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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Folding Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti) Is Faster Using Aromatic Thiols And Their Corresponding Disulfides, Ram Prasad Marahatta Nov 2017

Folding Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti) Is Faster Using Aromatic Thiols And Their Corresponding Disulfides, Ram Prasad Marahatta

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Improvement in the in vitro oxidative folding of disulfide-containing proteins, such as extracellular and pharmaceutically important proteins, is required. Traditional folding methods using small molecule aliphatic thiol and disulfide, such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) are slow and low yielding. Small molecule aromatic thiols and disulfides show great potentiality because aromatic thiols have low pKa values, close to the thiol pKa of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), higher nucleophilicity and good leaving group ability. Our studies showed that thiols with a positively charged group, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), are better than thiols with negatively charged groups such as phosphonic ...


Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui May 2017

Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui

Student Theses

Designer drugs are structural analogs of Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule I and II substances. They are synthesized to mimic the effects of illegal drugs of abuse and to bypass the provisions of drug regulations. Despite the increased availability of designer drugs, few studies have focused on specific analytical extraction techniques for their detection and quantification in biological samples. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is the most commonly used technique for sample preparation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the various SPE columns with different sorbent materials for two designer drugs, cathinone and mephedrone in ...


Development Of Neurotensin-Based Radiopharmaceuticals For Neurotensin-Receptor-1-Positive Tumors Targeting, Yinnong Jia May 2017

Development Of Neurotensin-Based Radiopharmaceuticals For Neurotensin-Receptor-1-Positive Tumors Targeting, Yinnong Jia

Theses & Dissertations

The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) is overexpressed in many cancers, due to its role as a growth pathway. These NTR1-positive cancers include pancreatic, colon, prostate and breast cancers. In the radiopharmaceutical field, the overexpression of NTR1 in cancer has prompted the development of NTR1-targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. The neurotensin (NT) peptide exhibits low nanomolar affinity for NTR1 and has been the paradigm for NTR1-targeted agents. Since the 1980’s, radiolabeled NT analogs have been developed and evaluated for targeting NTR1-positive cancers. Since native NT is rapidly degraded in vivo by a variety of peptidases, a tremendous amount of effort has ...


A Dilute-And-Shoot Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For Quantification Of Phenobarbital In Urine, Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo Jan 2017

A Dilute-And-Shoot Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For Quantification Of Phenobarbital In Urine, Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo

Chemistry Faculty Publications

RATIONALE: Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized.

METHODS: This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system. Briefly, a urine sample containing phenobarbital was first diluted by 10 times, followed by flow injection of ...


Nitric Oxide Release From Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles And Titanium Alloy, Nina A. Reger Jan 2017

Nitric Oxide Release From Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles And Titanium Alloy, Nina A. Reger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current methods for the treatment of bacterial infection involve the use of systemic antibiotics, which are high concentrations of antibiotics delivered over a long period time. Unfortunately, the use of systemic antibiotics can cause harmful side effects to the patient and increases the possibility for antibiotic resistance. The delivery of antibiotics or alternative antimicrobial compounds, such as nitric oxide, directly to the site of infection would decrease the amount of antibiotic necessary to treat a bacterial infection.

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/polyvinyl alcohol nanoparticles and a titanium- aluminum-vanadium metal oxide alloy implant were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. Polymer nanoparticles ...


Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, X. Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, Ronald Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo Jan 2017

Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, X. Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, Ronald Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

We developed a new fluorogenic bioorthogonal reaction that is based on the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between styrene (an unstrained alkene) and a simple tetrazine. The reaction forms a new fluorophore with no literature precedent. We have identified an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair for the efficient and site-specific incorporation of a styrene-containing amino acid into proteins in response to amber nonsense codon. Fluorogenic labeling of purified proteins and intact proteins in live cells were demonstrated. The fluorogenicity of the styrene–tetrazine reaction can be potentially applied to the study of protein folding and function under physiological conditions with low ...


