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Analytical Chemistry

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Articles 1 - 30 of 162

Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Methodologies For Metal Functionalization Of Phosphorus Based Photopolymer Networks, Vanessa Béland Oct 2019

Methodologies For Metal Functionalization Of Phosphorus Based Photopolymer Networks, Vanessa Béland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Photopolymer networks with phosphonium cation, alkyl phosphine and olefin functionality were designed, synthesized and functionalized with metals by metathesis, coordination and hydrometallation reactions, respectively. The materials were strategically designed so that the metal functionalization step could be monitored and quantified. In some cases, this involved characterization by IR, NMR, or X-ray spectroscopic techniques, or by comparison to molecular analogues. It was found that by using a bi-functional photopolymer network, the material could be bi-metallized by orthogonal mechanisms. All metallized polymer networks were tested for their suitability as precursors to metal-containing ceramics. The polymers were pyrolyzed, and on analysis it was ...


Dentin Biomodification Potency Of Proanthocyanidins, David J. Ryker Apr 2019

Dentin Biomodification Potency Of Proanthocyanidins, David J. Ryker

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


A Chemical Overview Of Opioid Receptors And Their Agonists, Noah Kuszak Apr 2019

A Chemical Overview Of Opioid Receptors And Their Agonists, Noah Kuszak

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

This work is a brief overview of the three main opioid receptors and some current research of the ways we can change the agonists and how they affect the opioid receptor pathway.


Drug Improvement And Design Involving G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Gabriel Saliba Apr 2019

Drug Improvement And Design Involving G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Gabriel Saliba

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman Mar 2019

The Effects Of Reactant Concentration And Air Flow Rate In The Consumption Of Dissolved O2 During The Photochemistry Of Aqueous Pyruvic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The sunlight photochemistry of the organic chromophore pyruvic acid (PA) in water generates ketyl and acetyl radicals that contribute to the production and processing of atmospheric aerosols. The photochemical mechanism is highly sensitive to dissolved oxygen content, [O2(aq)], among other environmental conditions. Thus, herein we investigate the photolysis (λ ≥ 305 nm) of 10–200 mM PA at pH 1.0 in water covering the relevant range 0 ≤ [O2(aq)] ≤ 1.3 mM. The rapid consumption of dissolved oxygen by the intermediate photolytic radicals is monitored in real time with a dissolved oxygen electrode. In addition, the rate ...


Scale Up Isolation Of Aaptamine For In Vivo Evaluation Indicates Its Neurobiological Activity Is Linked To The Delta Opioid Receptor, Nicole L. Mcintosh, Eptisam Lambo, Laura Millan-Lobo, Fei Li, Li He, Phillip Crews, Jennifer L. Whistler, Tyler Johnson Mar 2019

Scale Up Isolation Of Aaptamine For In Vivo Evaluation Indicates Its Neurobiological Activity Is Linked To The Delta Opioid Receptor, Nicole L. Mcintosh, Eptisam Lambo, Laura Millan-Lobo, Fei Li, Li He, Phillip Crews, Jennifer L. Whistler, Tyler Johnson

Tyler Johnson

Opioid receptors belong to the large superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning (7TM) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As a class, GPCRs are of fundamental physiological importance mediating the actions of the majority of known neurotransmitters and hormones. The Mu, Delta, and Kappa (MOP, DOP, KOP) opioid receptors are particularly intriguing members of this receptor family as they are the targets involved in many neurobiological diseases such as addiction, pain, stress, anxiety, and depression. Recently we discovered that the aaptamine class of marine sponge derived natural products exhibit selective agonist activity in vitro for the DOP versus MOP receptor. Our findings may explain ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang Feb 2019

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Method Considerations For Compound Identification In Complex Mixtures Using Electrospray Ionization Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Tyler Leverton Jan 2019

Method Considerations For Compound Identification In Complex Mixtures Using Electrospray Ionization Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Tyler Leverton

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Biomass burning aerosols are highly complex organic mixtures of thousands of components with consequences for global climate. Complex mixture component identification requires accurate mass measurement capability to separate components on a milli-Dalton scale, frequently using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Certain sample preparations and the ionization process may introduce artifacts that obscure the composition of the sample. Two method considerations were explored using isotopically labeled 15NH4OH and MeOH-d3 to track artifact formation in biomass burning samples. Informatics techniques and a custom molecular formula assignment software were used to identify the isotopic atoms in artifact ...


Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes For Sensitive Determination Of Lysosomal & Mitochondrial Ph In Live Cells, Wafa Mazi Jan 2019

Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes For Sensitive Determination Of Lysosomal & Mitochondrial Ph In Live Cells, Wafa Mazi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Varied intracellular pH levels are critical for various physiological processes such as enzymatic activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis, ion transport, and muscle contraction. Cellular compartments, like lysosomes, must retain an acidic environment (pH ~ 4.5) to activate hydrolytic enzymes necessary for the breakdown of large biomolecules. Another cellular organelle, the mitochondria, provides the cell with energy and must retain an alkalis environment (pH ~ 8.0) for proper function. Substantial lysosomal and mitochondrial pH deviation is associated with cellular dysfunction and disease. Therefore, the precise detection of lysosomal and mitochondrial pH is essential to provide a better understanding of cellular physiological ...


Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson Jan 2019

Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Of Chemonic™ Ccg-6 Nonionic Surfactant With Separation By Polarity And Shape, Charles Johnson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Chemonic™ CCG-6 surfactant is a water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated alkyl glyceride emollient. This surfactant exists as a complex mixture of a glycerol cores conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) branches (PEGylation) that were partially esterified with caprylic (C8) and capric (C10) acids. These may be esterified on one, two, or all three arms of the glyceride. The architecture of the structures in this mixture was studied using multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometry was interfaced with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ion mobility (IM) separation. The mixture was separated by reversed-phase LC, oligomers of the star-branched polymer were separated ...


Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao Jan 2019

Protein Detection And Structural Characterization By Mass Spectrometry Using Supramolecular Assemblies And Small Molecules, Bo Zhao

Doctoral Dissertations

Mass spectrometry (MS) has played an increasingly prominent role in proteomics and structure biology because it shows superior capabilities in identification, quantification and structural characterization of proteins. To realize its full potential in protein analysis, significant progress has been made in developing innovative techniques and reagents that can couple to MS detection. This dissertation demonstrates the use of polymeric supramolecular assemblies for enhanced protein detection in complex biological mixtures by MS. An amphiphilic random co-polymer scaffold is developed to form functional supramolecular assemblies for protein/ peptide enrichment. The influences of charge density and functional group pKa on host-guest interactions ...


Modulating Patterns Of Two-Phase Flow With Electric Fields, Dingsheng Liu, Bejan Hakimi, Michael Volny, Joelle Rolfs, Robbyn Anand, Rantisek Turecek, Daniel T. Chiu Nov 2018

Modulating Patterns Of Two-Phase Flow With Electric Fields, Dingsheng Liu, Bejan Hakimi, Michael Volny, Joelle Rolfs, Robbyn Anand, Rantisek Turecek, Daniel T. Chiu

Robbyn Anand

This paper describes the use of electro-hydrodynamic actuation to control the transition between three major flow patterns of an aqueous-oil Newtonian flowin a microchannel: droplets, beads-on-a-string (BOAS), and multi-stream laminar flow. We observed interesting transitional flow patterns between droplets and BOAS as the electric field was modulated. The ability to control flow patterns of a two-phase fluid in a microchannel adds to the microfluidic tool box and improves our understanding of this interesting fluid behavior.


Nanoparticles And Their Use In Cancer Imaging, Prevention And Treatment, George Gray Oct 2018

Nanoparticles And Their Use In Cancer Imaging, Prevention And Treatment, George Gray

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


Tomatine And Furocoumarins: Toxins In Commonly Consumed Plants, Julia Noonan Oct 2018

Tomatine And Furocoumarins: Toxins In Commonly Consumed Plants, Julia Noonan

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman Sep 2018

An Overview Of Dynamic Heterogeneous Oxidations In The Troposphere, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Due to the adverse effect of atmospheric aerosols on public health and their ability to affect climate, extensive research has been undertaken in recent decades to understand their sources and sinks, as well as to study their physical and chemical properties. Atmospheric aerosols are important players in the Earth’s radiative budget, affecting incoming and outgoing solar radiation through absorption and scattering by direct and indirect means. While the cooling properties of pure inorganic aerosols are relatively well understood, the impact of organic aerosols on the radiative budget is unclear. Additionally, organic aerosols are transformed through chemical reactions during atmospheric ...


