Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2017

Series

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco Dec 2017

Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 ...


Directed Self-Assembly Of Fluorescence Responsive Nanoparticles And Their Use For Real-Time Surface And Cellular Imaging., Shane Cheung, Donal F. O'Shea Dec 2017

Directed Self-Assembly Of Fluorescence Responsive Nanoparticles And Their Use For Real-Time Surface And Cellular Imaging., Shane Cheung, Donal F. O'Shea

Chemistry Articles

Directed self-assemblies in water are known as the most efficient means of forming complex higher ordered structures in nature. Here we show a straightforward and robust method for particle assembly which utilises the amphiphilic tri-block co-polymer poloxamer-188 and a hydrophobic fluorophore as the two designer components, which have a built-in ability to convey spatial and temporal information about their surroundings to an observer. Templating of particle self-assembly is attributed to interactions between the fluorophore and hydrophobic segment of the poloxamer. Particle fluorescence in water is quenched but can be induced to selectively switch on in response to temperature, surface adsorption ...


Folding Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti) Is Faster Using Aromatic Thiols And Their Corresponding Disulfides, Ram Prasad Marahatta Nov 2017

Folding Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti) Is Faster Using Aromatic Thiols And Their Corresponding Disulfides, Ram Prasad Marahatta

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Improvement in the in vitro oxidative folding of disulfide-containing proteins, such as extracellular and pharmaceutically important proteins, is required. Traditional folding methods using small molecule aliphatic thiol and disulfide, such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) are slow and low yielding. Small molecule aromatic thiols and disulfides show great potentiality because aromatic thiols have low pKa values, close to the thiol pKa of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), higher nucleophilicity and good leaving group ability. Our studies showed that thiols with a positively charged group, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), are better than thiols with negatively charged groups such as phosphonic ...


Ensemble-Based Modeling And Rigidity Decomposition Of Allosteric Interaction Networks And Communication Pathways In Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Differentiating Kinase Clients Of The Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone, Gabrielle Stetz, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker Nov 2017

Ensemble-Based Modeling And Rigidity Decomposition Of Allosteric Interaction Networks And Communication Pathways In Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Differentiating Kinase Clients Of The Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone, Gabrielle Stetz, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The overarching goal of delineating molecular principles underlying differentiation of protein kinase clients and chaperone-based modulation of kinase activity is fundamental to understanding activity of many oncogenic kinases that require chaperoning of Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems to attain a functionally competent active form. Despite structural similarities and common activation mechanisms shared by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) proteins, members of this family can exhibit vastly different chaperone preferences. The molecular determinants underlying chaperone dependencies of protein kinases are not fully understood as structurally similar kinases may often elicit distinct regulatory responses to the chaperone. The regulatory divergences observed for members of CDK ...


Selective Targeting Of Bromodomains Of The Bromodomain-Phd Fingers Family Impairs Osteoclast Differentiation, Julia C. Meier, Hanna Witwicka, Sung-Yong Hwang, Mark J. Birnbaum, Stefan Knapp Oct 2017

Selective Targeting Of Bromodomains Of The Bromodomain-Phd Fingers Family Impairs Osteoclast Differentiation, Julia C. Meier, Hanna Witwicka, Sung-Yong Hwang, Mark J. Birnbaum, Stefan Knapp

Open Access Articles

Histone acetyltransferases of the MYST family are recruited to chromatin by BRPF scaffolding proteins. We explored functional consequences and the therapeutic potential of inhibitors targeting acetyl-lysine dependent protein interaction domains (bromodomains) present in BRPF1-3 in bone maintenance. We report three potent and selective inhibitors: one (PFI-4) with high selectivity for the BRPF1B isoform and two pan-BRPF bromodomain inhibitors (OF-1, NI-57). The developed inhibitors displaced BRPF bromodomains from chromatin and did not inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Intriguingly, the inhibitors impaired RANKL-induced differentiation of primary murine bone marrow cells and human primary monocytes into bone resorbing osteoclasts by specifically repressing transcriptional ...


