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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

The Development Of Metallohydroxamates As Novel Anti-Bacterial And Anti-Leishmanial Agents, Donal Keogan Jul 2018

The Development Of Metallohydroxamates As Novel Anti-Bacterial And Anti-Leishmanial Agents, Donal Keogan

PhD theses

Since the initial development and clinical use of antibiotics, there has been a steady and alarming increase in the levels of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections arising worldwide. The reduced efficacy of antibiotics coupled to the lack of new classes of antibiotics being developed, may result in antibiotic resistance infections rising to epidemic levels.

The decrease in new antibiotic discovery has resulted in increased interest in repurposing and repositioning of previously developed drugs as effective anti-bacterial treatments. The use of metals in medicine is not a new phenomenon as they have been used in medicine for thousands of years. Nonetheless the ...


Glucosamine From Hydrolysis Of 3d Printing Chitosan For Osteoarthritis Treatment, Ruj Dansriboon, Laphon Premcharoen Jun 2018

Glucosamine From Hydrolysis Of 3d Printing Chitosan For Osteoarthritis Treatment, Ruj Dansriboon, Laphon Premcharoen

The International Student Science Fair 2018

This project aims to introduce a new way for osteoarthritis treatment which is expected to increase in the future. Glucosamine is the main subject for a treatment, which can be derived by hydrolyzing chitosan. This project also includes extraction of chitosan from shrimp waste to make a worthy use of food waste from industry. In this project, 3D printer is applied to print chitosan gel since 3D printing is adjustable to form various shapes of the gel.

The research process begins with the extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells. For the next step, the percent of deacetylation of chitosan was ...


Organocatalyzed Synthesis Of Epoxides From Chalcones Utilizing Amino Acids, Sabrina N. Kegeler Apr 2018

Organocatalyzed Synthesis Of Epoxides From Chalcones Utilizing Amino Acids, Sabrina N. Kegeler

Master's Theses

The epoxide functional group is important throughout the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in nature. In the chemical industry, epoxides are present in resins and fragrances. In the pharmaceutical industry, epoxide-containing compounds are used as intermediates in the manufacturing of drugs. In nature, many natural products contain epoxide groups and are used for medicinal purposes, and for models to create synthetic molecules.

One approach to epoxide synthesis involves the use of an alkene precursor, a base, and an oxidizing agent. This is where my investigations began. The first step was to optimize the epoxidation reaction, examining substrate scope ...


Greer Studies, Teaches How To Improve Medicines, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Feb 2018

Greer Studies, Teaches How To Improve Medicines, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

“As a child, I was interested in asking questions. Like why different substances work the way they do and why they have some effect on our bodies. I was fascinated by hydrogen-peroxide and how it decomposes when you pour it on the wound. I would ask why it happens, what is the reason?” That’s how Dr. Edyta Greer explains how she became interested in science. A native of Poland, Greer received her master’s from Warsaw University and her doctorate from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Today she is an associate professor in the ...


Improving Binding Affinity Through Cyclization, Kaylee M. Newcomb, Nicolas Abrigo Jan 2017

Improving Binding Affinity Through Cyclization, Kaylee M. Newcomb, Nicolas Abrigo

Undergraduate Research Posters

Cancer chemotherapy results in systematic damage as the drugs used are also toxic to benign tissue. Sensitizing a cancer cell to therapy by interfering with the DNA repair mechanisms would decrease overall toxicity, as the necessary dosage of chemotherapy drugs would be lowered. The Hartman lab developed a peptide (8.6) that binds with a KD of 1 μM to the C-terminal domain of breast cancer associated protein (BRCA1), blocking homologous recombination. The crystal structure of the peptide shows the tyrosine and threonine residues are close together, suggesting that by cyclizing these positions, the peptide may already be constrained into ...


Relative Reaction Rates Of The Amino Acids Cysteine, Methionine, And Histidine With Analogs Of The Anti-Cancer Drug Cisplatin, Cynthia A. Tope May 2015

Relative Reaction Rates Of The Amino Acids Cysteine, Methionine, And Histidine With Analogs Of The Anti-Cancer Drug Cisplatin, Cynthia A. Tope

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

We are studying the reaction of analogs of the anticancer drug cisplatin with amino acids that differ in size and shape. The reaction of cisplatin with proteins likely precedes reaction with DNA in the body, forming a variety of products that may be toxic to the human body. The size and shape of the platinum(II) complexes often affects the rate of reaction with proteins, more so than with DNA. In this study, triamine cisplatin analogs are reacted with the amino acids cysteine, methionine, and histidine simultaneously. These reactions are monitored by NMR spectroscopy. The effect of the bulk of ...


