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Full-Text Articles in Organic Chemistry

Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh Oct 2019

Microwave Solventless Synthesis Of Meso-Tetrakis (Pentafluorophenyl)Poprphyrin (Tppf20) And Tris(Pentafluorophenyl))Corrole [Chemistry], Sunaina Singh

Open Educational Resources

Organic chemistry is a two-semester course (Organic Chemistry I, SCC 251 and Organic Chemistry II, SCC 252) required for majors in Biology. The SCC 251 course has been designated for the Integrative Learning Core Competency as well the Digital Communication Ability. This course emphasizes the synthesis, structure, reactivity, and mechanisms of reaction of organic compounds. Laboratory stresses various organic synthetic and analytic techniques (distillation, extraction, chromatography and spectroscopy).

This lab provided an opportunity for students to go deeper with the chemistry content by correlating to the concepts they learned in General Chemistry courses such as Valence shell electron pair repulsion ...


Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow Sep 2019

Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow

Igor I. Slowing

Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI(3)THF(n) and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe2)(3). X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a-d are isostructural, pseudo-C-3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Li <- HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe2)(3)}(3) and DFT calculations. The Ln <- HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activation parameters for the exchange process in la (Delta H-double dagger = 8.2(4) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -1(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)) and 1a-d(9) (Delta H-double dagger = 7.7(3) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -4(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants, (k(H)/k(D)), and slopes of ln (k/T) vs 1/T plots for la and 1a-d(9) reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five beta-Si-H -> Ln and one gamma-C-H -> Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln <- HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe2)(3) ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln-C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 degrees C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox(Me2))(2)) give {MeC(Ox(Me2))(2)}Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(2), and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).


Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow Sep 2019

Homoleptic Trivalent Tris(Alkyl) Rare Earth Compounds, Aradhana Pindwal, Kaking Yan, Smita Patnaik, Bradley M. Schmidt, Arkady Ellern, Igor I. Slowing, Cheolbeom Bae, Aaron D. Sadow

Aaron D. Sadow

Homoleptic tris(alkyl) rare earth complexes Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) (Ln = La, 1a; Ce, 1b; Pr, 1c; Nd, 1d) are synthesized in high yield from LnI(3)THF(n) and 3 equiv of KC(SiHMe2)(3). X-ray diffraction studies reveal 1a-d are isostructural, pseudo-C-3-symmetric molecules that contain two secondary Li <- HSi interactions per alkyl ligand (six total). Spectroscopic assignments are supported by comparison with Ln{C(SiDMe2)(3)}(3) and DFT calculations. The Ln <- HSi and terminal SiH exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale at room temperature, but the two motifs are resolved at low temperature. Variable-temperature NMR studies provide activation parameters for the exchange process in la (Delta H-double dagger = 8.2(4) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -1(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)) and 1a-d(9) (Delta H-double dagger = 7.7(3) kcal.mol(-1); Delta S-double dagger = -4(2) cal.mol(-1)K(-1)). Comparisons of lineshapes, rate constants, (k(H)/k(D)), and slopes of ln (k/T) vs 1/T plots for la and 1a-d(9) reveal that an inverse isotope effect dominates at low temperature. DFT calculations identify four low-energy intermediates containing five beta-Si-H -> Ln and one gamma-C-H -> Ln. The calculations also suggest the pathway for Ln <- HSi/SiH exchange involves rotation of a single C(SiHMe2)(3) ligand that is coordinated to the Ln center through the Ln-C bond and one secondary interaction. These robust organometallic compounds persist in solution and in the solid state up to 80 degrees C, providing potential for their use in a range of synthetic applications. For example, reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(3) and ancillary proligands, such as bis-1,1-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)ethane (HMeC(Ox(Me2))(2)) give {MeC(Ox(Me2))(2)}Ln{C(SiHMe2)(3)}(2), and reactions with disilazanes provide solvent-free lanthanoid tris(disilazides).


Ethanol Purification With Ozonation, Activated Carbon Adsorption, And Gas Stripping, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen Sep 2019

Ethanol Purification With Ozonation, Activated Carbon Adsorption, And Gas Stripping, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Somchai Rice

Fermentation of sugar to produce ethanol also produces volatile byproducts. This study was aimed at purifying corn-based ethanol for industrial and pharmaceutical use. The research was on treatment for 10 impurities removal after distillation. The ethanol headspace was sampled with solid-phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A 40 mg/L ozone treatment resulted in >56% and >36% removal of styrene and 2-pentylfuran, respectively, without significant generation of byproducts. A 60 g/L activated carbon (AC) treatment with 270 min adsorption time resulted in 84%, >72%, and >78% removal of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate respectively ...


