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Articles 31 - 60 of 778

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Molecular Insights Into Organic Particulate Formation, Manoj Kumar, Emily Burrell, Jason C. Hansen, Joseph S. Francisco Jan 2019

Molecular Insights Into Organic Particulate Formation, Manoj Kumar, Emily Burrell, Jason C. Hansen, Joseph S. Francisco

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Carboxylic acids have been detected in particles collected in various regions of the world. Here, we use experiments and Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the mechanism of particle formation from gas phase mixtures of formic acid (HCOOH), (CH3)3N, and water vapor. A flow reaction cell coupled to two scanning mobility particle sizers has been used to measure particle size, absolute number of particles and kinetics of particle formation. Experimental results show that the addition of (CH3)3N to a mixture of HCOOH and water vapor results in a dramatic increase in particle ...


In-Situ-Investigation Of Enzyme Immobilization On Polymer Brushes, Meike Koenig, Ulla König, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Martin Muller, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann Jan 2019

In-Situ-Investigation Of Enzyme Immobilization On Polymer Brushes, Meike Koenig, Ulla König, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Martin Muller, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Herein, we report on the use of a combined setup of quartz-crystal microbalance, with dissipation monitoring and spectroscopic ellipsometry, to comprehensively investigate the covalent immobilization of an enzyme to a polymer layer. All steps of the covalent reaction of the model enzyme glucose oxidase with the poly(acrylic acid) brush by carbodiimide chemistry, were monitored in-situ. Data were analyzed using optical and viscoelastic modeling. A nearly complete collapse of the polymer chains was found upon activation of the carboxylic acid groups with N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. The reaction with the amine groups of the enzyme occurs simultaneously with ...


Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar Jan 2019

Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Understanding the degradation mechanisms of lead-halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3) under exposure to liquid/aerosol water is an essential problem within the photovoltaic community. Herein we investigate both the static and the dynamic properties of the methylammonuim cation (MA) as it coordinates with invading water molecules (MA.(H2O)n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) using both stationary state quantum mechanics and first principle molecular dynamics simulations. Various solvation structures of MA were characterized by their stabilization energies, dipoles, and Maximally-Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) centers. Calculation – and analysis – of vibrational shifts in the IR spectral region ...


Indole Reverses Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance By Activating A Novel Dual-Function Importer, Yan Wang, Tian Tian, Jingjing Zhang, Xin Jin, Huan Yue, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Liangcheng Du, Fan Bai Jan 2019

Indole Reverses Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance By Activating A Novel Dual-Function Importer, Yan Wang, Tian Tian, Jingjing Zhang, Xin Jin, Huan Yue, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Liangcheng Du, Fan Bai

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Bacterial antibiotic resistance modulation by small signaling molecules is an emerging mechanism that has been increasingly reported in recent years. Several studies indicate that indole, an interkingdom signaling molecule, increases bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the mechanism through which indole reduces antibiotic resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism for indole-mediated reversal of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Lysobacter. This reversal was facilitated by a novel BtuD-associated dual-function importer that can transfer both vitamin B12 and antibiotics. Indole stimulated btuD overexpression and promoted efficient absorption of extracellular vitamin B12; meanwhile, the weak selectivity of the ...


Structural Basis Of 7sk Rna 5′ Γ-Phosphate Methylation And Retention By Mepce, Yuan Yang, Catherine D. Eichhorn, Yaqiang Wang, Duilio Cascio, Juli Feigon Jan 2019

Structural Basis Of 7sk Rna 5′ Γ-Phosphate Methylation And Retention By Mepce, Yuan Yang, Catherine D. Eichhorn, Yaqiang Wang, Duilio Cascio, Juli Feigon

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Among RNA 5′-cap structures, γ-phosphate monomethylation is unique to a small subset of noncoding RNAs, 7SK and U6 in humans. 7SK is capped by methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE), which has a second non-enzymatic role as a core component of the 7SK RNP that is an essential regulator of RNA transcription. We report 2.0 and 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structures of human MePCE methyltransferase domain bound to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and uncapped or capped 7SK substrates, respectively. 7SK recognition is achieved by protein contacts to a 5′ hairpin-single-stranded RNA region, explaining MePCE specificity for 7SK and U6. The structures ...