Studies In Molecular Recognition: Non-Proteogenic Amino Acids For Antibiotic Studies And Chemosensors For Recognition And Reporting Of Metal-Ions, Sarah Anne Oehm Aug 2018

Studies In Molecular Recognition: Non-Proteogenic Amino Acids For Antibiotic Studies And Chemosensors For Recognition And Reporting Of Metal-Ions, Sarah Anne Oehm

Theses and Dissertations

The field of molecular recognition focuses on the selective and reversible binding of small guest molecules to larger host molecules. This dissertation describes synthesis of small molecules as binding guests for enzymatic substrates as well as molecules as host chemosensors to detect and identify metal ions. Two approaches to new antibiotic drugs have been explored, and an array of sensors for the quantitation of aqueous metals is being commercialized.

As strains of deadly bacteria emerge with evolved resistance to known antibiotics, new drugs are needed with novel mechanisms of action. Natural product antibiotics containing enduracididine, a non-canonical amino acid derived ...


Investigation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Organic Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Carissa Nelson Jul 2018

Investigation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Organic Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Carissa Nelson

Dissertations

Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds are useful to scientists and manufacturers in many areas of research and technology. This work focuses on measuring and reporting these properties on materials of commercial, environmental and scientific interest. Vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of several organic compounds have been studied using correlation gas chromatography (CGC) and are reported here as well as in recent publications. The CGC method allows for the indirect measurement of these properties in instances where these materials are available only in mixtures or in very small amounts.

The qualities of these measurements for any chosen target are directly related ...


Nmr Structural Investigation Of Chlamydial Protein Complex And Lysine Glycomimetic For Drug Design, Abigael Chebichiy Songok Jul 2018

Nmr Structural Investigation Of Chlamydial Protein Complex And Lysine Glycomimetic For Drug Design, Abigael Chebichiy Songok

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Research and design of drugs for treatment against microbial infections require the study of pathogenic proteins involved during infection and replication. Drugs can be designed to interfere with the interaction network of these pathogenic proteins and inhibit the infection process. Determination of the structure and ligands of the target proteins in microbes is essential for designing mechanistic-based drugs. Two Chlamydia proteins involved in host cell invasion were investigated in this study. The goal is to identify amino acids involved at the binding interface of Chlamydia chaperon proteins Scc1 and Scc4 by solution NMR spectroscopy. This information will give a lead ...


Development Of Chemistry Activities For Local Outreach In Stem, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Development Of Chemistry Activities For Local Outreach In Stem, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

Introduction: This research project was started because of an increase in outreach opportunities for the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. For similar opportunities, we now have bins of content that are simple to use, encouraging more students to participate in volunteer research.

Purpose: to find, modify, and/or create grade-level appropriate labs and demonstration activities for 5th-8th graders, with a specific focus on activities hat involve easily available components. These activities are intended to be used for outreach to local schools by chemistry student volunteers and released online to act as a resource for teachers.


Educational Resources: Magnets, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Educational Resources: Magnets, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

No abstract provided.


Educational Resources: Curie Point Engine, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Educational Resources: Curie Point Engine, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

The document is meant to act as a resource for elementary through middle school teachers, featuring a science activity connected to Indiana state standards with grade-appropriate science connections aimed toward 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade.

The Curie point of a metal is the temperature at which it loses its magnetic characteristics. Heat can cause magnets to stop being magnetic, which is why heating up magnets is not advised. The engine works because the Curie point of nickel is 354 degrees Celsius, a temperature that can be reached with a simple candle flame. Included are instructions about how to build ...


Educational Resources: Polymers, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Educational Resources: Polymers, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

The document is meant to act as a resource for elementary through middle school teachers, featuring a science activity connected to Indiana state standards with grade-appropriate science connections aimed toward 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade.

This document contains 3 polymer-based activities demonstrating different properties of polymers - the physical characteristics, possible absorbency, and elasticity. These activities can be abbreviated and used in rotating stations, planned over multiple days, or you can pick on that fits best with the classroom environment.


Educational Resources: Ionic Matching, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Educational Resources: Ionic Matching, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

The document is meant to act as a resource for elementary through middle school teachers, featuring a science activity connected to Indiana state standards with grade-appropriate science connections aimed toward 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade.

The entire point of this piece is simply to introduce balancing charges in ionic compounds. This is a simpler method to get students thinking about the idea, which also makes it suitable for pre-high school students. It gives a visual representation of how charges balance and cow cations pair with anions. At this level, it is very similar to least common denominator calculations.


Educational Resources: Homemade Fluorometer, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Educational Resources: Homemade Fluorometer, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

The document is meant to act as a resource for elementary through middle school teachers, featuring a science activity connected to Indiana state standards with grade-appropriate science connections aimed toward 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade.


