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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein Aug 2019

Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein

Student Theses

Fast and easy screening procedures are essential in any forensic toxicology laboratory to differentiate negative samples from presumptive positive cases. Immunoassay techniques, such as enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), are routinely employed as screening procedures. However, these techniques lack specificity (only differentiate group of drugs and not individual compounds) and it is difficult to add new compounds to the panel. Direct analysis of dried urine spots (DUS) by mass spectrometry (MS) offers a novel strategy to overcome these issues. DUS offer an improved storage alternative for biological samples, reducing costs and space requirements. In this work, an original method to ...


Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph May 2019

Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organometallic reagents containing the tin-carbon bond are used extensively in modern synthetic chemistry for the formation of new bonds to carbon. Over recent decades, transition metal catalyzed cross coupling reactions between two C(sp2) centers have been widely developed. However, the introduction of a C(sp3) center complicates the catalytic cycle, and opens unproductive chemical pathways which lead to isomerization, elimination, and racemization. Our lab has developed a modified-Stille reaction to combat the deleterious effects of β-hydride elimination. Our protocol enables unactivated 2° alkyl organotin nucleophiles to undergo efficient cross coupling reactions with C(sp2) electrophiles, avoiding ...


Ligand-Protein Binding Of Cantharidin And Norcantharidin On Hsf1: A Docking Study, Daniel Coyle Apr 2019

Ligand-Protein Binding Of Cantharidin And Norcantharidin On Hsf1: A Docking Study, Daniel Coyle

HON499 projects

Previous research provides experimental evidence that cantharidin acts as an inhibitor of HSF1 in cancer cells whereas the similar norcantharidin exhibits no inhibitory activity on HSF1. This computational study utilized Autodock to suggest both binding site(s) and binding energies of cantharidin and norcantharidin on HSF1. This study found cantharidin to consistently bind stronger than norcantharidin in the same area on HSF1 when assuming a rigid protein structure.


Molecular Insights Into Organic Particulate Formation, Manoj Kumar, Emily Burrell, Jason C. Hansen, Joseph S. Francisco Jan 2019

Molecular Insights Into Organic Particulate Formation, Manoj Kumar, Emily Burrell, Jason C. Hansen, Joseph S. Francisco

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Carboxylic acids have been detected in particles collected in various regions of the world. Here, we use experiments and Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations to better understand the mechanism of particle formation from gas phase mixtures of formic acid (HCOOH), (CH3)3N, and water vapor. A flow reaction cell coupled to two scanning mobility particle sizers has been used to measure particle size, absolute number of particles and kinetics of particle formation. Experimental results show that the addition of (CH3)3N to a mixture of HCOOH and water vapor results in a dramatic increase in particle ...


In-Situ-Investigation Of Enzyme Immobilization On Polymer Brushes, Meike Koenig, Ulla König, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Martin Muller, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann Jan 2019

In-Situ-Investigation Of Enzyme Immobilization On Polymer Brushes, Meike Koenig, Ulla König, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Martin Muller, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Herein, we report on the use of a combined setup of quartz-crystal microbalance, with dissipation monitoring and spectroscopic ellipsometry, to comprehensively investigate the covalent immobilization of an enzyme to a polymer layer. All steps of the covalent reaction of the model enzyme glucose oxidase with the poly(acrylic acid) brush by carbodiimide chemistry, were monitored in-situ. Data were analyzed using optical and viscoelastic modeling. A nearly complete collapse of the polymer chains was found upon activation of the carboxylic acid groups with N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. The reaction with the amine groups of the enzyme occurs simultaneously with ...


Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar Jan 2019

Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Understanding the degradation mechanisms of lead-halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3) under exposure to liquid/aerosol water is an essential problem within the photovoltaic community. Herein we investigate both the static and the dynamic properties of the methylammonuim cation (MA) as it coordinates with invading water molecules (MA.(H2O)n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) using both stationary state quantum mechanics and first principle molecular dynamics simulations. Various solvation structures of MA were characterized by their stabilization energies, dipoles, and Maximally-Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) centers. Calculation – and analysis – of vibrational shifts in the IR spectral region ...


