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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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2014

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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Can Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Tests Be Replaced With Oral Tests? A Comparison Of Route-Specific Systemic Toxicity And Hazard Classifications Under The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (Ghs), Nigel P. Moore, David J. Andrew, Donald L. Bjerke, Stuart Creton, David Dreher, Thomas Holmes, Pilar Prieto, Troy Seidle, Tim G. Rowan Dec 2014

Can Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Tests Be Replaced With Oral Tests? A Comparison Of Route-Specific Systemic Toxicity And Hazard Classifications Under The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (Ghs), Nigel P. Moore, David J. Andrew, Donald L. Bjerke, Stuart Creton, David Dreher, Thomas Holmes, Pilar Prieto, Troy Seidle, Tim G. Rowan

Troy Seidle, PhD

Acute systemic toxicity data (LD50 values) and hazard classifications derived in the rat following oral administration and dermal application have been analysed to examine whether or not orally-derived hazard classification or LD50 values can be used to determine dermal hazard classification. Comparing the oral and dermal classifications for 335 substances derived from oral and dermal LD50 values respectively revealed 17% concordance, and indicated that 7% of substances would be classified less severely while 76% would be classified more severely if oral classifications were applied directly to the dermal route. In contrast, applying the oral LD50 values within the dermal classification ...


The Development Of New Concepts For Assessing Reproductive Toxicity Applicable To Large Scale Toxicological Programmes, S. Bremer, C. Pellizzer, S. Hoffmann, T. Seidle, T. Hartung Dec 2014

The Development Of New Concepts For Assessing Reproductive Toxicity Applicable To Large Scale Toxicological Programmes, S. Bremer, C. Pellizzer, S. Hoffmann, T. Seidle, T. Hartung

Troy Seidle, PhD

Large scale toxicological testing programmes which are currently ongoing such as the new European chemical legislation REACH require the development of new integrated testing strategies rather than applying traditional testing schemes to thousands of chemicals. The current practice of requiring in vivo testing for every possible adverse effect endanger the success of these programmes due (i) to limited testing facilities and sufficient capacity of scientific/technical knowledge for reproductive toxicity; (ii) an unacceptable number of laboratory animals involved (iii) an intolerable number of chemicals classified as false positive.

A key aspect of the implementation of new testing strategies is the ...


Colloidal And Biological Properties Of Triscationic Amphiphiles With One Or Two Tails, John N. Marafino Dec 2014

Colloidal And Biological Properties Of Triscationic Amphiphiles With One Or Two Tails, John N. Marafino

Masters Theses

The decline in the development of novel antimicrobials, combined with the misusage and over prescription of antibiotics, has contributed to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant infections. Thus development of effective novel disinfectants could reduce the transmission of pathogens and decrease the risk of infection by antibiotic resistant organisms. The antimicrobial activity of amphiphiles, compounds with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, was first reported in 1935, and has influenced the synthesis of amphiphiles with variations in structure. In this study, three series of amphiphiles were synthesized by two subsequent Menshutkin reactions. Each amphiphile contains one or two hydrocarbon tails ranging from 8 ...


New 4-Aminoquinoline Compounds To Reverse Drug Resistance In P. Falciparum Malaria, And A Survey Of Early European Antimalarial Treatments, Katherine May Liebman Dec 2014

New 4-Aminoquinoline Compounds To Reverse Drug Resistance In P. Falciparum Malaria, And A Survey Of Early European Antimalarial Treatments, Katherine May Liebman

Dissertations and Theses

Intermittent fevers caused by Plasmodium parasites have been known for millennia, and have caused untold human suffering. Today, millions of people are afflicted by malaria each year, and hundreds of thousands die. Historically, the most successful synthetic antimalarial drug was chloroquine, as it was safe, inexpensive, and highly efficacious. However, plasmodial resistance to chloroquine now greatly limits its utility. Previously in our laboratories it has been shown that attachment of a "reversal agent moiety" to the side chain of chloroquine can result in the restoration of activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum malaria. In the first part of the ...