High Initial Reversible Capacity And Long Life Of Ternary Sno2‑Co‑Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes For Lithium‑Ion Batteries, Pan Deng, Jing Yang, Shengyang Li, Tian-E Fan, Hong-Hui Wu, Yun Mou, Hui Huang, Qiaobao Zhang, Dong-Liang Peng, Baihua Qu Jan 2019

High Initial Reversible Capacity And Long Life Of Ternary Sno2‑Co‑Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes For Lithium‑Ion Batteries, Pan Deng, Jing Yang, Shengyang Li, Tian-E Fan, Hong-Hui Wu, Yun Mou, Hui Huang, Qiaobao Zhang, Dong-Liang Peng, Baihua Qu

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The two major limitations in the application of SnO2 for lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes are the large volume variations of SnO2 during repeated lithiation/delithiation processes and a large irreversible capacity loss during the first cycle, which can lead to a rapid capacity fade and unsatisfactory initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE). To overcome these limitations, we developed composites of ultrafine SnO2 nanoparticles and in situ formed Co(CoSn) nanocrystals embedded in an N-doped carbon matrix using a Co-based metal–organic framework (ZIF-67). The formed Co additives and structural advantages of the carbon-confined SnO2/ Co nanocomposite effectively inhibited ...


Detailed Characterization Of The Solution Kinetics And Thermodynamics Of Biotin, Biocytin And Haba Binding To Avidin And Streptavidin, Roberto F. Delgadillo, Timothy C. Mueser, Kathia Zaleta-Rivera, Katie A. Carnes, Jose Gonzalez-Valdez, Lawrence J. Parkhurst Jan 2019

Detailed Characterization Of The Solution Kinetics And Thermodynamics Of Biotin, Biocytin And Haba Binding To Avidin And Streptavidin, Roberto F. Delgadillo, Timothy C. Mueser, Kathia Zaleta-Rivera, Katie A. Carnes, Jose Gonzalez-Valdez, Lawrence J. Parkhurst

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The high affinity (KD ~ 10−15 M) of biotin for avidin and streptavidin is the essential component in a multitude of bioassays with many experiments using biotin modifications to invoke coupling. Equilibration times suggested for these assays assume that the association rate constant (kon) is approximately diffusion limited (109 M-1s-1) but recent single molecule and surface binding studies indicate that they are slower than expected (105 to 107 M-1s-1). In this study, we asked whether these reactions in solution are diffusion controlled, which reaction model and thermodynamic cycle describes the ...


Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai C. Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey Jan 2019

Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai C. Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic infections resulting in significant morbidity. Urease, an enzyme that generates NH3 and CO2 from urea, is key to pH homeostasis in bacterial pathogens under acidic stress and nitrogen limitation. However, the function of urease in S. aureus niche colonization and nitrogen metabolism has not been extensively studied. We discovered that urease is essential for pH homeostasis and viability in urea-rich environments under weak acid stress. The regulation of urease transcription by CcpA, Agr, and CodY was identified in this study, implying a complex network that controls urease expression in response to changes ...


Highly Stable And Efficient All-Inorganic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells With Native-Oxide Passivation, Min Chen, Ming-Gang Ju, Hector F. Garces, Alexander D. Carl, Luis K. Ono, Zafer Hawash, Yi Zhang, Tianyi Shen, Yabing Qi, Ronald L. Grimm, Domenico Pacifici, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture Jan 2019

Highly Stable And Efficient All-Inorganic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells With Native-Oxide Passivation, Min Chen, Ming-Gang Ju, Hector F. Garces, Alexander D. Carl, Luis K. Ono, Zafer Hawash, Yi Zhang, Tianyi Shen, Yabing Qi, Ronald L. Grimm, Domenico Pacifici, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

There has been an urgent need to eliminate toxic lead from the prevailing halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), but the current lead-free PSCs are still plagued with the critical issues of low efficiency and poor stability. This is primarily due to their inadequate photovoltaic properties and chemical stability. Herein we demonstrate the use of the lead-free, allinorganic cesium tin-germanium triiodide (CsSn0.5Ge0.5I3) solid-solution perovskite as the light absorber in PSCs, delivering promising efficiency of up to 7.11%. More importantly, these PSCs show very high stability, with less than 10% decay in efficiency after ...


Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar Jan 2019

Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Understanding the degradation mechanisms of lead-halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3) under exposure to liquid/aerosol water is an essential problem within the photovoltaic community. Herein we investigate both the static and the dynamic properties of the methylammonuim cation (MA) as it coordinates with invading water molecules (MA.(H2O)n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) using both stationary state quantum mechanics and first principle molecular dynamics simulations. Various solvation structures of MA were characterized by their stabilization energies, dipoles, and Maximally-Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) centers. Calculation – and analysis – of vibrational shifts in the IR spectral region ...


Electrocaloric Effect In Ferroelectric Ceramics With Point Defects, Ming Wu, Qingshan Zhu, Jianting Li, Dongsheng Song, Honghui Wu, Mengyao Guo, Jinghui Gao, Yang Bai, Yujun Feng, Stephen J. Pennycoock, Xiaojie Lou Jan 2019

Electrocaloric Effect In Ferroelectric Ceramics With Point Defects, Ming Wu, Qingshan Zhu, Jianting Li, Dongsheng Song, Honghui Wu, Mengyao Guo, Jinghui Gao, Yang Bai, Yujun Feng, Stephen J. Pennycoock, Xiaojie Lou

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The electrocaloric effect has drawn much attention due to its potential application in cooling devices. A negative electrocaloric effect is predicted to be induced in defect-doped ferroelectrics by computational results [A. Grunebohm and T. Nishimatsu, Phys. Rev. B 93, 134101 (2016) and Ma et al., Phys. Rev. B 94, 094113 (2016)], but it need to be confirmed by experimental results. In this work, we prepared a 1mol. % Mn-doped Pb(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 ceramics (Pb((Zr0.2,Ti0.8)0.99,Mn0.01)O3), and the electrocaloric effect of the defect-containing ferroelectric ...


The Inductive Effect In Organic Chemistry, Charles A. Kingsbury Jan 2019

The Inductive Effect In Organic Chemistry, Charles A. Kingsbury

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The subtle difference between the successive polarization model and the flow of electrons through sigma bonds is explored, as well as the alternating charge model of Pople and the pervasive field model. The present paper is concerned with the ability of alkyl groups to serve as sigma inductive electron donors.


Machine Learning Enabled Prediction Of Mechanical Properties Of Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer, Xinyu Wang, Dan Han, Yang Hong, Haiyi Sun, Jingzhi Zhang, Jingchao Zhang Jan 2019

Machine Learning Enabled Prediction Of Mechanical Properties Of Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer, Xinyu Wang, Dan Han, Yang Hong, Haiyi Sun, Jingzhi Zhang, Jingchao Zhang

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

One of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide materials, tungsten disulfide (WS2), has aroused much research interest, and its mechanical properties play an important role in a practical application. Here the mechanical properties of h-WS2 and t-WS2 monolayers in the armchair and zigzag directions are evaluated by utilizing the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and machine learning (ML) technique. We mainly focus on the effects of chirality, system size, temperature, strain rate, and random vacancy defect on mechanical properties, including fracture strain, fracture strength, and Young’s modulus. We find that the mechanical properties of h-WS2 surpass those of ...