Indole Reverses Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance By Activating A Novel Dual-Function Importer, Yan Wang, Tian Tian, Jingjing Zhang, Xin Jin, Huan Yue, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Liangcheng Du, Fan Bai Jan 2019

Indole Reverses Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance By Activating A Novel Dual-Function Importer, Yan Wang, Tian Tian, Jingjing Zhang, Xin Jin, Huan Yue, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Liangcheng Du, Fan Bai

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Bacterial antibiotic resistance modulation by small signaling molecules is an emerging mechanism that has been increasingly reported in recent years. Several studies indicate that indole, an interkingdom signaling molecule, increases bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the mechanism through which indole reduces antibiotic resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism for indole-mediated reversal of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Lysobacter. This reversal was facilitated by a novel BtuD-associated dual-function importer that can transfer both vitamin B12 and antibiotics. Indole stimulated btuD overexpression and promoted efficient absorption of extracellular vitamin B12; meanwhile, the weak selectivity of the ...


Structural Basis Of 7sk Rna 5′ Γ-Phosphate Methylation And Retention By Mepce, Yuan Yang, Catherine D. Eichhorn, Yaqiang Wang, Duilio Cascio, Juli Feigon Jan 2019

Structural Basis Of 7sk Rna 5′ Γ-Phosphate Methylation And Retention By Mepce, Yuan Yang, Catherine D. Eichhorn, Yaqiang Wang, Duilio Cascio, Juli Feigon

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Among RNA 5′-cap structures, γ-phosphate monomethylation is unique to a small subset of noncoding RNAs, 7SK and U6 in humans. 7SK is capped by methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE), which has a second non-enzymatic role as a core component of the 7SK RNP that is an essential regulator of RNA transcription. We report 2.0 and 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structures of human MePCE methyltransferase domain bound to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and uncapped or capped 7SK substrates, respectively. 7SK recognition is achieved by protein contacts to a 5′ hairpin-single-stranded RNA region, explaining MePCE specificity for 7SK and U6. The structures ...


High Initial Reversible Capacity And Long Life Of Ternary Sno2‑Co‑Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes For Lithium‑Ion Batteries, Pan Deng, Jing Yang, Shengyang Li, Tian-E Fan, Hong-Hui Wu, Yun Mou, Hui Huang, Qiaobao Zhang, Dong-Liang Peng, Baihua Qu Jan 2019

High Initial Reversible Capacity And Long Life Of Ternary Sno2‑Co‑Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes For Lithium‑Ion Batteries, Pan Deng, Jing Yang, Shengyang Li, Tian-E Fan, Hong-Hui Wu, Yun Mou, Hui Huang, Qiaobao Zhang, Dong-Liang Peng, Baihua Qu

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The two major limitations in the application of SnO2 for lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes are the large volume variations of SnO2 during repeated lithiation/delithiation processes and a large irreversible capacity loss during the first cycle, which can lead to a rapid capacity fade and unsatisfactory initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE). To overcome these limitations, we developed composites of ultrafine SnO2 nanoparticles and in situ formed Co(CoSn) nanocrystals embedded in an N-doped carbon matrix using a Co-based metal–organic framework (ZIF-67). The formed Co additives and structural advantages of the carbon-confined SnO2/ Co nanocomposite effectively inhibited ...


Detailed Characterization Of The Solution Kinetics And Thermodynamics Of Biotin, Biocytin And Haba Binding To Avidin And Streptavidin, Roberto F. Delgadillo, Timothy C. Mueser, Kathia Zaleta-Rivera, Katie A. Carnes, Jose Gonzalez-Valdez, Lawrence J. Parkhurst Jan 2019

Detailed Characterization Of The Solution Kinetics And Thermodynamics Of Biotin, Biocytin And Haba Binding To Avidin And Streptavidin, Roberto F. Delgadillo, Timothy C. Mueser, Kathia Zaleta-Rivera, Katie A. Carnes, Jose Gonzalez-Valdez, Lawrence J. Parkhurst

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The high affinity (KD ~ 10−15 M) of biotin for avidin and streptavidin is the essential component in a multitude of bioassays with many experiments using biotin modifications to invoke coupling. Equilibration times suggested for these assays assume that the association rate constant (kon) is approximately diffusion limited (109 M-1s-1) but recent single molecule and surface binding studies indicate that they are slower than expected (105 to 107 M-1s-1). In this study, we asked whether these reactions in solution are diffusion controlled, which reaction model and thermodynamic cycle describes the ...


Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai C. Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey Jan 2019

Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai C. Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic infections resulting in significant morbidity. Urease, an enzyme that generates NH3 and CO2 from urea, is key to pH homeostasis in bacterial pathogens under acidic stress and nitrogen limitation. However, the function of urease in S. aureus niche colonization and nitrogen metabolism has not been extensively studied. We discovered that urease is essential for pH homeostasis and viability in urea-rich environments under weak acid stress. The regulation of urease transcription by CcpA, Agr, and CodY was identified in this study, implying a complex network that controls urease expression in response to changes ...


Highly Stable And Efficient All-Inorganic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells With Native-Oxide Passivation, Min Chen, Ming-Gang Ju, Hector F. Garces, Alexander D. Carl, Luis K. Ono, Zafer Hawash, Yi Zhang, Tianyi Shen, Yabing Qi, Ronald L. Grimm, Domenico Pacifici, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture Jan 2019

Highly Stable And Efficient All-Inorganic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells With Native-Oxide Passivation, Min Chen, Ming-Gang Ju, Hector F. Garces, Alexander D. Carl, Luis K. Ono, Zafer Hawash, Yi Zhang, Tianyi Shen, Yabing Qi, Ronald L. Grimm, Domenico Pacifici, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

There has been an urgent need to eliminate toxic lead from the prevailing halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), but the current lead-free PSCs are still plagued with the critical issues of low efficiency and poor stability. This is primarily due to their inadequate photovoltaic properties and chemical stability. Herein we demonstrate the use of the lead-free, allinorganic cesium tin-germanium triiodide (CsSn0.5Ge0.5I3) solid-solution perovskite as the light absorber in PSCs, delivering promising efficiency of up to 7.11%. More importantly, these PSCs show very high stability, with less than 10% decay in efficiency after ...


Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar Jan 2019

Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Understanding the degradation mechanisms of lead-halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3) under exposure to liquid/aerosol water is an essential problem within the photovoltaic community. Herein we investigate both the static and the dynamic properties of the methylammonuim cation (MA) as it coordinates with invading water molecules (MA.(H2O)n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) using both stationary state quantum mechanics and first principle molecular dynamics simulations. Various solvation structures of MA were characterized by their stabilization energies, dipoles, and Maximally-Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) centers. Calculation – and analysis – of vibrational shifts in the IR spectral region ...


Electrocaloric Effect In Ferroelectric Ceramics With Point Defects, Ming Wu, Qingshan Zhu, Jianting Li, Dongsheng Song, Honghui Wu, Mengyao Guo, Jinghui Gao, Yang Bai, Yujun Feng, Stephen J. Pennycoock, Xiaojie Lou Jan 2019

Electrocaloric Effect In Ferroelectric Ceramics With Point Defects, Ming Wu, Qingshan Zhu, Jianting Li, Dongsheng Song, Honghui Wu, Mengyao Guo, Jinghui Gao, Yang Bai, Yujun Feng, Stephen J. Pennycoock, Xiaojie Lou

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The electrocaloric effect has drawn much attention due to its potential application in cooling devices. A negative electrocaloric effect is predicted to be induced in defect-doped ferroelectrics by computational results [A. Grunebohm and T. Nishimatsu, Phys. Rev. B 93, 134101 (2016) and Ma et al., Phys. Rev. B 94, 094113 (2016)], but it need to be confirmed by experimental results. In this work, we prepared a 1mol. % Mn-doped Pb(Zr0.2,Ti0.8)O3 ceramics (Pb((Zr0.2,Ti0.8)0.99,Mn0.01)O3), and the electrocaloric effect of the defect-containing ferroelectric ...


The Inductive Effect In Organic Chemistry, Charles A. Kingsbury Jan 2019

The Inductive Effect In Organic Chemistry, Charles A. Kingsbury

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The subtle difference between the successive polarization model and the flow of electrons through sigma bonds is explored, as well as the alternating charge model of Pople and the pervasive field model. The present paper is concerned with the ability of alkyl groups to serve as sigma inductive electron donors.


Machine Learning Enabled Prediction Of Mechanical Properties Of Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer, Xinyu Wang, Dan Han, Yang Hong, Haiyi Sun, Jingzhi Zhang, Jingchao Zhang Jan 2019

Machine Learning Enabled Prediction Of Mechanical Properties Of Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer, Xinyu Wang, Dan Han, Yang Hong, Haiyi Sun, Jingzhi Zhang, Jingchao Zhang

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

One of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide materials, tungsten disulfide (WS2), has aroused much research interest, and its mechanical properties play an important role in a practical application. Here the mechanical properties of h-WS2 and t-WS2 monolayers in the armchair and zigzag directions are evaluated by utilizing the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and machine learning (ML) technique. We mainly focus on the effects of chirality, system size, temperature, strain rate, and random vacancy defect on mechanical properties, including fracture strain, fracture strength, and Young’s modulus. We find that the mechanical properties of h-WS2 surpass those of ...


