marina Michaud Jan 2017

Synthesis Of Multifunctional Polyacrylates And A Binding Group To Hemoglobin For The Treatment Of Traumatic Brain Injuries, Marina Michaud

University Honors Program Theses

Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) hold promise as an effective emergency treatment of severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI). In the latest generation of HBOCs, polynitroxyl-pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), cell-free hemoglobin is modified with TEMPO and PEG which reduce the toxicities associated with earlier generations of HBOCs. In our efforts to optimize the economic and therapeutic impacts of PNPH’s we have synthesized polydimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (poly-DMAEMA) under controlled living conditions via reverse addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The poly-DMAEMA was then successfully functionalized via quaternization of its NMe2 groups using chloroacetate derivatives of the TEMPO and PEG. This process was quantitative ...


The Synthesis Of 1,3-Difluoro-2-Methyl-4-Phenylbenzene From A One-Pot Reaction Of Difluorocarbene And 1-Phenyl-2-Methylcyclobutene, Ruth Felicitas Menger May 2016

The Synthesis Of 1,3-Difluoro-2-Methyl-4-Phenylbenzene From A One-Pot Reaction Of Difluorocarbene And 1-Phenyl-2-Methylcyclobutene, Ruth Felicitas Menger

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Previous studies show that 1,2-disubstituted cyclobutenes can be used in reaction with difluorocarbene to produce 1,3-difluorobenzenes. A pathway to the synthesis of these types of compounds is of interest due to their presence in fluoroquinolone antibacterials, resins, and insecticides. The synthesis is unique because the fluorine atoms from the difluorocarbene are not adjacent to each other when the ring expands to a benzene ring. This study focuses on the reaction of difluorocarbene with 1-phenyl-2-methylcyclobutene, which was synthesized in one-pot in 4 steps starting from 1-phenyl-1-propyne and zirconocene dichloride.


Synthesis Of Medicinally Relevant Thiazolyl Aryl Ketones Under Mild Conditions, Danielle M. Gardner Dec 2015

Synthesis Of Medicinally Relevant Thiazolyl Aryl Ketones Under Mild Conditions, Danielle M. Gardner

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: The growing amount of clinical resistance observed in current antifungal drugs and in anti-HIV pharmaceuticals is a concern in the medical community. The purpose of this study is to develop a mild synthetic process for biomedically relevant thiazolyl aryl ketones that can be used to develop antifungal and anti-HIV drugs. We hypothesized that the proposed synthetic technique would be more efficient, produce fewer unwanted byproducts, and be more tolerant of functional groups than existing methods.

Methods: Prior to each of the ketone reactions, the necessary salt was synthesized by mixing thiazole and 9-bromofluorene neat in a reaction tube heated ...


The Synthesis And Study Of The Biological And Colloidal Properties Of Bolaamphiphiles, Louis M. Damiano May 2015

The Synthesis And Study Of The Biological And Colloidal Properties Of Bolaamphiphiles, Louis M. Damiano

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Over the past decade, antibiotic resistant bacteria have caused infections in patients throughout the world.[1] The rise in antibiotic resistance is primarily due to the misuse and overuse of antibiotics. [1] To counter the increase in antibiotic resistance, infection control mechanisms have been aggressively researched in recent years. In particular, drug delivery has become a focal point to fight antibiotic resistant infections.[2] Amphiphiles have a wide range of applications in the clinical setting, including the ability to inhibit bacterial transference because of their bactericidal activity. [3] Bolaamphiphiles are a subclass of amphiphiles that possess two or more hydrophilic ...


Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen Jan 2015

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Imidazolium Salt Derivatives For Anti-Tumor Activity, Ryan W. Pearce Jan 2015

Synthesis And Characterization Of Imidazolium Salt Derivatives For Anti-Tumor Activity, Ryan W. Pearce

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Several aldehydes (butanal, pentanal, hexanal, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were reacted with 1,3-bis(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-imidazolium bromide (1) to produce novel C2 substituted imidazolium salts for the potential use against non-small cell lung cancer in humans. Compounds 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-1,3-bis(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-imidazolium bromide (3) and 2-(1-hydroxyhexyl)-1,3-bis(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-imidazolium bromide (5) were successfully synthesized with structures supported by NMR and mass spectrometry. Characterization by 1H NMR showed evidence of 1 in both compounds. The tumor cell growth inhibition of 3 against non-small cell lung cancer lines NCI-A549, NCI-H460, HCC827, and NCI-H1975 was tested and found to be comparable ...


Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood May 2014

Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This work seeks to contribute to the discipline of neuropharmacology by way of structure activity relationship from the standpoint of an organic chemist. More specifically, we sought to develop robust synthetic methodology able to efficiently produce an array of compounds for the purpose of systematic evaluation of their interaction with specific sights within the central nervous system (CNS) in order to better understand the mind and to develop drugs that may have beneficial effects on neurological function.