Educational Resources: Exchange Rates And Unit Conversion, Emily Knight Jul 2018

Educational Resources: Exchange Rates And Unit Conversion, Emily Knight

Student Scholarship: Chemistry

The document is meant to act as a resource for elementary through middle school teachers, featuring a science activity connected to Indiana state standards with grade-appropriate science connections aimed toward 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grade.

Students might have experience in 3rd-6th grade with converting basic ideas such as volume and measurements. This is intended to expand that idea and introduce the mole. It's also a general interactive conversion/exchange activity. All items in here are just based on what we had available and convenient, so feel free to swap out items such as rubber stoppers with something more ...


Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon Jul 2018

Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids comprise up to 50% of organic matter in cellular material and are a major fraction of oceanic organic carbon. Amino acids are also considered highly labile during organic matter recycling, making them useful proxies for organic carbon cycling. Nevertheless, analysis of individual amino acids has been burdened by lengthy derivatization and complex analysis since the 1950s. In this thesis, I describe the modification of advanced analytical techniques, developed in the biomedical field, for analysis of marine matrices which allow the determination of at least 40 amino acids without the need for lengthy sample preparation and derivatization, twice the ...


Steric Effects Of Alkyl Ammonium Salts On The Combustion Of Exchanged Smectite Clays, Celeste A. Keith Jun 2018

Steric Effects Of Alkyl Ammonium Salts On The Combustion Of Exchanged Smectite Clays, Celeste A. Keith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bomb calorimetry was explored as a new method for determining the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of clays. Smectite clays were modified with several alkyl ammonium salts varying in number of carbons and the spatial orientation of the carbons about the central nitrogen atom. The clays used, standards purchased from the Source Clay Repository, have CECs of 44, 80, 88, and 120 meq/100 g. Theoretically, the combustion energy of the organo-clays should be approximately the same for each salt. Any differences in energy would be due to the different structures of the salts and how they are oriented in the ...


Extraction And Purification Of (E)-Resveratrol From The Bark Of Maine's Native Spruces, Panduka S. Piyaratne May 2018

Extraction And Purification Of (E)-Resveratrol From The Bark Of Maine's Native Spruces, Panduka S. Piyaratne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Resveratrol is a plant secondary metabolite which protects plants from pathogenic invasions and acts as a remedial agent against injury, stress, and tissue damage by UV radiation. With its characteristic stilbene structure, resveratrol adopts (E) and (Z) isomeric forms. However, the (E) isomer is the most biologically active and abundant form of resveratrol in nature.

(E)- Resveratrol confers a variety of benefits to human health and well-being. Besides its antioxidant activity, the role of (E)-resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, cardioprotection, and anticancer agent has been a widely explored research interest. Many plant species including mulberry, peanut, and grape are ...


Evaluation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Various Aroma And Pharmacologically Active Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Daniel Simmons Apr 2018

Evaluation Of Vaporization Enthalpies And Vapor Pressures Of Various Aroma And Pharmacologically Active Compounds By Correlation Gas Chromatography, Daniel Simmons

Theses

Scientists in the pharmaceutical, food, and aroma industries can benefit from reliable thermochemical data. Vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure data are not available for all compounds. Furthermore, some literature data is conflicting. The goal of this work was to use a method called correlation gas chromatography (CGC) to generate reliable vaporization enthalpy data in instances where other experimental methods are not applicable. Vapor pressures of the targets were also calculated in cases where the required literature data on the standards used in this technique were available.

CGC involves making a standard cocktail that includes a mixture of standards and one ...


Catalytic Conversion Of Monosaccharides Into 5-(Hydroxymethyl)Furfural In Ionic Liquids Using Aluminum Complexes Bearing Bidentate (Aminomethyl)Phenolate Ligands, Daudi Sayialel Saang'onyo Jan 2018

Catalytic Conversion Of Monosaccharides Into 5-(Hydroxymethyl)Furfural In Ionic Liquids Using Aluminum Complexes Bearing Bidentate (Aminomethyl)Phenolate Ligands, Daudi Sayialel Saang'onyo

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Currently, the major sources of fuel, energy, and chemicals are nonrenewable fossil resources such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Additionally, petroleum is used for the production of most transportation fuels and for the production of about 95% of organic chemicals. However, the production and use of non-renewable fossil fuels are unsustainable. For economic and environmental sustainability, there is a need to search for new and/or renewable resources and technologies for energy, fuels, and chemicals production that have the potential of effectively substituting fossil resources. In this context, lignocellulosic biomass is one of the candidates that meet these requirements ...