Science Classics, Mark Masthay Feb 2015

Science Classics, Mark Masthay

Mark Masthay

An essay on the impact of the works in the Imprints and Impressions: Milestones in Human Progress, an exhibition of rare books from the collection of Stuart Rose. Exhibition was held Sept. 29-Nov. 9, 2014, at the University of Dayton.


The Importance Of Context: An Exploration Of Factors Influencing The Adoption Of Student-Centered Teaching Among Chemistry, Biology, And Physics Faculty, Travis J. Lund, Marilyne Stains Jan 2015

The Importance Of Context: An Exploration Of Factors Influencing The Adoption Of Student-Centered Teaching Among Chemistry, Biology, And Physics Faculty, Travis J. Lund, Marilyne Stains

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Background: Research at the secondary and postsecondary levels has clearly demonstrated the critical role that individual and contextual characteristics play in instructors’ decision to adopt educational innovations. Although recent research has shed light on factors influencing the teaching practices of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty, it is still not well understood how unique departmental environments impact faculty adoption of evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs) within the context of a single institution. In this study, we sought to characterize the communication channels utilized by STEM faculty, as well as the contextual and individual factors that influence the teaching practices of ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling May 2014

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Science Classics, Mark Masthay Jan 2014

Science Classics, Mark Masthay

Chemistry Faculty Publications

An essay on the impact of the works in the Imprints and Impressions: Milestones in Human Progress, an exhibition of rare books from the collection of Stuart Rose. Exhibition was held Sept. 29-Nov. 9, 2014, at the University of Dayton.


Drug Delivery Via Nanoparticles, Laura Ward Jan 2013

Drug Delivery Via Nanoparticles, Laura Ward

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

Much research is being conducted to investigate the potential use of nanoparticles as an efficient drug delivery system. Important characteristics of nanoparticles that affect how they interact with biological systems include size, composition ,surface characteristics and shape. One of the many potential medical uses of nanoparticles is targeted drug delivery; nanoparticles have the potential to deliver concentrated amounts of medication to select areas of the body, reducing toxic effects in healthy areas of the body.


Lyrica, Shannon Hayward Jan 2013

Lyrica, Shannon Hayward

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

Illustrates the chemical components of Lyrica, a pain management medication.


Hypericum In Infection: Identification Of Anti-Viral And Anti-Inflammatory Constituents, Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jingqiang Wei, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Eve S. Wurtele, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Wendy J. Maury, Jason P. Price Aug 2009

Hypericum In Infection: Identification Of Anti-Viral And Anti-Inflammatory Constituents, Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jingqiang Wei, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Eve S. Wurtele, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Wendy J. Maury, Jason P. Price

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum, and Prunella botanical supplements for human-health benefit, emphasizing anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pain activities. This mini-review reports on ongoing studies on Hypericum. The Center uses the genetically diverse, well-documented Hypericum populations collected and maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), and the strength of research in synthetic chemistry at Iowa State University to tap natural diversity, to help discover key constituents and interactions among constituents that impact bioactivity and toxicity. The NCRPIS has acquired more than 180 distinct populations of Hypericum, with a ...


Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials And Magnetic Nanoparticles Based Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery Systems, Supratim Giri Jan 2008

Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials And Magnetic Nanoparticles Based Stimuli-Responsive Controlled-Release Delivery Systems, Supratim Giri

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research presented and discussed within this dissertation involves the development of mesoporous silica nanomaterials and magnetic nanoparticles based stimuli-responsive controlled-release delivery systems.;A superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-capped, MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanorod-based controlled-release delivery system (Magnet-MSN) was synthesized. The stimuli-responsive release profiles of fluorescein-loaded Magnet-MSN delivery systems in the presence of external magnetic field was studied by using cell-produced antioxidants as triggers for releasing fluorescein molecules. The intracellular delivery efficiency of the Magnet-MSN system with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) in vitro was demonstrated involving fluorescein molecules as model drug.;To take the advantage of the intracellular delivery capability ...


