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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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2014

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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Colloidal And Biological Properties Of Triscationic Amphiphiles With One Or Two Tails, John N. Marafino Dec 2014

Colloidal And Biological Properties Of Triscationic Amphiphiles With One Or Two Tails, John N. Marafino

Masters Theses

The decline in the development of novel antimicrobials, combined with the misusage and over prescription of antibiotics, has contributed to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant infections. Thus development of effective novel disinfectants could reduce the transmission of pathogens and decrease the risk of infection by antibiotic resistant organisms. The antimicrobial activity of amphiphiles, compounds with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, was first reported in 1935, and has influenced the synthesis of amphiphiles with variations in structure. In this study, three series of amphiphiles were synthesized by two subsequent Menshutkin reactions. Each amphiphile contains one or two hydrocarbon tails ranging from 8 ...


New 4-Aminoquinoline Compounds To Reverse Drug Resistance In P. Falciparum Malaria, And A Survey Of Early European Antimalarial Treatments, Katherine May Liebman Dec 2014

New 4-Aminoquinoline Compounds To Reverse Drug Resistance In P. Falciparum Malaria, And A Survey Of Early European Antimalarial Treatments, Katherine May Liebman

Dissertations and Theses

Intermittent fevers caused by Plasmodium parasites have been known for millennia, and have caused untold human suffering. Today, millions of people are afflicted by malaria each year, and hundreds of thousands die. Historically, the most successful synthetic antimalarial drug was chloroquine, as it was safe, inexpensive, and highly efficacious. However, plasmodial resistance to chloroquine now greatly limits its utility. Previously in our laboratories it has been shown that attachment of a "reversal agent moiety" to the side chain of chloroquine can result in the restoration of activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum malaria. In the first part of the ...


Probing The Unfolding And The Stability Of The Last Four Metal Binding Domains Of Wilson Disease Protein Using Circular Dichroism And Novel Spectroscopic Techniques, Ibtesam Yaseen Alja’Afreh Dec 2014

Probing The Unfolding And The Stability Of The Last Four Metal Binding Domains Of Wilson Disease Protein Using Circular Dichroism And Novel Spectroscopic Techniques, Ibtesam Yaseen Alja’Afreh

Dissertations

Wilson disease protein is a copper-transporting P1B type ATPase. It has large N-terminal copper binding domain which is composed of six homologous sub-domains. Each of these six domains is ~72 residues and connected to one another by linking regions of various lengths. They all possess similar ferrodoxin fold, and metal-binding motif, MXCXXC.

The need of having six metal binding domains and the manner in which they are communicating with each other is not well understood. To better understand how the last four metal binding domains function, I pursued a detailed biophysical characterization of these domains. Using molecular biology I ...


Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer Across Molecule-Tio2 Nanocomposites: Towards Solar Cells And Two Photon Absorption, Edwin Mghanga Dec 2014

Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer Across Molecule-Tio2 Nanocomposites: Towards Solar Cells And Two Photon Absorption, Edwin Mghanga

Dissertations

Interfacial charge transfer (ICT) across the molecule-TiO2 nanoparticle interface has gained enormous research attention for applications in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), photo-catalysis, water splitting and nonlinear optics. DSSCs are promising clean alternative energy sources. However, current DSSCs suffer from lower efficiencies and higher cost. Better understanding of the ICT processes in DSSCs can help solve these problems. We have used two strategies to understand ICT in the context of DSSCs. Firstly, we used a computationally validated anchor group, acetylacetonate (acac) to bind molecules to the semiconductor surface and facilitate charge separation. Secondly, we used natural dye sensitizers, which possess ...


Mimicking Metabolism Of A Reversed Chloroquine Antimalarial, Kelsie Lynn Kendrick Nov 2014

Mimicking Metabolism Of A Reversed Chloroquine Antimalarial, Kelsie Lynn Kendrick

Dissertations and Theses

The aim of this study was to elucidate the oxidation products of a candidate antimalarial drug, PL69, using a porphyrin system and to determine the accuracy of the oxidation products produced, as compared to what is expected in metabolism. PL69 is a reversed chloroquine (RCQ) that is active against chloroquine resistant malaria. Porphyrin oxidation systems have been shown to mimic in vitro enzymatic metabolism reactions. PL69 and its known metabolite, PL16, were incubated with the porphyrin system, and then the oxidation products were collected and separated by HPLC. The oxidation products were characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry and compared ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of N-Heterocycles For Activity On Monoamine Transporters And Exploration Of Iridium Chemistry For Synthesis Of Medicinally Important Molecules, Tushar D. Apsunde Aug 2014

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of N-Heterocycles For Activity On Monoamine Transporters And Exploration Of Iridium Chemistry For Synthesis Of Medicinally Important Molecules, Tushar D. Apsunde

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The focus of these studies was directed towards the synthesis of novel N-heterocyclic compounds and pharmacological evaluation of these compounds for activity at monoamine transporters. A series of novel piperidine and pyrrolidine analogues were prepared from commercially available starting material with a three and four step synthetic method, respectively. A variety of substituents on the aromatic ring were incorporated to achieve a diverse library of compounds. The preliminary binding studies of piperidine molecules showed strong affinity towards serotonin transporters and moderate affinity towards dopamine transporters. The focus of further studies was directed towards utilization of iridium catalysis for the development ...