Platinum(Iv) Oxaliplatin-Peptide Conjugates Targeting Memhsp70+ Phenotype In Colorectal Cancer Cells., Aoife M. Mckeon, Janis Noonan, Marc Devocelle, Brona M. Murphy, Darren M. Griffith Oct 2017

Platinum(Iv) Oxaliplatin-Peptide Conjugates Targeting Memhsp70+ Phenotype In Colorectal Cancer Cells., Aoife M. Mckeon, Janis Noonan, Marc Devocelle, Brona M. Murphy, Darren M. Griffith

Chemistry Articles

Novel Pt(iv) tumour penetrating peptide (TPP) conjugates are reported. They are the first example of metallodrugs to target a membrane bound heat shock protein 70 positive (memHSP70+) phenotype in cancer cells. The conjugates exhibit superior cytotoxicity as compared to oxaliplatin alone in Pt resistant colorectal cancer cells with relatively high memHSP70+ expression. Substitution of TPP in Pt(iv) peptide conjugates with scrambled peptide (ScP) essentially abolishes the observed cytotoxicity.


Progress Toward The Development Of A "Catch/Release" Strategy For Isolating Salvinorin A, From Plant Materails Including Microwave Promotion, Douglas Armstrong, Logan Smith Oct 2017

Progress Toward The Development Of A "Catch/Release" Strategy For Isolating Salvinorin A, From Plant Materails Including Microwave Promotion, Douglas Armstrong, Logan Smith

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

We are investigating using the Diels-Alder and retro-Diels-Alder reactions as a potential “catch/release” strategy for isolating Salvinorin A from plant samples (Salvia divinorum), hopefully to improve the current method, which is very long and laborious. Salvinorin A has analgesic activity by activating the kappa opioid receptor, not the mu receptor, and thus it has potential for being developed into a non-addicting analgesic.


Toxicant Formation In Dabbing: The Terpene Story, Jiries Meehan-Attrash, Wentai Luo, Robert M. Strongin Sep 2017

Toxicant Formation In Dabbing: The Terpene Story, Jiries Meehan-Attrash, Wentai Luo, Robert M. Strongin

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Inhalable, noncombustible cannabis products are playing a central role in the expansion of the medical and recreational use of cannabis. In particular, the practice of “dabbing” with butane hash oil has emerged with great popularity in states that have legalized cannabis. Despite their growing popularity, the degradation product profiles of these new products have not been extensively investigated. The study herein focuses on the chemistry of myrcene and other common terpenes found in cannabis extracts. Methacrolein, benzene, and several other products of concern to human health were formed under the conditions that simulated realworld dabbing. The terpene degradation products observed ...


Nonlinear Oscillatory Dynamics Of The Hardening Of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements, Vuk Uskoković, Julietta V. Rau Aug 2017

Nonlinear Oscillatory Dynamics Of The Hardening Of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements, Vuk Uskoković, Julietta V. Rau

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Here we report on the nonlinear, oscillatory dynamics detected in the evolution of phase composition during the setting of different calcium phosphate cements, two of which evolved toward brushite and one toward hydroxyapatite as the final product. Whereas both brushite-forming cements contained iondoped b-tricalcium phosphate as the initial phase, the zinc-containing one yielded scholzite as an additional phase during setting and the oscillations between these two products were pronounced throughout the entire 80 h setting period, long after the hardening processes was over from the mechanical standpoint. Oscillations in the copper-containing system involved the amount of brushite as the main ...


Bf2-Azadipyrromethene Nir-Emissive Fluorophores With Research And Clinical Potential., Harrison C. Daly, Gonzalo Sampedro, Corentin Bon, Dan Wu, Ghazi Ismail, Ronan A. Cahill, Donal F. O'Shea Jul 2017

Bf2-Azadipyrromethene Nir-Emissive Fluorophores With Research And Clinical Potential., Harrison C. Daly, Gonzalo Sampedro, Corentin Bon, Dan Wu, Ghazi Ismail, Ronan A. Cahill, Donal F. O'Shea

Chemistry Articles

The use of near-infrared fluorescence for in vivo research and intraoperative clinical imaging is rapidly expanding, with new applications being proposed and developed. While imaging hardware and software have significantly progressed in recent times, the molecular fluorescent agents remain a limiting factor. In this report, the design, synthesis, photophysical characterization and bio-medical imaging assessment of two new NIR-fluorophores based on the BF


Development Of Entrapment Columns For The Study Of Affinity Based Analysis Of Drug-Protein Interactions, Shiden T. Azaria Jul 2017

Development Of Entrapment Columns For The Study Of Affinity Based Analysis Of Drug-Protein Interactions, Shiden T. Azaria

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

High-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) is a type of liquid chromatography in which solutes are separated based on their binding to a stationary phase that is a biologically-related agent. Because of the strong and selective nature of many biological interactions, this method has already become a powerful technique for the purification and analysis of solutes that are complementary to the immobilized binding agent. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in the blood with concentrations of 35-50 mg/mL in serum, has interactions with many drugs, which can affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of such agents.