Synthesis Of Natural Compounds In Echinacea , Jaehoon Bae Jan 2006

Synthesis Of Natural Compounds In Echinacea , Jaehoon Bae

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we have investigated the direct and efficient synthetic route to biologically active natural products. Chapter 1 describes the synthesis of some of the natural compounds in Echinacea. Several main constituents of the plant Echinacea have been synthesized for the first time. We have developed a direct and flexible route to amides and ketones in Echinacea. The synthesized natural products have been used for standard samples for the biological studies. Chapter 2 describes the new tandem strategy to construct bicyclic systems by a Diels-Alder/ene reaction and its application for the synthesis of Isoligularone. During this tandem reaction ...


Enantiomeric Chromatographic Separations And Ionic Liquids , Jie Ding Jan 2005

Enantiomeric Chromatographic Separations And Ionic Liquids , Jie Ding

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The chiral nature of compounds contributes to their bioactivity and their various pharmaceutical/industrial uses. As a result, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has implemented policies for analyzing the enantiomers of chiral compounds. Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) utilizing chiral stationary phases are the two most commonly used methods to achieve direct enantiomeric separations of chiral compounds. The first part of this dissertation includes a review of direct separation of enantiomers in gas and liquid chromatography, an example of the enantiomeric separation of various racemic sulfoxides and sulfinate esters on four derivatized cyclodextrin chiral stationary phases using ...


New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches To Heterocycles And Carbocycles, Qinhua Huang Jan 2004

New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches To Heterocycles And Carbocycles, Qinhua Huang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O2NC6H4SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields.;The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines ...


Synthesis Of Polycyclic Natural Products , Tuan Hoang Nguyen Jan 2003

Synthesis Of Polycyclic Natural Products , Tuan Hoang Nguyen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Highly oxidized polycyclic natural products are abundant in nature and have diverse biological activities. Hyperforin has been identified as the sole constituent responsible for the antidepressant characteristic of St. John's wort. An approach to an oxidized bicyclic phloroglucin core of hyperforin is described. Puupehenone, a sesquiterpene found in marine sponges, has recently emerged as a strong candidate to treat tuberculosis. The synthesis of the BCD rings of puupehenone containing a quinone methide moiety is described.


New Methods For The Synthesis Of Natural Products , Alexey G. Melekhov Jan 1999

New Methods For The Synthesis Of Natural Products , Alexey G. Melekhov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this work we developed new approaches to three different classes of compounds. In the first chapter we employed PIFA as an oxidant to develop a direct route to pyrrolobenzodiazepines. We also developed a new way to generate acyl radicals by oxidative decarboxylation. The utility of this methodology was shown in the synthesis of 8-deoxy DC-81. In the second chapter we developed a five-step synthetic route to 1,4-phenanthrenequinones. We also used one of these phenanthrenequinones for the construction of an angularly-fused aromatic systems. In the third chapter we studied Lewis acid-mediated cyclizations of acyl quinones. We synthesized a precursor ...


Combination Of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing And Liquid Chromatography With Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry For Protein Characterization , Jing Wei Jan 1998

Combination Of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing And Liquid Chromatography With Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry For Protein Characterization , Jing Wei

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) is utilized for protein characterization;Both CIEF-ESIMS and LC-MS are studied for phosphoprotein characterization. At the intact protein level, on-line CTEF-ESIMS is applied for phosphorylation analysis to obtain the two dimensional information: isoelectric point and molecular mass. At the peptide level, on-line LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI neutral loss MS/MS were highly specific for the determination of sites of phosphorylation and successfully applied on the tryptic digest of tau proteins phosphorylated by different kinases;On-line combination of CIEF with ESI-TOF MS is demonstrated for high ...


Capillary Electrophoresis Separation Of Neutral Organic Compounds, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Proteins And Peptides, Enantiomers And Anions , Wei-Liang Ding Jan 1998

Capillary Electrophoresis Separation Of Neutral Organic Compounds, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Proteins And Peptides, Enantiomers And Anions , Wei-Liang Ding

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Addition of a novel anionic surfactant, namely lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, to an aqueous-acetonitrile electrolyte makes it possible to separate nonionic organic compounds by capillary electrophoresis. Separation is based on differences in the association between analytes and the surfactant. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons are well separated by this new surfactant. Migration times of analytes can be readily changed over an unusually large range by varying the additive concentration and the proportion of acetonitrile in the electrolyte. Several examples are given, including the separation of four methylbenz (a) anthracene isomers and the separation of normal and deuterated acetophenone;The ...