In Situ Monitoring Of Linear Rgd-Peptide Bioconjugation With Nanoscale Polymer Brushes, Evmorfia Psarra, Ulla Konig, Martin Muller, Eva Bittrich, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Petra B. Welzel, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann Jan 2019

In Situ Monitoring Of Linear Rgd-Peptide Bioconjugation With Nanoscale Polymer Brushes, Evmorfia Psarra, Ulla Konig, Martin Muller, Eva Bittrich, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Petra B. Welzel, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Bioinspired materials mimicking the native extracellular matrix environment are promising for biotechnological applications. Particularly, modular biosurface engineering based on the functionalization of stimuli-responsive polymer brushes with peptide sequences can be used for the development of smart surfaces with biomimetic cues. The key aspect of this study is the in situ monitoring and analytical verification of the biofunctionalization process on the basis of three complementary analytical techniques. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to quantify the amount of chemisorbed GRGDS at both the homopolymer poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brush and the binary poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)− PAA brushes, which was finally ...


Development Of A Microcolumn One-Site Immunometric Assay For A Protein Biomarker: Analysis Of Alpha1-Acid Glycoprotein In Serum, Chenhua Zhang, Shae Lott, William Clarke, David S. Hage Jan 2019

Development Of A Microcolumn One-Site Immunometric Assay For A Protein Biomarker: Analysis Of Alpha1-Acid Glycoprotein In Serum, Chenhua Zhang, Shae Lott, William Clarke, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

A one-site immunometric assay based on affinity microcolumns was developed for the analysis of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a model protein biomarker. In this assay, a sample containing AGP was incubated with an excess amount of a labeled binding agent, such as fluorescein-labeled anti-AGP antibodies or Fab fragments. The excess binding agent was removed by passing this mixture through a microcolumn that contained an immobilized form of AGP, while the signal was measured for the binding agent-AGP complex in the non-retained fraction. Theoretical and practical factors were both considered in selecting the concentration of labeled binding agent ...


Insights Into Gemcitabine Resistance And The Potential For Therapeutic Monitoring, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Fatema Bhinderwala, Vinee Purohit, Nina V. Chaika, Pankaj K. Singh, Robert Powers Jan 2019

Insights Into Gemcitabine Resistance And The Potential For Therapeutic Monitoring, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Fatema Bhinderwala, Vinee Purohit, Nina V. Chaika, Pankaj K. Singh, Robert Powers

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Introduction—Gemcitabine is an important component of pancreatic cancer clinical management. Unfortunately, acquired gemcitabine resistance is widespread and there are limitations to predicting and monitoring therapeutic outcomes.

Objective—To investigate the potential of metabolomics to differentiate pancreatic cancer cells that develops resistance or respond to gemcitabine treatment.

Results—We applied 1D 1H and 2D 1H-13C HSQC NMR methods to profile the metabolic signature of pancreatic cancer cells. 13C6-glucose labeling identified thirty key metabolites uniquely altered between wild-type and gemcitabine-resistant cells upon gemcitabine treatment. Gemcitabine resistance was observed to reprogram glucose metabolism and to ...


Catalytic Mechanism Of Amyloid-Β Peptide Degradation By Insulin Degrading Enzyme: Insights From Qm/Mm Mp2 Calculation, Rui Lai, Wei-Jen Tang, Hui Li Jan 2019

Catalytic Mechanism Of Amyloid-Β Peptide Degradation By Insulin Degrading Enzyme: Insights From Qm/Mm Mp2 Calculation, Rui Lai, Wei-Jen Tang, Hui Li

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), a metalloprotease that degrades amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and insulin, is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. The mechanism of IDE catalyzed degrading of Aβ peptides, which is of fundamental importance in the design of therapeutic methods for Alzheimer’s disease, has not been fully understood. In this work, combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) style Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2) geometry optimization calculations are performed to investigate the catalytic mechanism of the Aβ40 Phe19-Phe20 peptide bond cleavage by human IDE. The analyses using QM/MM MP2 optimization ...