In Situ Monitoring Of Linear Rgd-Peptide Bioconjugation With Nanoscale Polymer Brushes, Evmorfia Psarra, Ulla Konig, Martin Muller, Eva Bittrich, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Petra B. Welzel, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann Jan 2019

In Situ Monitoring Of Linear Rgd-Peptide Bioconjugation With Nanoscale Polymer Brushes, Evmorfia Psarra, Ulla Konig, Martin Muller, Eva Bittrich, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Petra B. Welzel, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Bioinspired materials mimicking the native extracellular matrix environment are promising for biotechnological applications. Particularly, modular biosurface engineering based on the functionalization of stimuli-responsive polymer brushes with peptide sequences can be used for the development of smart surfaces with biomimetic cues. The key aspect of this study is the in situ monitoring and analytical verification of the biofunctionalization process on the basis of three complementary analytical techniques. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to quantify the amount of chemisorbed GRGDS at both the homopolymer poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brush and the binary poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)− PAA brushes, which was finally ...


Development Of A Microcolumn One-Site Immunometric Assay For A Protein Biomarker: Analysis Of Alpha1-Acid Glycoprotein In Serum, Chenhua Zhang, Shae Lott, William Clarke, David S. Hage Jan 2019

Development Of A Microcolumn One-Site Immunometric Assay For A Protein Biomarker: Analysis Of Alpha1-Acid Glycoprotein In Serum, Chenhua Zhang, Shae Lott, William Clarke, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

A one-site immunometric assay based on affinity microcolumns was developed for the analysis of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a model protein biomarker. In this assay, a sample containing AGP was incubated with an excess amount of a labeled binding agent, such as fluorescein-labeled anti-AGP antibodies or Fab fragments. The excess binding agent was removed by passing this mixture through a microcolumn that contained an immobilized form of AGP, while the signal was measured for the binding agent-AGP complex in the non-retained fraction. Theoretical and practical factors were both considered in selecting the concentration of labeled binding agent ...


Insights Into Gemcitabine Resistance And The Potential For Therapeutic Monitoring, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Fatema Bhinderwala, Vinee Purohit, Nina V. Chaika, Pankaj K. Singh, Robert Powers Jan 2019

Insights Into Gemcitabine Resistance And The Potential For Therapeutic Monitoring, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Fatema Bhinderwala, Vinee Purohit, Nina V. Chaika, Pankaj K. Singh, Robert Powers

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Introduction—Gemcitabine is an important component of pancreatic cancer clinical management. Unfortunately, acquired gemcitabine resistance is widespread and there are limitations to predicting and monitoring therapeutic outcomes.

Objective—To investigate the potential of metabolomics to differentiate pancreatic cancer cells that develops resistance or respond to gemcitabine treatment.

Results—We applied 1D 1H and 2D 1H-13C HSQC NMR methods to profile the metabolic signature of pancreatic cancer cells. 13C6-glucose labeling identified thirty key metabolites uniquely altered between wild-type and gemcitabine-resistant cells upon gemcitabine treatment. Gemcitabine resistance was observed to reprogram glucose metabolism and to ...


Catalytic Mechanism Of Amyloid-Β Peptide Degradation By Insulin Degrading Enzyme: Insights From Qm/Mm Mp2 Calculation, Rui Lai, Wei-Jen Tang, Hui Li Jan 2019

Catalytic Mechanism Of Amyloid-Β Peptide Degradation By Insulin Degrading Enzyme: Insights From Qm/Mm Mp2 Calculation, Rui Lai, Wei-Jen Tang, Hui Li

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), a metalloprotease that degrades amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and insulin, is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. The mechanism of IDE catalyzed degrading of Aβ peptides, which is of fundamental importance in the design of therapeutic methods for Alzheimer’s disease, has not been fully understood. In this work, combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) style Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2) geometry optimization calculations are performed to investigate the catalytic mechanism of the Aβ40 Phe19-Phe20 peptide bond cleavage by human IDE. The analyses using QM/MM MP2 optimization ...