A Surface-Stabilized Ozonide Triggers Bromide Oxidation At The Aqueous Solution-Vapour Interface, Luca Artiglia, Jacinta Edebeli, Fabrizio Orlando, Shuzhen Chen, Ming-Tao Lee, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Anina Gilgen, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Armin Kleibert, Mario Vazdar, Marcelo Andrea Carignano, Joseph S. Francisco, Paul B. Shepson, Ivan Gladich, Markus Ammann Jan 2017

A Surface-Stabilized Ozonide Triggers Bromide Oxidation At The Aqueous Solution-Vapour Interface, Luca Artiglia, Jacinta Edebeli, Fabrizio Orlando, Shuzhen Chen, Ming-Tao Lee, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Anina Gilgen, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Armin Kleibert, Mario Vazdar, Marcelo Andrea Carignano, Joseph S. Francisco, Paul B. Shepson, Ivan Gladich, Markus Ammann

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Oxidation of bromide in aqueous environments initiates the formation of molecular halogen compounds, which is important for the global tropospheric ozone budget. In the aqueous bulk, oxidation of bromide by ozone involves a [Br•OOO] complex as intermediate. Here we report liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements that provide direct experimental evidence for the ozonide and establish its propensity for the solution-vapor interface. Theoretical calculations support these findings, showing that water stabilizes the ozonide and lowers the energy of the transition state at neutral pH. Kinetic experiments confirm the dominance of the heterogeneous oxidation route established by this precursor at ...


Soft Robotic Actuators, Filip Ilievski, Xin Chen, Aaron D. Mazzeo, George M. Whitesides, Robert F. Shepherd, Ramses V. Martinez, Won Jae Choi, Sen Wai Kwok, Stephen A. Morin, Adam Stokes, Zhihong Nie Jan 2017

Soft Robotic Actuators, Filip Ilievski, Xin Chen, Aaron D. Mazzeo, George M. Whitesides, Robert F. Shepherd, Ramses V. Martinez, Won Jae Choi, Sen Wai Kwok, Stephen A. Morin, Adam Stokes, Zhihong Nie

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

A soft robotic device includes a flexible body having a width, a length and a thickness, wherein the thickness is at least 1 mm, the flexible body having at least one channel disposed within the flexible body, the channel defined by upper, lower and side walls, wherein at least one wall is strain limiting; and a pressurizing inlet in fluid communication with the at least one channel, the at least one channel positioned and arranged such that the wall opposite the strain limiting wall preferentially expands when the soft robotic device is pressurized through the inlet.


Resolving The Cofactor-Binding Site In The Proline Biosynthetic Enzyme Human Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1, Emily M. Christensen, Sagar M. Patel, David A. Korasick, Ashley C. Campbell, Kurt L. Krause, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Jan 2017

Resolving The Cofactor-Binding Site In The Proline Biosynthetic Enzyme Human Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase 1, Emily M. Christensen, Sagar M. Patel, David A. Korasick, Ashley C. Campbell, Kurt L. Krause, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PYCR) is the final enzyme in proline biosynthesis, catalyzing the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of [?]1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) to proline. Mutations in the PYCR1 gene alter mitochondrial function and cause the connective tissue disorder cutis laxa. Furthermore, PYCR1 is overexpressed in multiple cancers, and the PYCR1 knock-out suppresses tumorigenic growth, suggesting that PYCR1 is a potential cancer target. However, inhibitor development has been stymied by limited mechanistic details for the enzyme, particularly in light of a previous crystallographic study that placed the cofactor-binding site in the C-terminal domain rather than the anticipated Rossmann fold of the N-terminal domain. To ...


Amino Acid Catabolism In Staphylococcus Aureus And The Function Of Carbon Catabolite Repression, Cortney R. Halsey, Shulei Lei, Jacqueline K. Wax, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Austin S. Nuxoll, Laurey Steinke, Marat Sadykov, Robert Powers, Paul D. Fey Jan 2017

Amino Acid Catabolism In Staphylococcus Aureus And The Function Of Carbon Catabolite Repression, Cortney R. Halsey, Shulei Lei, Jacqueline K. Wax, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Austin S. Nuxoll, Laurey Steinke, Marat Sadykov, Robert Powers, Paul D. Fey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Staphylococcus aureus must rapidly adapt to a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources during invasion of a host. Within a staphylococcal abscess, preferred carbon sources such as glucose are limiting, suggesting that S. aureus survives through the catabolism of secondary carbon sources. S. aureus encodes pathways to catabolize multiple amino acids, including those that generate pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxaloacetate. To assess amino acid catabolism, S. aureus JE2 and mutants were grown in complete defined medium containing 18 amino acids but lacking glucose (CDM). A mutation in the gudB gene, coding for glutamate dehydrogenase, which generates 2-oxoglutarate from glutamate, significantly reduced ...