Optimization Of Extraction Parameters For Quantification Of Fermentation Volatile By‐Products In Industrial Ethanol With Solid‐Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen Sep 2019

Optimization Of Extraction Parameters For Quantification Of Fermentation Volatile By‐Products In Industrial Ethanol With Solid‐Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography, Shinnosuke Onuki, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Somchai Rice

The rapid growth of the biofuels industry resulted in new research needs in chemical analysis. Methods for screening and quantification of impurities resulting from changes in feedstock, process and purification are needed. Direct sample injection methods are often not sensitive for lower concentrations. This research, developed an analytical method to simultaneously quantify fermentation volatile by‐products in industrial corn‐based ethanol. These include acetaldehyde, ethyl vinyl ether, 1,1‐diethoxyethane, isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, styrene, 2‐pentylfuran, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate. Headspace solid‐phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC‐FID ...


Further Purification Of Food‐Grade Alcohol To Make A Congener‐Free Product, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Johannes Van Leeuwen Sep 2019

Further Purification Of Food‐Grade Alcohol To Make A Congener‐Free Product, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, William S. Jenks, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Somchai Rice

Most alcoholic beverages contain small amounts of chemicals other than ethanol, the congeners. These are byproducts of the fermentation process of the substrate. Congeners are implicated in contributing to hangover (veisalgia) symptoms and it is therefore considered expedient to remove these substances. This research compared 12 established vodka brands with a new product by GC‐MS‐olfactometry. A new vodka produced in Iowa from corn was found to be the purest while another corn‐based vodka and a potato‐based vodka contained eight and 12 impurities each. Eight other commercially available vodkas contained 15–19 impurities and three vodkas showed ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Somchai Rice

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Somchai Rice

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Sep 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive Programmable Polymers Through Ring-Opening–Metathesis Cross-Metathesis (Rom-Cm), Courtney S. Dziewior, Sharon M. S. Strickland, Ping Li, Ken D. Shimizu Aug 2019

Synthesis Of Stimuli-Responsive Programmable Polymers Through Ring-Opening–Metathesis Cross-Metathesis (Rom-Cm), Courtney S. Dziewior, Sharon M. S. Strickland, Ping Li, Ken D. Shimizu

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Stimuli-responsive polymers can change their physical and/or chemical properties in response to external stimuli. These polymers have found great success in a number of important areas including molecular gels and biomedical engineering, as well as success in applications such as targeted drug delivery and biosensors. We have been working toward the development of programmable polymers that remember the response after a stimulus is withdrawn. To this end, we set out to synthesize specific functional monomers. While different types of reactions could potentially result in the desired target monomer, we studied the ring-opening metathesis–cross-metathesis reaction (ROM-CM). Previous work of ...


Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian Aug 2019

Visualizing The Fate And Distribution Of Pahs In Spartina And Avicennia Tissues From Barataria Basin, La, Kristina Jeannette Sebastian

LSU Master's Theses

During crude oil spill events, vegetation in marsh environments sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the crude oil by partitioning from the air phase through the waxy cuticle on the leaf surface. Recent studies from Macondo oil-impacted marshes have demonstrated that cycling of low molecular weight petrogenic PAHs occurs through the cuticle and other leaf tissue. At present, our understanding of how PAHs travel through the cuticle is coarse and limited by grab samples across the entire leaf, which preventing a full understanding the dynamics of PAH cycling in this environment. Multiphoton (MP) confocal microscopy visualizes the distribution of PAHs ...


Effect Of Structure On The Spin Switching And Magnetic Bistability Of Solid-State Aryl Dicyanomethyl Monoradicals And Diradicals, Joshua P. Peterson, Rui Zhang, Arthur H. Winter Aug 2019

Effect Of Structure On The Spin Switching And Magnetic Bistability Of Solid-State Aryl Dicyanomethyl Monoradicals And Diradicals, Joshua P. Peterson, Rui Zhang, Arthur H. Winter

Chemistry Publications

Stable organic radicals with switchable spin states have applications in medicine, biology, and material science. An emerging class of such spin-switchable radicals is based on dicyanomethyl radicals, which are typically thermally and air-stable species that form weakly bonded (closed-shell singlet) dimers at a lower temperature that rupture into electron paramagnetic resonance-active diradicals at a higher temperature. However, thus far, the study of these dicyanomethyl radicals has focused on their solution-phase behavior. An understanding of how chemical structure affects the solid-state spin switching behavior for these radicals is unknown. Here, we examine the solid-state spin crossover behavior of 6 monoradicals and ...


The Roundtable Of Scientific Communication: From Classroom To Course Creation, Back To Classroom And Beyond, Sean P. Hickey Aug 2019

The Roundtable Of Scientific Communication: From Classroom To Course Creation, Back To Classroom And Beyond, Sean P. Hickey

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This research encompasses many aspects of chemical education research including curriculum and pedagogical changes to the freshman and sophomore courses. Curriculum changes included the addition of recitations to the general chemistry and organic chemistry lectures and the creation of four new classes, CHEM 1001, 1002, 3091, and 3092. The addition of recitations was not limited to but was focused on improving DFW rates for these courses.