Synthesis And Applications Of Mutimodal Hybrid Albumin Nanoparticles For Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery And Phototherml Therapy Platforms, Donna V. Peralta Aug 2014

Synthesis And Applications Of Mutimodal Hybrid Albumin Nanoparticles For Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery And Phototherml Therapy Platforms, Donna V. Peralta

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Progress has been made in using human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSAPs) as carrier systems for targeted treatment of cancer. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant human blood protein, can form HSAPs via a desolvation and crosslinking method, with the size of the HSAPs having crucial importance for drug loading and in vivo performance. Gold nanoparticles have also gained medicinal attention due to their ability to absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. These relatively non-toxic particles offer combinational therapy via imaging and photothermal therapy (PPTT) capabilities.

A desolvation and crosslinking approach was employed to encapsulate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hollow gold nanoshells (AuNSs ...


Development Of A Gallium-Containing One-Bead One-Compound Peptide Library For The Discovery Of New Molecular Imaging Probes, Fernanda C. Bononi Aug 2014

Development Of A Gallium-Containing One-Bead One-Compound Peptide Library For The Discovery Of New Molecular Imaging Probes, Fernanda C. Bononi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An eight amino acid one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide library, containing a gallium-DOTA complex, was developed in an attempt to overcome common issues associated with the later addition of radionuclides to peptide chains of imaging probes. The further addition of a radionuclide often changes the binding properties of a peptide, as it adds bulk, and possibly charges. MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) tandem mass spectrometry was determined to be the method of choice in order to deconvolute gallium-containing peptide sequences. The library obtained was screened against the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Positive beads were isolated and sequences were ...


Investigations Of Synthetic Models Of Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Dioxygenases, Michael Bittner Jul 2014

Investigations Of Synthetic Models Of Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Dioxygenases, Michael Bittner

Dissertations (2009 -)

Ring cleaving dioxygenases, such as o-aminophenol dioxygenase (APDO) and extradiol catechol dioxygenases (CatD), play an important role in human metabolism and the degradation of aromatic pollutants, yet questions still remain concerning the enzymatic mechanisms. One area of the catalytic cycle that remains controversial is the geometric and electronic structure of the intermediate formed after O2 binding to the Fe(II) centers. Synthetic model systems can be useful for studying enzyme active sites, as they are easier to modify and characterize than the enzymes themselves. However, synthetic models of APDOs have been relatively rare thus far. We prepared several monoiron ...


Branching Into Rnai: Synthesis, Characterization And Biology Of Branch And Hyperbranch Sirnas, Anthony Muriithi Maina May 2014

Branching Into Rnai: Synthesis, Characterization And Biology Of Branch And Hyperbranch Sirnas, Anthony Muriithi Maina

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The cancer epidemic continues to afflict millions of humans world-wide each year and despite a renewed hope with the development of new and improved forms of therapy, a cure for cancer remains an elusive goal. This is partly related to the rise of resilient forms of tumors that have evolved with resistance towards conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Moreover, these non-specific therapeutic regimens are highly toxic, leading to severe immunosuppressive effects which poisons the body and compromises the road towards remission. In an effort to mitigate these limitations, cancer-targeting approaches are currently experiencing a renaissance in the translation of new ...


Cu (Ii) Catalyzed Gateways In The Synthesis Of Acridine Derivatives And Their Biological Evaluation As Anti-Cancer Drugs, Rajesh Komati May 2014

Cu (Ii) Catalyzed Gateways In The Synthesis Of Acridine Derivatives And Their Biological Evaluation As Anti-Cancer Drugs, Rajesh Komati

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes found at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres consist of a short sequence of repetitive double stranded DNA, TTAGGG repeats in humans (and all mammals), and a complex of 6 proteins, termed the shelterin complex. The length of the telomeres varies greatly between species, from approximately 300 base pairs in yeast to many 10-15 kilo bases in humans, because of the end replication problem this length get shorten with each cell division and ultimately leads to cell death. However the immortal eukaryotic cells and some transformed human cells over come this incomplete end replication problem ...


Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood May 2014

Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This work seeks to contribute to the discipline of neuropharmacology by way of structure activity relationship from the standpoint of an organic chemist. More specifically, we sought to develop robust synthetic methodology able to efficiently produce an array of compounds for the purpose of systematic evaluation of their interaction with specific sights within the central nervous system (CNS) in order to better understand the mind and to develop drugs that may have beneficial effects on neurological function.