Reaction Rates Of Amino Acids With Derivatives Of The Anticancer Drug Cisplatin, Celia Jess Whelan Dec 2014

Reaction Rates Of Amino Acids With Derivatives Of The Anticancer Drug Cisplatin, Celia Jess Whelan

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

We are studying reactions of cisplatin derivatives, which differ in both size and shape, with various amino acids. When reaction with DNA occurs, apoptosis is observed, ideally leading to termination of the cancer. Due to the affinity of cisplatin for sulfur-containing amino acids, reaction with proteins may occur prior to access to the DNA, producing a large array of products, which could potentially be toxic to the human body. Both the size and shape of the platinum complexes often affect the reactions with protein targets more so than with DNA targets. By performing reactions of specific amino acids targets with ...


Probing The Unfolding And The Stability Of The Last Four Metal Binding Domains Of Wilson Disease Protein Using Circular Dichroism And Novel Spectroscopic Techniques, Ibtesam Yaseen Alja’Afreh Dec 2014

Probing The Unfolding And The Stability Of The Last Four Metal Binding Domains Of Wilson Disease Protein Using Circular Dichroism And Novel Spectroscopic Techniques, Ibtesam Yaseen Alja’Afreh

Dissertations

Wilson disease protein is a copper-transporting P1B type ATPase. It has large N-terminal copper binding domain which is composed of six homologous sub-domains. Each of these six domains is ~72 residues and connected to one another by linking regions of various lengths. They all possess similar ferrodoxin fold, and metal-binding motif, MXCXXC.

The need of having six metal binding domains and the manner in which they are communicating with each other is not well understood. To better understand how the last four metal binding domains function, I pursued a detailed biophysical characterization of these domains. Using molecular biology I ...


Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer Across Molecule-Tio2 Nanocomposites: Towards Solar Cells And Two Photon Absorption, Edwin Mghanga Dec 2014

Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer Across Molecule-Tio2 Nanocomposites: Towards Solar Cells And Two Photon Absorption, Edwin Mghanga

Dissertations

Interfacial charge transfer (ICT) across the molecule-TiO2 nanoparticle interface has gained enormous research attention for applications in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), photo-catalysis, water splitting and nonlinear optics. DSSCs are promising clean alternative energy sources. However, current DSSCs suffer from lower efficiencies and higher cost. Better understanding of the ICT processes in DSSCs can help solve these problems. We have used two strategies to understand ICT in the context of DSSCs. Firstly, we used a computationally validated anchor group, acetylacetonate (acac) to bind molecules to the semiconductor surface and facilitate charge separation. Secondly, we used natural dye sensitizers, which possess ...


Mimicking Metabolism Of A Reversed Chloroquine Antimalarial, Kelsie Lynn Kendrick Nov 2014

Mimicking Metabolism Of A Reversed Chloroquine Antimalarial, Kelsie Lynn Kendrick

Dissertations and Theses

The aim of this study was to elucidate the oxidation products of a candidate antimalarial drug, PL69, using a porphyrin system and to determine the accuracy of the oxidation products produced, as compared to what is expected in metabolism. PL69 is a reversed chloroquine (RCQ) that is active against chloroquine resistant malaria. Porphyrin oxidation systems have been shown to mimic in vitro enzymatic metabolism reactions. PL69 and its known metabolite, PL16, were incubated with the porphyrin system, and then the oxidation products were collected and separated by HPLC. The oxidation products were characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry and compared ...