The focus of these studies has been toward the development of novel molecules, using a structure-activity relationship approach, that exhibit binding affinity at ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling May 2014

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres Jan 2014

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Sultams As Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Of Hiv Reverse Transcriptase, Brian Chadwick Lecroix Dec 2013

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Sultams As Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Of Hiv Reverse Transcriptase, Brian Chadwick Lecroix

Doctoral Dissertations

The compound 2-methyl-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,2-benzisothiazole 1,1-dioxide (NSC 108406) was identified as an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor by the National Cancer Institute. Using this lead, the Baker group has developed a series of analogues with various groups at the 3-position that show a spectrum of biological activities. In the end, the substituents used could not compare to the biological activity of the inhibitor efavirenz (Sustiva® [trademark]), and so it was decided to synthesize sultams with alkylethynyl substituents at the 3-position of the sultams in an attempt to mimic the activity of efavirenz.

Previous research analyzed the proposed novel sultams in ...


Developing A Presumptive Test For Select Synthetic Cannabinoids, Carrie Snyder Dec 2013

Developing A Presumptive Test For Select Synthetic Cannabinoids, Carrie Snyder

Theses and Dissertations

Synthetic cannabinoids (SC's) began to gain popularity around the world in 2009. Since then, many of the compounds have been outlawed and methods developed to detect them and their metabolites using mass spectrometry. Our work investigated the possibility of developing a colorimetric presumptive test. The SC JWH-019 was synthesized and its ketone targeted as a possible reaction site. Many SC's contain ketones and thus a reaction at this site would be applicable to many of the compounds. Since JWH-019 is costly and time consuming to synthesize, much of the experimental work was done using benzophenone (BP). BP contains ...


Comparison Of Methodologies For Synthesis Of 3-(Cyclopropylethynyl)Benzisothiazole 1,1-Dioxide, Rachel Lee Naramore May 2013

Comparison Of Methodologies For Synthesis Of 3-(Cyclopropylethynyl)Benzisothiazole 1,1-Dioxide, Rachel Lee Naramore

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Ferrocene Constrained Helical Peptides Via On-Resin Cyclization, Thomas A. Mcteague Apr 2012

Ferrocene Constrained Helical Peptides Via On-Resin Cyclization, Thomas A. Mcteague

Senior Theses and Projects

Previous research within the Curran group has demonstrated that ferrocene may be used as an organometallic constraint to induce the formation of α-helices in short peptides which traditionally possess undefined conformations. Through strategic placement of lysine residues at the i and i+3 positions within the peptide, such a constraint was accomplished via the crosslinking of the lysine side chains to ferrocene dicarboxylic acid chloride in solution phase synthesis. The aim of this work was to develop a method for solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) for the synthesis of these ferrocene-constrained helices. In particular, we seek to develop a method ...


Design And Syntheses Of Fluorescent Cytosine Analogues, David W. Dodd Apr 2011

Design And Syntheses Of Fluorescent Cytosine Analogues, David W. Dodd

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The avid hybridization of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) to DNA and RNA along with the molecule’s biological stability has led it to be used in both antisense and antigene capacities. PNA acts against translation via a steric blockade mechanism. It is therefore reasonable to assume that increased heteroduplex stability could lead to increased potency. Two ways of doing this were explored. I) N-Terminal attachment of a platinous chloride chelating moiety to PNA complementary to Xenopus noggin was synthesized with the objective of selective, covalent platination of the target transcript in vivo. Phenotypes consistent with knockdown of the selected ...


Β-Hetero Vinylzinc Reagents: Versatile Precursors For A Broad Spectrum Of High Impact Chemicals, Petr Valenta Dec 2010

Β-Hetero Vinylzinc Reagents: Versatile Precursors For A Broad Spectrum Of High Impact Chemicals, Petr Valenta

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Tandem methods for the catalytic asymmetric preparation of enantioenriched β-hydroxy (E)-enamines and cyclopropylamines are presented. The diastereoselective hydrogenation of enantioenriched (E)-trisubstituted hydroxy enamines to generate 1,2-disubstituted 1,3-amino alcohols is also outlined. These methods are initiated by highly regioselective hydroboration of N-tosyl substituted ynamides with diethylborane to generate β-amino alkenyl boranes. In situ boron to zinc transmetalation generates β-amino alkenyl zinc reagents. These functionalized vinylzinc intermediates were subsequently added to aldehydes in the presence of catalyst derived from an enantioenriched amino alcohol (morpholino isoborneol, MIB). The catalyst promotes highly enantioselective C–C bond-formation to provide β-hydroxy enamines ...


Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis, John Gibson Oct 1974

Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis, John Gibson

Honors Theses

Solid phase peptide synthesis is a relatively new biochemical process for polymerization of amino acids. It involves the selection of amino acids, blocking groups, and resins. This procedure was first investigated by R. B. Merrifield in an attempt to simplify previous methods of peptide synthesis. Since other methods involved amino acids, peptide esters, and diketopiperazines, peptide synthesis had been limited by amino acid selection and a host of technical problems. Solid phase synthesis alleviates many of these difficulties and limitations by supplying a faster and simpler stepwise addition of a wide variety of naturally occurring and synthetically prepared amino acids ...