The focus of these studies has been toward the development of novel molecules, using a structure-activity relationship approach, that exhibit binding affinity at ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling May 2014

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Radiopharmaceuticals: The Application Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium Complexes, Angela Kristin Binion May 2014

Radiopharmaceuticals: The Application Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium Complexes, Angela Kristin Binion

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Nuclear imaging used in diagnostic medicine requires the use of radiopharmaceuticals to make biological areas visible under a gamma camera. Although much success has been found in the use of technetium based imaging agents, their corresponding rhenium complexes can provide insight into the chemical properties of these radiopharmaceuticals without the potentially damaging effects of radiation. Technetium and rhenium complexes utilize a bifunctional chelator to act as a linker between biological vectors and the metal, improving the coordination between the two. Ligands containing thiazole rings have been successfully coordinated to technetium or rhenium tricarbonyl complexes, although it is uncertain whether coordination ...


Peptidomimetic Ghs-R1a Agonists As Pet Imaging Agents For Prostate Cancer, Milan M. Fowkes Apr 2014

Peptidomimetic Ghs-R1a Agonists As Pet Imaging Agents For Prostate Cancer, Milan M. Fowkes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Contemporary diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer (PCa) have a limited ability to distinguish between benign and malignant disease. The ghrelin receptor has a differential expression in normal, benign and cancerous prostatic tissue. Targeting this receptor with 18F-radiolabelled peptidomimetics would enable differentiation between these disease states via PET imaging. A series of 19F-peptidomimetics were synthesized and characterized by HRMS, HPLC and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy in order to test locations for 18F radioisotope insertion. Competitive receptor binding assays using HEK293/GHS-R1a cells were used to evaluate compound binding affinities. This led to the identification of two lead compounds: [1-Nal4,Lys5(4-FB)]G-7039 ...


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres Jan 2014

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...


Dj-1 And Atp13a2: Two Proteins Involved In Parkinson’S Disease, Josephat M Asiago Jan 2014

Dj-1 And Atp13a2: Two Proteins Involved In Parkinson’S Disease, Josephat M Asiago

Open Access Dissertations

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting approximately 0.3% of the total U.S. population, and its prevalence increases with age. Two neuropathological hallmarks of PD are the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a region in the midbrain involved in initiating and sustaining movement, and the presence of cytosolic inclusions called Lewy bodies (LBs) in various brain regions. LBs are enriched with fibrillar forms of the presynaptic protein &agr;-synuclein (aSyn). Two autosomal recessive genes implicated in familial PD are PARK9, encoding the P-type ATPase ATP13A2 ...


Characterization Of Gold Nanoparticle Antimicrobials, Kelsey Higgins Jan 2014

Characterization Of Gold Nanoparticle Antimicrobials, Kelsey Higgins

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Nanoparticles have been gaining recognition for their potential in drug delivery; however, now a new niche is growing. Nanoparticles are no longer simply carrying a drug, but rather being designed as the therapeutic itself. The Feldheim group has designed gold nanoparticles functionalized with an array of organothiol ligands varying in intermolecular forces, hydrophilicity and functional groups. Optimization of this library of drug nanoparticles produced drug nanoparticles with a bacteriostatic effect against bacteria, such as E. Coli and Klebsiella. There are still many pieces of the puzzle to address. This thesis presents research conducted to 1) Explore which parameter during the ...


Quantification Of Factors Governing Drug Release Kinetics From Nanoparticles: A Combined Experimental And Mechanistic Modeling Approach, Kyle Daniel Fugit Jan 2014

Quantification Of Factors Governing Drug Release Kinetics From Nanoparticles: A Combined Experimental And Mechanistic Modeling Approach, Kyle Daniel Fugit

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Advancements in nanoparticle drug delivery of anticancer agents require mathematical models capable of predicting in vivo formulation performance from in vitro characterization studies. Such models must identify and incorporate the physicochemical properties of the therapeutic agent and nanoparticle driving in vivo drug release. This work identifies these factors for two nanoparticle formulations of anticancer agents using an approach which develops mechanistic mathematical models in conjunction with experimental studies.

A non-sink ultrafiltration method was developed to monitor liposomal release kinetics of the anticancer agent topotecan. Mathematical modeling allowed simultaneous determination of drug permeability and interfacial binding to the bilayer from release ...


The Synthesis And Biological Activity Of Iron Binding Motifs, Rachel Burke Jan 2014

The Synthesis And Biological Activity Of Iron Binding Motifs, Rachel Burke

University Honors Program Theses

Iron is an essential mineral that plays a key role in the oxygen transporting molecule hemoglobin. Iron also helps muscles store and use oxygen. Excess iron in the body can attract electrons, creating harmful oxygen radicals. Iron overload can be caused by several factors such as genetics, age, gender, and having received multiple red blood cell transfusions. Excess iron can lead to many diseases, such as arthritis, liver cirrhosis, heart disease, and several forms of cancer. Iron-chelating therapies work by binding free iron in the bloodstream and by reducing the amount of iron bound in transferrin, the iron transporting molecule ...