The overall ...


Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury Jul 2017

Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions ofmenthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating thatmenthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at ...


Antifungal Potential Of Copper(Ii), Manganese(Ii) And Silver(I) 1,10-Phenanthroline Chelates Against Multidrug-Resistant Fungal Species Forming The Candida Haemulonii Complex: Impact On The Planktonic And Biofilm Lifestyles, Rafael M. Gandra, Pauraic Mc Carron, Mariana F. Fernandes, Lívia S. Ramos, Thaís P. Mello, Ana Carolina Aor, Marta H. Branquinha, Malachy Mccann, Michael Devereux, André L. S. Santos Jul 2017

Antifungal Potential Of Copper(Ii), Manganese(Ii) And Silver(I) 1,10-Phenanthroline Chelates Against Multidrug-Resistant Fungal Species Forming The Candida Haemulonii Complex: Impact On The Planktonic And Biofilm Lifestyles, Rafael M. Gandra, Pauraic Mc Carron, Mariana F. Fernandes, Lívia S. Ramos, Thaís P. Mello, Ana Carolina Aor, Marta H. Branquinha, Malachy Mccann, Michael Devereux, André L. S. Santos

Articles

Candida haemulonii, Candida haemulonii var. vulnera and Candida duobushaemulonii, which form the C. haemulonii complex, are emerging etiologic agents of fungal infections known to be resistant to the most commonly used antifungals. The well-established anti-Candida potential ofmetal complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands encouraged us to evaluate different copper(II), manganese(II), and silver(I) phen chelates for their ability to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm of C. haemulonii species complex. Two novel coordination complexes, {[Cu(3,6,9-tdda)(phen)2].3H2O.EtOH}n and [Ag2(3,6,9-tdda)(phen)4].EtOH (3,6,9-tddaH2 = 3,6,9-trioxaundecanedioic acid), were ...


Formulation, Characterisation And Stability Assessment Of A Food Derived 1 Tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles, M.K. Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh Byrne, Jesus Frias, Sinead Ryan Jul 2017

Formulation, Characterisation And Stability Assessment Of A Food Derived 1 Tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles, M.K. Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh Byrne, Jesus Frias, Sinead Ryan

Articles

The chicken or fish derived tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline (LKP), inhibits the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and may be used as an alternative treatment for pre-hypertension. However, it has low permeation across the small intestine. The formulation of LKP into a nanoparticle (NP) has the potential to address this issue. LKP-loaded NPs were produced using an ionotropic gelation technique, using chitosan (CL113). Following optimisation of unloaded NPs, a mixture amount design was constructed using variable concentration of CL113 and tripolyphosphate at a fixed LKP concentration. Resultant particle sizes ranged from 120-271 nm, zeta potential values from 29-37 mV and polydispersity values from 0 ...


Cytotoxicity Of Platinum Anticancer Drugs In Mammalian Cell Lines Of Metastatic Cancer, Hosannah Evie Jun 2017

Cytotoxicity Of Platinum Anticancer Drugs In Mammalian Cell Lines Of Metastatic Cancer, Hosannah Evie

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

With the invention of advanced technology, focus has been put on understanding and looking for potential cures for many diseases, one of which is cancer. The difference in the leaving and non-leaving ligands of the FDA approved cancer drugs contributes to the differential cell specific cytotoxic effects. These drugs such as oxaliplatin approved for colorectal cancer, cisplatin approved for testicular cancer, and their analogs were used to treat different cancer cell lines in an MTT assay. This project aims to determine how changing the molecular shape of these compounds affects their uptake and toxicity into different cell lines. The assay ...


Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis Jun 2017

Inhibiting Translesion Dna Synthesis As An Approach To Combat Drug Resistance To Dna Damaging Agents, Jung-Suk Choi, Seol Kim, Edward Motea, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anti-cancer agents exert therapeutic effects by damaging DNA. Unfortunately, DNA polymerases can effectively replicate the formed DNA lesions to cause drug resistance and create more aggressive cancers. To understand this process at the cellular level, we developed an artificial nucleoside that visualizes the replication of damaged DNA to identify cells that acquire drug resistance through this mechanism. Visualization is achieved using "click" chemistry to covalently attach azide-containing fluorophores to the ethynyl group present on the nucleoside analog after its incorporation opposite damaged DNA. Flow cytometry and microscopy techniques demonstrate that the extent of nucleotide incorporation into genomic DNA is enhanced ...


Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis Of Analogues Of The N-Terminus A-Ring Fragment Of The Lantibiotic Nisin: Replacements For The Dehydroalanine (Dha) Residue At Position 5 And The First Incorporation Of A Thioamide Residue, Kim Manzor, Keith Ó Proinsias, Fintan Kelleher Jun 2017

Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis Of Analogues Of The N-Terminus A-Ring Fragment Of The Lantibiotic Nisin: Replacements For The Dehydroalanine (Dha) Residue At Position 5 And The First Incorporation Of A Thioamide Residue, Kim Manzor, Keith Ó Proinsias, Fintan Kelleher

Articles

A number of A-ring analogues of the lantibiotic nisin, containing replacements for the Dha at position 5, have been successfully prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The Dha replacements include glycine, alanine, phenylalanine, serine and 1-aminocyclopropyl carboxylic acid (ACCa). The incorporation of a thioamide-isoleucine residue at position 4 is also described and is the first report of the preparation of a lantibiotic ring fragment containing a thioamide link.


Diverse Stimuli Engage Different Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Pathways, Elaine F. Kenny, Alf Herzig, Renate Krüger, Aaron Muth, Santanu Mondal, Paul R. Thompson, Volker Brinkmann, Horst Von Bernuth, Arturo Zychlinsky Jun 2017

Diverse Stimuli Engage Different Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Pathways, Elaine F. Kenny, Alf Herzig, Renate Krüger, Aaron Muth, Santanu Mondal, Paul R. Thompson, Volker Brinkmann, Horst Von Bernuth, Arturo Zychlinsky

Thompson Lab Publications

Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which ensnare pathogens and have pathogenic functions in diverse diseases. We examined the NETosis pathways induced by five stimuli; PMA, the calcium ionophore A23187, nigericin, Candida albicans and Group B Streptococcus. We studied NET production in neutrophils from healthy donors with inhibitors of molecules crucial to PMA induced NETs including protein kinase C, calcium, reactive oxygen species, the enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, neutrophils from chronic granulomatous disease patients, carrying mutations in the NADPH oxidase complex or a MPO-deficient patient were examined. We show that PMA, C. albicans and GBS use a ...


Conformational Studies Of Gram-Negative Bacterial Quorum Sensing 3-Oxo N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Molecules, Darren Crowe, Alan Nicholson, Adrienne Fleming, Ed Carey, Goar Sanchez-Sanz, Fintan Kelleher Jun 2017

Conformational Studies Of Gram-Negative Bacterial Quorum Sensing 3-Oxo N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Molecules, Darren Crowe, Alan Nicholson, Adrienne Fleming, Ed Carey, Goar Sanchez-Sanz, Fintan Kelleher

Articles

In their 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 3-oxo-N-acyl homoserine lactones (OHLs) show significant downfield chemical shifts of the amide N-H proton when compared to the parent N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). NMR spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies have shown that this is most likely due to the presence of a stabilising intramolecular H-bond from the N-H to the 3-oxo group. The 1H NMR spectra also show evidence for the enol tautomers and that the amount of enol present for a range of OHLs is 4.1-4.5% in CDCl3 and 6.5-7.2% in ...


Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2 (Pad2) In Mammary Carcinoma Cell Migration, Sachi Horibata, Katherine E. Rogers, David Sadegh, Lynne J. Anguish, John L. Mcelwee, Pragya Shah, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod May 2017

Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2 (Pad2) In Mammary Carcinoma Cell Migration, Sachi Horibata, Katherine E. Rogers, David Sadegh, Lynne J. Anguish, John L. Mcelwee, Pragya Shah, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: Penetration of the mammary gland basement membrane by cancer cells is a crucial first step in tumor invasion. Using a mouse model of ductal carcinoma in situ, we previously found that inhibition of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2, aka PADI2) activity appears to maintain basement membrane integrity in xenograft tumors. The goal of this investigation was to gain insight into the mechanisms by which PAD2 mediates this process.

METHODS: For our study, we modulated PAD2 activity in mammary ductal carcinoma cells by lentiviral shRNA-mediated depletion, lentiviral-mediated PAD2 overexpression, or PAD inhibition and explored the effects of these treatments on changes ...