Fidelity Of Implementation: An Overlooked Yet Critical Construct To Establish Effectiveness Of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices, Marilyne Stains, Trisha Vickrey Jan 2017

Fidelity Of Implementation: An Overlooked Yet Critical Construct To Establish Effectiveness Of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices, Marilyne Stains, Trisha Vickrey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The discipline-based education research (DBER) community has been invested in the research and development of evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs) for decades. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of EBIPs on student outcomes typically do not characterize instructors’ adherence to an EBIP, often assuming that implementation was as intended by developers. The validity of such findings is compromised, since positive or negative outcomes can be incorrectly attributed to an EBIP when other factors impacting implementation are often present. This methodological flaw can be overcome by developing measures to determine the fidelity of implementation (FOI) of an intervention, a construct extensively studied in ...


Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, Xin Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, R. Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo Jan 2017

Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, Xin Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, R. Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

We developed a new fluorogenic bioorthogonal reaction that is based on the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between styrene (an unstrained alkene) and a simple tetrazine. The reaction forms a new fluorophore with no literature precedent. We have identified an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair for the efficient and site-specific incorporation of a styrene-containing amino acid into proteins in response to amber nonsense codon. Fluorogenic labeling of purified proteins and intact proteins in live cells were demonstrated. The fluorogenicity of the styrene–tetrazine reaction can be potentially applied to the study of protein folding and function under physiological conditions with low ...


Assessment Of Metabolic Changes In Mycobacterium Smegmatis Wild Type And Alr Mutant Strains: Evidence For A New Pathway Of D-Alanine Biosynthesis., Darrell D. Marshall, Steven Halouska, Denise K. Zinniel, Robert J. Fenton, Katie Kenealy, Harpreet K. Chahal, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Raul G. Barletta, Robert Powers Jan 2017

Assessment Of Metabolic Changes In Mycobacterium Smegmatis Wild Type And Alr Mutant Strains: Evidence For A New Pathway Of D-Alanine Biosynthesis., Darrell D. Marshall, Steven Halouska, Denise K. Zinniel, Robert J. Fenton, Katie Kenealy, Harpreet K. Chahal, Govardhan Rathnaiah, Raul G. Barletta, Robert Powers

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

In mycobacteria, D-alanine is an essential precursor for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The only confirmed enzymatic pathway to form D-alanine is through the racemization of L-alanine by alanine racemase (Alr, EC 5.1.1.1). Nevertheless, the essentiality of Alr in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis for cell survivability in the absence of D-alanine has been a point of controversy with contradictory results reported in the literature. To address this issue, we examined the effects of alr inactivation on the cellular metabolism of M. smegmatis. The M. smegmatis alr insertion mutant TAM23 exhibited essentially identical growth to wild type mc2155 ...


Cytotoxic Polyketides With An Oxygen-Bridged Cyclooctadiene Core Skeleton From The Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomosis Sp. A818, Wei Zhang, Baobing Zhao, Liangcheng Du, Yuemao Shen Jan 2017

Cytotoxic Polyketides With An Oxygen-Bridged Cyclooctadiene Core Skeleton From The Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomosis Sp. A818, Wei Zhang, Baobing Zhao, Liangcheng Du, Yuemao Shen

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Plant endophytic microorganisms represent a largely untapped resource for new bioactive natural products. Eight polyketide natural products were isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus Phomosis sp. A818. The structural elucidation of these compounds revealed that they share a distinct feature in their chemical structures, an oxygen-bridged cyclooctadiene core skeleton. The study on their structure–activity relationship showed that the α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone moiety, as exemplified in compounds 1 and 2, was critical to the cytotoxic activity of these compounds. In addition, compound 4 might be a potential agonist of AMPK (5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase).


Chemoselective Alteration Of Fluorophore Scaffolds As A Strategy For The Development Of Ratiometric Chemodosimeters, Xinqi Zhou, Lauren Lesiak, Rui Lai, Jon R. Beck, Jia Zhao, Christian Elowsky, Hui Li, Cliff I. Stains Jan 2017

Chemoselective Alteration Of Fluorophore Scaffolds As A Strategy For The Development Of Ratiometric Chemodosimeters, Xinqi Zhou, Lauren Lesiak, Rui Lai, Jon R. Beck, Jia Zhao, Christian Elowsky, Hui Li, Cliff I. Stains

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Ratiometric sensors generally couple binding events or chemical reactions at a distal site to changes in the fluorescence of a core fluorophore scaffold. However, such approaches are often hindered by spectral overlap of the product and reactant species. We provide a strategy to design ratiometric sensors that display dramatic spectral shifts by leveraging the chemoselective reactivity of novel functional groups inserted within fluorophore scaffolds. As a proof-of-principle, fluorophores containing a borinate (RF620) or silanediol (SiOH2R) functionality at the bridging position of the xanthene ring system are developed as endogenous H2O2 sensors. Both these fluorophores display far-red ...