Design And Synthesis Of Multivalent Α-1,2-Trimannose-Linked Bioerodible Microparticles For Applications In Immune Response Studies Of Leishmania Major Infection, Chelsea L. Rintelmann, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Kathleen Ross, Daniel E. K. Kabotso, Angela Toepp, Anne Cowell, Christine Petersen, Balaji Narasimhan, Nicola Pohl Jan 2019

Design And Synthesis Of Multivalent Α-1,2-Trimannose-Linked Bioerodible Microparticles For Applications In Immune Response Studies Of Leishmania Major Infection, Chelsea L. Rintelmann, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Kathleen Ross, Daniel E. K. Kabotso, Angela Toepp, Anne Cowell, Christine Petersen, Balaji Narasimhan, Nicola Pohl

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, currently infects approximately 12 million people worldwide with 1 to 2 million new cases each year in predominantly underdeveloped countries. The treatment of the disease is severely underdeveloped due to the ability of the Leishmania pathogen to evade and abate immune responses. In an effort to develop anti-leishmaniasis vaccines and adjuvants, novel carbohydrate-based probes were made to study the mechanisms of immune modulation. In this study, a new bioerodible polyanhydride microparticle was designed and conjugated with a glycodendrimer molecular probe. This molecular probe incorporates a pathogen-like multivalent display of α-1,2-trimannose, for which a more ...


Towards The Discovery Of Oligonucleotide Cross-Linking Agents, Bhaskar Halami Jan 2019

Towards The Discovery Of Oligonucleotide Cross-Linking Agents, Bhaskar Halami

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Oligonucleotide cross-linking agents are expected to become a new class of antisense drugs. They function by first hybridizing with a complementary mRNA and then form a covalent bond to permanently link the mRNA to the oligonucleotide agent. Because of covalent cross-linking, this new class of antisense drugs are expected to have much higher potency than existing ones.

Some oligonucleotide cross-linking agents have appeared in the literature, but they have various drawbacks, which include slow cross-linking rate and reversible cross-linking. To address these problems, we designed a series of new cross-linking oligonucleotides with a range of different reactivities. These oligonucleotides were ...


Syntheses Of A Tin (Iv) Meso-Tetra(4-Pyridyl) Porphyrin Dichloride-Tetrachlorobis (Bipy)2 Ruthenium (Ii) Complex And Studies Of Photophysical Properties Of 1-Nitropyrene, Phillip Sharp Dec 2018

Syntheses Of A Tin (Iv) Meso-Tetra(4-Pyridyl) Porphyrin Dichloride-Tetrachlorobis (Bipy)2 Ruthenium (Ii) Complex And Studies Of Photophysical Properties Of 1-Nitropyrene, Phillip Sharp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Development of a photosensitizer that can work in both aerobic and anaerobic environments would increase the robustness of the cancer treatment known as photodynamic therapy. The development of a photosensitizer was first attempted by synthesizing a tin (IV) meso-tetra (4-pyridyl) porphyrin dichloride-tetrachlorobis (Bipy)2 ruthenium (II) complex. The synthesize of the tin porphyrin was done by a method from literature and had a percent error of 31.58 and 37.31 when comparing the theoretical percentages of carbon (55.39) and nitrogen (12.92) meaning that photosensitizer was not synthesized.

The second type of chromophore that was studied was 1-nitropyrene ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson Dec 2018

Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases PAD2 and PAD4 are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. PAD4 may be pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through its role in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation that promotes autoantigen externalization, immune dysregulation, and organ damage. The role of this enzyme in mouse models of autoimmunity remains unclear, as pan-PAD chemical inhibitors improve clinical phenotype, whereas PAD4-KO models have given conflicting results. The role of PAD2 in SLE has not been investigated. The differential roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in TLR-7-dependent lupus autoimmunity were examined. Padi4-/- displayed decreased autoantibodies, type I IFN responses, immune ...


Functional Features Defining The Efficacy Of Cholesterol-Conjugated, Self-Deliverable, Chemically Modified Sirnas, Taisia Shmushkovich, Kathryn R. Monopoli, Diana Homsy, Dmitriy Leyfer, Monica Betancur-Boissel, Anastasia Khvorova, Alexey D. Wolfson Nov 2018

Functional Features Defining The Efficacy Of Cholesterol-Conjugated, Self-Deliverable, Chemically Modified Sirnas, Taisia Shmushkovich, Kathryn R. Monopoli, Diana Homsy, Dmitriy Leyfer, Monica Betancur-Boissel, Anastasia Khvorova, Alexey D. Wolfson