CHEM 3091 and 3092 are chemistry internship and undergraduate teaching assistant classes. These courses were necessary to offer outside internship opportunities and training for undergraduate teaching assistants, respectively. CHEM 1001 and 1002 are chemistry ...


Synthesis Of Diazonium N-(Perfluoroalkyl) Benzenesulfonimide Polymers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Helal Alharbi Aug 2019

Synthesis Of Diazonium N-(Perfluoroalkyl) Benzenesulfonimide Polymers For Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (Pemfcs), Helal Alharbi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the research is to synthesize the diazonium N-(perfluoroalkyl) benzenesulfonimide (PFSI)zwitterionicpolymers as electrolytes in polymerelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The proposed diazoniumPFSI zwitterionic polymer (I) is expected to enhance the thermal and chemical stability, increase the proton conductivity of electrolytes, and improve the catalyst efficiency for PEM fuel cells. Synthesis of the perfluorobenzoyl peroxide initiator, homopolymerization of perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride,coupling reaction with4-sulfamonylacetanilide, couplingreaction with 4-nitrobenzene sulfonyl amide, n-deacetylation reaction, and diazotization reactionhave been carried outsuccessfully in the lab. The intermediate chemicals are characterized by GC-MS, IR, NMR, and GPC spectroscopies.


Design And Synthesis Of Stable Aminyl And Nitroxide Radical Precursors, Joshua Bryan Lovell Aug 2019

Design And Synthesis Of Stable Aminyl And Nitroxide Radical Precursors, Joshua Bryan Lovell

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Aminyl diradicals with sterically-hindered tert-butyl groups have yet to be fully investigated for their increased stability due to their difficulty in synthesis. The first chapter of this thesis details design and synthesis towards sterically-hindered aminyl radical and diradical precursors.

Structural features effecting nitroxide radical stability have been well investigated except for the impact on the ring-size of stability of nitroxides towards reduction by ascorbate. Two 7-membered nitroxides derived from TEMPONE and TEMPOL have been synthesized and characterized. The alcohol nitroxide shows increased stability towards reduction by ascorbate compared to the corresponding TEMPOL, while the other nitroxide shows decreased stability compared ...


Phosphonate-Directed Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroboration: Synthesis Of Functionalized Chiral Secondary And Tertiary Boronic Esters And Mechanistic Insights, Suman Chakrabarty Jul 2019

Phosphonate-Directed Catalytic Asymmetric Hydroboration: Synthesis Of Functionalized Chiral Secondary And Tertiary Boronic Esters And Mechanistic Insights, Suman Chakrabarty

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Over the past 30 years, catalytic asymmetric hydroboration (CAHB) of alkenes has emerged as a leading methodology to access chiral primary and secondary boronic esters. However, it wasn’t until 2015 that directed-CAHB was for the first time shown to efficiently access chiral tertiary boronic esters. The latter are excellent precursors to synthetically challenging structural motifs such as chiral tertiary alcohols, carbinamines and all-carbon quaternary stereocenters via stereospecific C-B bond substitutions. This dissertation focuses on phosphonate-directed CAHB of diverse alkene substrates, including challenging stereodefined trisubstituted alkenes, to efficiently access multifunctional chiral secondary and tertiary boronic esters. Mechanistic insights obtained via ...


Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee Jul 2019

Toward Mass Spectrometry Imaging In The Metabolomics Scale: Increasing Metabolic Coverage Through Multiple On-Tissue Chemical Modifications, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Evan A. Larson, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Exploring the metabolic differences directly on tissues is essential for the comprehensive understanding of how multicellular organisms function. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an attractive technique toward this goal; however, MSI in metabolomics scale has been hindered by multiple limitations. This is most notable for single cell level high-spatial resolution imaging because of the limited number of molecules in small sampling size and the low ionization yields of many metabolites. Several on-tissue chemical derivatization approaches have been reported to increase MSI signals of targeted compounds, especially in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)- MSI. Herein, we adopt a combination of chemical ...


Organic Chemistry With A Biographical Emphasis: Solutions To In-Chapter Exercises, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biographical Emphasis: Solutions To In-Chapter Exercises, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The solutions to the in-chapter exercises of Organic Chemistry with a Biological Emphasis volume 1 and 2.


Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis: Solutions To Selected End-Of-Chapter Problems, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis: Solutions To Selected End-Of-Chapter Problems, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The solutions to the in-chapter exercises of Organic Chemistry with a Biological Emphasis volume 1 and 2.


Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume I, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume I, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The traditional approach to teaching Organic Chemistry, taken by most of the textbooks that are currently available, is to focus primarily on the reactions of laboratory synthesis, with much less discussion - in the central chapters, at least - of biological molecules and reactions. This is despite the fact that, in many classrooms, a majority of students are majoring in Biology or Health Sciences rather than in Chemistry, and are presumably taking the course in order to learn about the chemistry that takes place in living things.

In an effort to address this disconnect, I have developed a textbook for a two-semester ...


Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume Ii, Timothy Soderberg Jul 2019

Organic Chemistry With A Biological Emphasis Volume Ii, Timothy Soderberg

Chemistry Publications

The traditional approach to teaching Organic Chemistry, taken by most of the textbooks that are currently available, is to focus primarily on the reactions of laboratory synthesis, with much less discussion - in the central chapters, at least - of biological molecules and reactions. This is despite the fact that, in many classrooms, a majority of students are majoring in Biology or Health Sciences rather than in Chemistry, and are presumably taking the course in order to learn about the chemistry that takes place in living things.

In an effort to address this disconnect, I have developed a textbook for a two-semester ...


Photoswitchable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Suendues Noori, James A. Wisner Jun 2019

Photoswitchable Self-Complementary Hydrogen Bond Arrays, Suendues Noori, James A. Wisner

Western Research Forum

Background: Photochromism is the reversible transformation of a chemical material to another form by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (light), where the two metastable forms have distinct absorption spectra and other properties. Photochromism in materials allows for the switching of their function solely based on irradiation with light. Polymers are used frequently as the building blocks for materials as they are versatile, multifunctional, can carry charge and be processed by solution-based deposition methods. Supramolecular polymers share the same definition as polymers with the exception that they are held together by reversible and directional non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds. Synthesizing ...


Development Of Bioorthogonal Molecular Tools On Gold Nanoparticles, Wilson Luo Jun 2019

Development Of Bioorthogonal Molecular Tools On Gold Nanoparticles, Wilson Luo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis describes the development of bioorthogonal chemical tools — originally designed to form bonds cleanly and selectively in living systems — on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model reactive nanomaterial template to showcase chemical modifications in a facile and robust manner. To achieve this goal, new methodologies to cleanly incorporate strained alkyne (SA) and cargo-bearing triarylphosphine derivatives onto AuNPs were developed. The protocols described herein provide well-defined reactive AuNP interfaces that undergo bioorthogonal bond-forming and breaking reactions cleanly, selectively, and rapidly to enable chemical tuning of their properties and function.

In order to circumvent the high reactivity of SAs, which hindered ...


Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman Jun 2019

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


The Other Sio2: Investigating Oxidation Of Alcohols Using (Nh4)2cr2o7 In Sand, John Lepore, Emily Toy, Robert Torregrosa Jun 2019

The Other Sio2: Investigating Oxidation Of Alcohols Using (Nh4)2cr2o7 In Sand, John Lepore, Emily Toy, Robert Torregrosa

McNair Scholars Program

Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones is one of the classical reactions in organic chemistry which is utilized frequently in medicine, industry, and pharmaceuticals. Classical effective reagents in oxidation include pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium permanganate, Jones reagent, bleach, and Swern conditions. There has been an increasing interest throughout the years to use supported-based reagents in tandem with these reagents, particularly with silica gel especially towards Cr-based oxidizing agents. Despite the abundance of reported reactions in the literature pertaining to silica gel, little is known about sand, despite both are silicon dioxide and exhibit similar porosity and crystallinity. It is not ...


Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee Jun 2019

Protocol Measuring Horizontal Gene Transfer From Algae To Non-Photosynthetic Organisms, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a natural process for an organism to transfer genetic material to another organism that is a completely different species, for example, from a blue-green alga to a non-photosynthetic bacterium. The phenomenon of HGT is not only of an interest to the science of molecular genetics and biology, but also to the biosafety issue of genetic engineering. The novel protocol reported here for the first time teaches how to measure HGT from a genetically engineered (GE) blue-green alga (gene donor) to wild-type E. coli (recipient). This novel protocol can be used to measure HGT frequency for ...


Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d). Module 4. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d). Module 4. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches about aromatic compounds.


Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d) Module 7. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem2220d) Module 7. Sample Problems, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches carboxylic acids and their derivatives.


Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d)-3rd Module-Sample B- Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry I Drill (Chem2210d)-3rd Module-Sample B- Answer Key, Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module teaches Resonace, Using curved arrows and Acid-base reactions


Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem 2220d). Module 10. Biochemistry., Candace M. Lawrence May 2019

Organic Chemistry Ii Drill (Chem 2220d). Module 10. Biochemistry., Candace M. Lawrence

Course Modules

This module is an introduction to biochemistry