Novel Materials And Methods For Solid-Phase Extraction And High-Performance Liquid Chromatography , Dianna Lynn Ambrose Jan 1997

Novel Materials And Methods For Solid-Phase Extraction And High-Performance Liquid Chromatography , Dianna Lynn Ambrose

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is one of the most popular sample preparation techniques for the isolation and preconcentration of organic compounds from aqueous samples. Modified porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins containing polar groups are superior for SPE of organic solutes from aqueous samples. These modified resins display excellent surface hydrophilicity and improved extraction efficiencies. Silicalite is a hydrophobic molecular sieve with an unusual crystal structure. Because of its unique structure, Silicalite adsorbs organic analytes from aqueous samples due to hydrophobic interactions;The ability of Silicalite and a lightly sulfonated PS-DVB resin to extract various organic test compounds from aqueous samples was compared ...


Electrochemically-Modulated Liquid Chromatography (Emlc): Column Design, Retention Processes, And Applications , En-Yi Ting Jan 1997

Electrochemically-Modulated Liquid Chromatography (Emlc): Column Design, Retention Processes, And Applications , En-Yi Ting

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores a new separation technique, electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), from the column design, retention processes, to the pharmaceutical applications. A literature review, general summary, and perspectives of this technique are also described. Chapter 1 presents the newly designed EMLC column. The principal modification of this design is to connect the porous stainless steel column as counter electrode as opposed to part of working electrode in the previous design. The improvement in performance from this modification results in a shorter response time to changes in applied potential (E appl) and a better control of E appl at cathodic ...


Total Synthesis Of Angularly Fused Natural Products , Guohua Zhao Jan 1996

Total Synthesis Of Angularly Fused Natural Products , Guohua Zhao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The synthesis of angularly fused quinone natural product G-2N has been achieved using a photoenolization reaction and a Diels-Alder reaction in the key carbon-carbon bond forming steps. This route is direct and flexible. It should be applicable to synthesis of other analogous natural products;The skeleton of colchicine has been achieved using a Diels-Alder reaction followed by an electrophilic addition to the A ring as key steps. Our synthetic approach is direct. It could provide an efficient entry to total synthesis of colchicine.


Synthesis Of Diterpene Alkaloids , Tiberiu Mircea Siclovan Jan 1996

Synthesis Of Diterpene Alkaloids , Tiberiu Mircea Siclovan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aconitine, atisine and garrya type diterpene alkaloids show remarkable biological activity and have a number of structural features in common. Due to their complex structure, there is a discrepancy between progress made lately in the identification, isolation and characterization of new members of this family, on one hand, and successful efforts towards their total synthesis, on the other;Our synthetic studies led us to develop a highly reproducible synthesis of adamantane-containing compounds via the corresponding bridgehead anions;Studies on the application of functionalized bridgehead radicals in natural product synthesis resulted in the development of a versatile, mild and highly tolerant ...


Synthesis, Structure Features And Application Of Pro-Azaphsphatranes As Catalysts And Strong Non-Ionic Bases In Organic Synthesis , Jiansheng Tang Jan 1994

Synthesis, Structure Features And Application Of Pro-Azaphsphatranes As Catalysts And Strong Non-Ionic Bases In Organic Synthesis , Jiansheng Tang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the development of pro-azaphosphatranes ZP(MeNCH[subscript]2CH[subscript]2)[subscript]3N as versatile useful materials in organic synthesis;Pro-imidophosphatranes MeN= P(MeNCH[subscript]2CH[subscript]2)[subscript]3N and PhN= P(MeNCH[subscript]2CH[subscript]2)[subscript]3N, their corresponding acyclic analogues MeN= P(NMe[subscript]2)[subscript]3 and PhN= P(NMe[subscript]2)[subscript]3, and their conjugate acids as well as the conjugate acid of the commercially available non-ionic base P[subscript]4-t-Bu (i.e. t-BuN=P (N=P(NMe[subscript]2)[subscript]3][subscript]3) have been synthesized. Equilibria measured by [superscript ...


Synthetic Approaches To Huperzine A , Danette René Vines Jan 1994

Synthetic Approaches To Huperzine A , Danette René Vines

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The natural product huperzine A has been found to possess activity as a nootropic agent. Because of its memory facilitating effects, huperzine A represents a promising drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. As life expectancy increases, identifying and synthesizing drugs which treat cognitive dysfunction becomes a primary health objective;This study was undertaken to synthesize huperzine A, and to offer a direct route to improved analogs of huperzine A. A bicyclic amino ketone for the synthesis of huperzine A was prepared in six steps. The conjugate addition of metallated alkylpyridines afforded a direct route ...