Interdependence Of Inhibitor Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease, Janet L. Paulsen, Florian Leidner, Debra A. Ragland, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer May 2017

Interdependence Of Inhibitor Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease, Janet L. Paulsen, Florian Leidner, Debra A. Ragland, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Molecular recognition is a highly interdependent process. Subsite couplings within the active site of proteases are most often revealed through conditional amino acid preferences in substrate recognition. However, the potential effect of these couplings on inhibition and thus inhibitor design is largely unexplored. The present study examines the interdependency of subsites in HIV-1 protease using a focused library of protease inhibitors, to aid in future inhibitor design. Previously a series of darunavir (DRV) analogs was designed to systematically probe the S1' and S2' subsites. Co-crystal structures of these analogs with HIV-1 protease provide the ideal opportunity to probe subsite interdependency ...


Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer Apr 2017

Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Maturation of DENV particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing of 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease. With no available direct-acting antiviral targeting DENV, NS2/NS3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. Current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the DENV protease active site, resulting in highly hydrophilic and nonspecific scaffolds. However, the prime side also significantly modulates DENV protease binding affinity, as revealed by engineering the binding loop of aprotinin, a ...


Poly(Ethyl Glyoxylate)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Nanoparticles: Stimuli- Responsive Drug Release Via End-To-End Polyglyoxylate Depolymerization, Bo Fan, Elizabeth Gillies Mar 2017

Poly(Ethyl Glyoxylate)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Nanoparticles: Stimuli- Responsive Drug Release Via End-To-End Polyglyoxylate Depolymerization, Bo Fan, Elizabeth Gillies

Chemistry Publications

The ability to disrupt polymer assemblies in response to specifi c stimuli provides the potential to release drugs selectively at certain sites or conditions in vivo. However, most stimuli-responsive delivery systems require many stimuli initiated events to release drugs. Self-immolative polymers offer the potential to provide amplifi ed responses to stimuli as they undergo complete end-to-end depolymerization following the cleavage of a single end-cap. Herein, linker end-caps were developed to conjugate self-immolative poly(ethyl glyoxylate) (PEtG) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form amphiphilic block copolymers. These copolymers were self-assembled to form nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Cleavage of the linker ...


A Dilute-And-Shoot Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For Quantification Of Phenobarbital In Urine, Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo Jan 2017

A Dilute-And-Shoot Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For Quantification Of Phenobarbital In Urine, Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo

Chemistry Faculty Publications

RATIONALE: Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized.

METHODS: This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system. Briefly, a urine sample containing phenobarbital was first diluted by 10 times, followed by flow injection of ...


Mandelic Acid Derived Ionic Liquids: Synthesis, Toxicity And Biodegradability, Hannah Prydderch, Annette Haib, Marcel Spulak, Brid Quilty, Klaus Kummerer, Andreas Heise, Nicholas Gathergood Jan 2017

Mandelic Acid Derived Ionic Liquids: Synthesis, Toxicity And Biodegradability, Hannah Prydderch, Annette Haib, Marcel Spulak, Brid Quilty, Klaus Kummerer, Andreas Heise, Nicholas Gathergood

Chemistry Articles

A series of ten ionic liquids (ILs) was synthesised from the renewable resource mandelic acid. The ILs showed low antimicrobial activity towards the thirteen bacterial and twelve fungal strains they were screened against. A general trend of increasing bacterial toxicity in the order methyl ester < ethyl ester < n-butyl ester/amide was observed. IL biodegradability was evaluated using the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301D). Biodegradation increased in the order of increasing alkyl chain length for the ester ILs (methyl < ethyl < n-butyl). Despite none of the ILs presenting as readily biodegradable (>60% in 28 days), a series of biodegradation transformation products has been proposed based on the degradation of the ester/ amide alkyl chain. This data has allowed for an assessment of the effect of IL structural features on toxicity and biodegradation, particularly allowing for a comparison to earlier work where additional oxygen atoms were present ...


Ligands Of Therapeutic Utility For The Liver X Receptors., Rajesh Komati, Dominick Spadoni, Shilong Zheng, Jayalakshmi Sridhar Jan 2017

Ligands Of Therapeutic Utility For The Liver X Receptors., Rajesh Komati, Dominick Spadoni, Shilong Zheng, Jayalakshmi Sridhar

Faculty and Staff Publications

Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target to treat pathological conditions ranging from vascular and metabolic diseases, neurological degeneration, to cancers that are driven by lipid metabolism. Amidst intensifying efforts to discover ligands that act through LXRs to achieve the sought-after pharmacological outcomes, several lead compounds are already being tested in clinical trials for a variety of disease interventions. While more potent and selective LXR ligands continue to emerge from screening of small molecule libraries, rational design, and empirical medicinal chemistry approaches, challenges remain in minimizing undesirable effects of LXR activation on lipid metabolism ...