Open Access Articles

Progress in oligonucleotide chemistry has produced a shift in the nature of siRNA used, from formulated, minimally modified siRNAs, to unformulated, heavily modified siRNA conjugates. The introduction of extensive chemical modifications is essential for conjugate-mediated delivery. Modifications have a significant impact on siRNA efficacy through interference with recognition and processing by RNAi enzymatic machinery, severely restricting the sequence space available for siRNA design. Many algorithms available publicly can successfully predict the activity of non-modified siRNAs, but the efficiency of the algorithms for designing heavily modified siRNAs has never been systematically evaluated experimentally. Here we screened 356 cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs with extensive ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Troponoids As A New Class Of Antibiotics, Feng Cao, Cari Orth, Maureen J. Donlin, Patrick Adegboyega, Marvin J. Meyers, Ryan P. Murelli, Mohamed Elagawany, Bahaa Elgendy, John E. Tavis Nov 2018

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Troponoids As A New Class Of Antibiotics, Feng Cao, Cari Orth, Maureen J. Donlin, Patrick Adegboyega, Marvin J. Meyers, Ryan P. Murelli, Mohamed Elagawany, Bahaa Elgendy, John E. Tavis

Publications and Research

Novel antibiotics are urgently needed. The troponoids [tropones, tropolones, and α-hydroxytropolones (α-HT)] can have anti-bacterial activity. We synthesized or purchased 92 troponoids and evaluated their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preliminary hits were assessed for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC80) and cytotoxicity (CC50) against human hepatoma cells. Sixteen troponoids inhibited S. aureus/E. coli/ A. baumannii growth by ≥80% growth at <30 >μM with CC50 values >50 μM. Two selected tropolones (63 and 285) inhibited 18 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains with similar MIC80 values as against a reference strain. Two selected thiotropolones (284 and ...


Mass Spectrometry And Nuclear Magnetic Resonance In The Chemometric Analysis Of Cellular Metabolism, Eli Riekeberg Nov 2018

Mass Spectrometry And Nuclear Magnetic Resonance In The Chemometric Analysis Of Cellular Metabolism, Eli Riekeberg

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

The development and awareness of Machine Learning and “big data” has led to a growing interest in applying these methods to bioanalytical research. Methods such as Mass Spectrometry (MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can now obtain tens of thousands to millions of data points from a single sample, due to fundamental instrumental advances and ever-increasing resolution. Simple pairwise comparisons on datasets of this magnitude can obfuscate more complex underlying trends, and does a disservice to the richness of information contained within. This necessitates the need for multivariate approaches that can more fully take advantage of the complexity of these ...


‘Cassette’-Ises (In Situ Enzymatic Screening) Identifies Complementary Chiral Scaffolds For Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution Across A Range Of Epoxides, Sangeeta Dey, Douglas R. Powell, Chunhua Hu, David B. Berkowitz Oct 2018

‘Cassette’-Ises (In Situ Enzymatic Screening) Identifies Complementary Chiral Scaffolds For Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution Across A Range Of Epoxides, Sangeeta Dey, Douglas R. Powell, Chunhua Hu, David B. Berkowitz

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

‘Cassette’-ISES (In Situ Enzymatic Screening) Identifies Complementary Chiral Scaffolds for Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution Across a Range of Epoxides

A new ‘Cassette’-In Situ Enzymatic Screen (ISES) for combinatorial catalysis is introduced. This allows the experimentalist to obtain an information-rich readout, in real time, providing an estimate of the sense and magnitude of enantioselectivity across more than one substrate. In its first iteration, the screen identified CoIII-salen catalysts with β-pinene- and α-naphthylalanine-derived chiral scaffolds with broad, yet complementary, substrate specificities.