The Future Of Nmr-Based Metabolomics, John L. Markley, Rafael Bruschweiler, Arthur S. Edison, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Robert Powers, Daniel Raftery, David S. Wishart Jan 2017

The Future Of Nmr-Based Metabolomics, John L. Markley, Rafael Bruschweiler, Arthur S. Edison, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Robert Powers, Daniel Raftery, David S. Wishart

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The two leading analytical approaches to metabolomics are mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although currently overshadowed by MS in terms of numbers of compounds resolved, NMR spectroscopy offers advantages both on its own and coupled with MS. NMR data are highly reproducible and quantitative over a wide dynamic range and are unmatched for determining structures of unknowns. NMR is adept at tracing metabolic pathways and fluxes using isotope labels. Moreover, NMR is non-destructive and can be utilized in vivo. NMR results have a proven track record of translating in vitro findings to in vivo clinical applications.


Indole-Induced Reversion Of Intrinsic Multiantibiotic Resistance In Lysobacter Enzymogenes, Yong Han, Yan Wang, Yameng Yu, Haotong Chen, Yuemao Shen, Liangcheng Du Jan 2017

Indole-Induced Reversion Of Intrinsic Multiantibiotic Resistance In Lysobacter Enzymogenes, Yong Han, Yan Wang, Yameng Yu, Haotong Chen, Yuemao Shen, Liangcheng Du

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Lysobacter species are a group of environmental bacteria that are emerging as a new source of antibiotics. One characteristic of Lysobacter is intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, which had not been studied. To understand the resistance mechanism, we tested the effect of blocking two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) on the antibiotic resistance of Lysobacter enzymogenes, a prolific producer of antibiotics. Upon treatment with LED209, an inhibitor of the widespread TCS QseC/QseB, L. enzymogenes produced a large amount of an unknown metabolite that was barely detectable in the untreated culture. Subsequent structural elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) unexpectedly revealed that ...


Structure And Characterization Of A Class 3b Proline Utilization A: Ligand-Induced Dimerization And Importance Of The C-Terminal Domain For Catalysis, David A. Korasick, Thameesha T. Gamage, Shelbi Christgen, Kyle M. Stiers, Lesa J. Beamer, Michael T. Henzl, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Jan 2017

Structure And Characterization Of A Class 3b Proline Utilization A: Ligand-Induced Dimerization And Importance Of The C-Terminal Domain For Catalysis, David A. Korasick, Thameesha T. Gamage, Shelbi Christgen, Kyle M. Stiers, Lesa J. Beamer, Michael T. Henzl, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The bifunctional flavoenzyme proline utilization A (PutA) catalyzes the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and L-glutamate-y-semialdehyde dehydrogenase active sites. Because PutAs catalyze sequential reactions, they are good systems for studying how metabolic enzymes communicate via substrate channeling. Although mechanistically similar, PutAs vary widely in domain architecture, oligomeric state, and quaternary structure, and these variations represent different structural solutions to the problem of sequestering a reactive metabolite. Here, we studied PutA from Corynebacterium freiburgense (CfPutA), which belongs to the uncharacterized 3B class of PutAs.A2.7A˚ resolution crystal structure showed the canonical arrangement of PRODH ...


Synthesis Of Cerium Oxide Nanorods, Chin Li Cheung, Zane Charles Gernhart Jan 2017

Synthesis Of Cerium Oxide Nanorods, Chin Li Cheung, Zane Charles Gernhart

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Cerium oxide nanorods having a variety of aspect ratios can be produced by providing a first mixture that includes a cerium precursor material, and using microwave to heat the first mixture to a first temperature for a period of time to produce first plurality of cerium oxide nanorods having a first range of aspect ratios. A second mixture that includes a cerium precursor material heated using microwave to a second temperature for a period of time to produce second plurality of cerium oxide nanorods having a second range of aspect ratios. The first plurality of cerium oxide nanorods and the ...