The Antibacterial Activity Of Metal Complexes Containing 1, 10-Phenanthroline: Potential As Alternatire Therapeutics In The Era Of Antibiotic Resistance, Livia Viganon, Orla L. Howe, Pauraic Mccarron, Malachy Mccann, Michael Devereux Jan 2017

The Antibacterial Activity Of Metal Complexes Containing 1, 10-Phenanthroline: Potential As Alternatire Therapeutics In The Era Of Antibiotic Resistance, Livia Viganon, Orla L. Howe, Pauraic Mccarron, Malachy Mccann, Michael Devereux

Articles

The “antibiotic era”, characterized by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, over the last half-century has culminated in the present critical “era of resistance”. The treatment of bacterial infections is challenging because of a decline in the current arsenal of useful antibiotics and the slow rate of new drug development. The discovery of a new gene (mcr-1) in 2015, which enables bacteria to be highly resistant to polymyxins (such as colistin), the last line of antibiotic defence left, heralds a new level of concern as this gene is susceptible to horizontal gene transfer, with alarming potential to be spread between ...


Fluorogenic Nir-Probes Based On 1,2,4,5-Tetrazine Substituted Bf2-Azadipyrromethenes, Dan Wu, Donal F. O'Shea Jan 2017

Fluorogenic Nir-Probes Based On 1,2,4,5-Tetrazine Substituted Bf2-Azadipyrromethenes, Dan Wu, Donal F. O'Shea

Chemistry Articles

A series of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine integrated near infrared (NIR) fluorophores based on the BF2 azadipyrromethene (NIR-AZA) class has been synthesised and their ability to modulate emission from low to high in response to Diels-Alder cycloaditions has been assessed. Substituents on the tetrazine component of the probe (Cl, OMe, p-NO2C6H4O) were seen to strongly influence quantum yields, fluorescence enhancement factors, and rates of cycloadditions. Cycloadditions between tetrazine-NIR-AZA constructs and a strained alkyne substrate were seen to be highly efficient in organic or aqueous solutions and in gels with high fluorescence enhancements of up to 48-fold observed. Real-time demonstration of ...


Polymer Brush Decorated Nanoparticles Immobilised On Polymer Monoliths For Enhanced Biopolymer Elution, M Iacono, D Connolly, Andreas Heise Jan 2017

Polymer Brush Decorated Nanoparticles Immobilised On Polymer Monoliths For Enhanced Biopolymer Elution, M Iacono, D Connolly, Andreas Heise

Chemistry Articles

A protocol for the decoration of a polymeric monolith with polymer brush grafted silica nanoparticles was developed. Monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (GMA-co-EDMA) was prepared in 15 mm long cylindrical polypropylene tubing and quarternized. 160 nm silica nanoparticles with a 20 nm poly(methacrylic acid-co-tert-butyl methacrylate) brush layer were flushed through the monolith and electrostatically trapped. A uniform and dense carboxylic acid containing brush nanoparticle surface decoration over the entire length of the monolith was achieved. Elution performance of the brush nanoparticle decorated monolith was compared to a carboxylic acid surface decorated monolith ...


The Future Of Nmr-Based Metabolomics, John L. Markley, Rafael Bruschweiler, Arthur S. Edison, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Robert Powers, Daniel Raftery, David S. Wishart Jan 2017

The Future Of Nmr-Based Metabolomics, John L. Markley, Rafael Bruschweiler, Arthur S. Edison, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Robert Powers, Daniel Raftery, David S. Wishart

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The two leading analytical approaches to metabolomics are mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although currently overshadowed by MS in terms of numbers of compounds resolved, NMR spectroscopy offers advantages both on its own and coupled with MS. NMR data are highly reproducible and quantitative over a wide dynamic range and are unmatched for determining structures of unknowns. NMR is adept at tracing metabolic pathways and fluxes using isotope labels. Moreover, NMR is non-destructive and can be utilized in vivo. NMR results have a proven track record of translating in vitro findings to in vivo clinical applications.