Development Of Betulinic Acid Triazole Conjugates As Potential Anti-Cancer Agents, Gayathri Jampana Oct 2018

Development Of Betulinic Acid Triazole Conjugates As Potential Anti-Cancer Agents, Gayathri Jampana

Theses and Dissertations

Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenoid natural product isolated from the bark of birch trees. While betulin is abundantly available in the bark, betulinic acid is present in scarce quantities in nature. However, betulinic acid can be conveniently synthesized from betulin via simple redox manipulations. Betulinic acid shows selective cytotoxicity profile against cancer cells in vitro while being relatively safe for normal cells. One of the challenges for the clinical development of betulinic acid is its lack of aqueous solubility. The three key structural features of betulin/betulinic acid that have been routinely exploited for structural modifications to enhance ...


Au(Iii) And Pt(Ii) Complexes Of A Novel And Versatile 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazole-Based Ligand Possessing Diverse Secondary And Tertiary Coordinating Groups., Eolann Kitteringham, Zehao Zhou, Brendan Twamley, Darren M. Griffith Oct 2018

Au(Iii) And Pt(Ii) Complexes Of A Novel And Versatile 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazole-Based Ligand Possessing Diverse Secondary And Tertiary Coordinating Groups., Eolann Kitteringham, Zehao Zhou, Brendan Twamley, Darren M. Griffith

Chemistry Articles

A novel 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole-based ligand, 2-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1 H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)propane-1,3-diamine (ptpd), which possesses pyridyl and diamino secondary and tertiary coordinating groups was synthesized in excellent yield. The reactivity of 2-(1-phenyl-1 H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (ptp), di- tert-butyl (2-azidopropane-1,3-diyl)dicarbamate (Boc


Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee Oct 2018

Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

A high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI)-MS-based metabolomics platform was developed using a pre-fabricated microarray of nanoparticles and organic matrices. Selected organic matrices, inorganic nanoparticle (NP) suspensions, and sputter coated metal NPs, as well as various additives, were tested for metabolomics analysis of the turkey gut microbiome. Four NPs and one organic matrix were selected as the optimal matrix set: α-cyano-4-hydroycinnamic acid, Fe3O4 and Au NPs in positive ion mode with 10 mM sodium acetate, and Cu and Ag NPs in negative ion mode with no additive. Using this set of five matrices, over two thousand unique ...


Drug Resistance Mutation L76v Alters Nonpolar Interactions At The Flap-Core Interface Of Hiv-1 Protease, Andres Wong-Sam, Yuan-Fang Wang, Ying Zhang, Arun K. Ghosh, Robert W. Harrison, Irene T. Weber Sep 2018

Drug Resistance Mutation L76v Alters Nonpolar Interactions At The Flap-Core Interface Of Hiv-1 Protease, Andres Wong-Sam, Yuan-Fang Wang, Ying Zhang, Arun K. Ghosh, Robert W. Harrison, Irene T. Weber

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

Four HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors, clinical inhibitors lopinavir and tipranavir, and two investigational compounds 4 and 5, were studied for their effect on the structure and activity of PR with drug-resistant mutation L76V (PRL76V). Compound 5 exhibited the best K i value of 1.9 nM for PRL76V, whereas the other three inhibitors had K i values of 4.5-7.6 nM, 2-3 orders of magnitude worse than for wild-type enzymes. Crystal structures showed only minor differences in interactions of inhibitors with PRL76V compared to wild-type complexes. The shorter side chain of Val76 in the mutant lost hydrophobic interactions with ...


Efforts Towards The Discovery Of Novel Methods For The Synthesis Of Pharmacologically Relevant Molecular Scaffolds, Graham Joseph Haun Sep 2018

Efforts Towards The Discovery Of Novel Methods For The Synthesis Of Pharmacologically Relevant Molecular Scaffolds, Graham Joseph Haun

Theses and Dissertations

With the introductions of pharmaceuticals into modern day society many people have been using them to improve their lives. Due to this high increase in demand along with the ever-growing concern of environmental impact pharmaceutical companies have been pressed to synthesis new and existing drugs at a higher rate. This increased rate can cause low yield drugs or have a heavy environmental impact. As the use of pharmaceuticals becomes more widespread the need for greener and simpler organic synthesis methods to make these pharmaceuticals becomes more needed.

Herein is reported the methodological development of different pharmacologically relevant scaffolds. This work ...