Human Serine Racemase Structure/Activity Relationship Studies Provide Mechanistic Insight And Point To Position 84 As A Hot Spot For Β-Elimination Function, David L. Nelson, Greg A. Applegate, Matthew L. Beio, Danielle L. Graham, David B. Berkowitz Jan 2017

Human Serine Racemase Structure/Activity Relationship Studies Provide Mechanistic Insight And Point To Position 84 As A Hot Spot For Β-Elimination Function, David L. Nelson, Greg A. Applegate, Matthew L. Beio, Danielle L. Graham, David B. Berkowitz

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

There is currently great interest in human serine racemase, the enzyme responsible for producing the NMDA co-agonist D-serine. Reported correlation of D-serine levels with disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, and ischemic brain damage (elevated D-serine) and schizophrenia (reduced D-serine) has further piqued this interest. Reported here is a structure/activity relationship study of position Ser84, the putative re-face base. In the most extreme case of functional reprogramming, the S84D mutant displays a dramatic reversal of β-elimination substrate specificity in favor of L-serine over the normally preferred L-serine-O-sulfate (~1200-fold change in kcat/Km ...


Nanomaterials As Stationary Phases And Supports In Liquid Chromatography: A Review, Sandya Beeram, Elliott Rodriguez, Suresh Doddavenkatanna, Zhao Li, Allegra Pekarek, Darin Peev, Kathryn Goerl, Gianfranco Trovato, Tino Hofmann, David S. Hage Jan 2017

Nanomaterials As Stationary Phases And Supports In Liquid Chromatography: A Review, Sandya Beeram, Elliott Rodriguez, Suresh Doddavenkatanna, Zhao Li, Allegra Pekarek, Darin Peev, Kathryn Goerl, Gianfranco Trovato, Tino Hofmann, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The development of various nanomaterials over the last few decades has led to many applications for these materials in liquid chromatography (LC). This review will look at the types of nanomaterials that have been incorporated into LC systems and the applications that have been explored for such systems. A number of carbon-based nanomaterials and inorganic nanomaterials have been considered for use in LC, ranging from carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and nanodiamonds to metal nanoparticles and nanostructures based on silica, alumina, zirconia and titanium dioxide. Many ways have been described for incorporating these nanomaterials into LC systems. These methods have included covalent ...


Laterally Extended Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons With Improved Electrical Conductivity For Efficient Gas Sensing, Mohammad Mehdi Pour, Andrey Lashkov, Adrian Radocea, Ximeng Liu, Tao Sun, Alexey Lipatov, Rafal A. Korlacki, Mikhail Shekhirev, Narayana R. Aluru, Joseph W. Lyding, Victor Sysoev, Alexander Sinitskii Jan 2017

Laterally Extended Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons With Improved Electrical Conductivity For Efficient Gas Sensing, Mohammad Mehdi Pour, Andrey Lashkov, Adrian Radocea, Ximeng Liu, Tao Sun, Alexey Lipatov, Rafal A. Korlacki, Mikhail Shekhirev, Narayana R. Aluru, Joseph W. Lyding, Victor Sysoev, Alexander Sinitskii

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Narrow atomically precise graphene nanoribbons hold great promise for electronic and optoelectronic applications, but the previously demonstrated nanoribbon-based devices typically suffer from low currents and mobilities. In this study, we explored the idea of lateral extension of graphene nanoribbons for improving their electrical conductivity. We started with a conventional chevron graphene nanoribbon, and designed its laterally extended variant. We synthesized these new graphene nanoribbons in solution and found that the lateral extension results in decrease of their electronic bandgap and improvement in the electrical conductivity of nanoribbon-based thin films. These films were employed in gas sensors and an electronic nose ...


Analytical Methods To Support Design And Optimization Of Protein Drug Conjugate: Focusing On Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex As A Drug Carrier, Shengsheng Xu Jan 2017

Analytical Methods To Support Design And Optimization Of Protein Drug Conjugate: Focusing On Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex As A Drug Carrier, Shengsheng Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains one of the most serious public health challenges and a significant cause of mortality for certain populations. Despite the large number of antiretrovirals (mostly nucleotide and nucleoside analogs) developed in the past two decades, the inability of small molecule therapeutics to target HIV reservoirs directly creates a significant obstacle to their effective utilization. Indeed, achieving the desired therapeutic effect in the absence of the effective targeted delivery must rely on dosage escalation, which frequently causes severe toxicity. This problem may be solved by conjugation of antiretroviral agents to endogenous proteins (e.g., hemoglobin haptoglobin complex ...