Peptide Arrays For Detecting Naphthenic Acids In Oil Sands Process Affected Water, Kamaljit Kaur, Subir Bhattacharjee, Rajesh G. Pillai, Sahar Ahmed, Sarfuddin Azmi Nov 2014

Peptide Arrays For Detecting Naphthenic Acids In Oil Sands Process Affected Water, Kamaljit Kaur, Subir Bhattacharjee, Rajesh G. Pillai, Sahar Ahmed, Sarfuddin Azmi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are water-soluble components of petroleum. The characterization and quantification of NAs by analytical methods have proved quite challenging, whilst the toxic effects of these water-soluble compounds on a variety of organisms adversely affecting reproduction and steroid production is becoming apparent. In this study, we report a fluorescence-based competitive binding method for rapid sensing of the presence of NAs using cellulosic peptide array strips as sensors. The peptide array was designed from sequences derived from the estrogen receptor (ER). Several of these peptides were able to detect the presence of NAs at low micromolar (∼5 mg L−1 ...


Discovery Of Thienoquinolone Derivatives As Selective And Atp Non-Competitive Cdk5/P25 Inhibitors By Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Arindam Chatterjee, Stephen J. Cutler, Robert J. Doerksen, Ikhlas A. Khan, John S. Williamson Nov 2014

Discovery Of Thienoquinolone Derivatives As Selective And Atp Non-Competitive Cdk5/P25 Inhibitors By Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Arindam Chatterjee, Stephen J. Cutler, Robert J. Doerksen, Ikhlas A. Khan, John S. Williamson

Office for Research Publications and Presentations

Calpain mediated cleavage of CDK5 natural precursor p35 causes a stable complex formation of CDK5/p25, which leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau. Thus inhibition of this complex is a viable target for numerous acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases involving tau protein, including Alzheimer’s disease. Since CDK5 has the highest sequence homology with its mitotic counterpart CDK2, our primary goal was to design selective CDK5/p25 inhibitors targeting neurodegeneration. A novel structure-based virtual screening protocol comprised of e-pharmacophore models and virtual screening workflow was used to identify nine compounds from a commercial database containing 2.84 million compounds. An ATP ...


Hydrolytically Stable Analogues Of Sugar Phosphates And A Miniaturized In Situ Enzymatic Screen, Xiang Fei Nov 2014

Hydrolytically Stable Analogues Of Sugar Phosphates And A Miniaturized In Situ Enzymatic Screen, Xiang Fei

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

The glmS riboswitch undergoes self-cleavage upon binding its metabolic product GlcN6P, thereby providing a negative feedback mechanism limiting translation of the glmS protein when GlcN6P is abundant. As a first step toward the development of novel antimicrobials, we have synthesized a series of GlcN6P analogues bearing phosphatase-inert surrogates in place of the natural phosphate ester functionality. The self-cleavage assay identified two such compounds that display significant riboswitch actuator activity; namely those bearing a 6-phosphonomethyl group or a 6-O-malonyl ether. These two analogues exhibit a 22-fold and a 27-fold higher catalytic efficiency, respectively, than does glucosamine. Docking experiments were ...


Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Based Backbones With High Peptide Loading Capacities., Aoife O'Connor, Jean-Noel Marsat, Annachiara Mitrugno, Tom Flahive, Niamh Moran, David Brayden, Marc Devocelle Oct 2014

Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Based Backbones With High Peptide Loading Capacities., Aoife O'Connor, Jean-Noel Marsat, Annachiara Mitrugno, Tom Flahive, Niamh Moran, David Brayden, Marc Devocelle

Chemistry Articles

Polymer-peptide conjugates are a promising class of compounds, where polymers can be used to overcome some of the limitations associated with peptides intended for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. Linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) can be conjugated through terminal moieties and have therefore limited loading capacities. In this research, functionalised linear poly(ethylene glycol)s are utilised for peptide conjugation, to increase their potential loading capacities. These poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives are conjugated to peptide sequences containing representative side-chain functionalised amino acids, using different conjugation chemistries, including copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, amide coupling and thiol-ene reactions. Conjugation of a ...


Computational Survey Of Peptides Derived From Disulphide-Bonded Protein Loops That May Serve As Mediators Of Protein-Protein Interactions., Fergal J. Duffy, Marc Devocelle, David R. Croucher, Denis C. Shields Sep 2014

Computational Survey Of Peptides Derived From Disulphide-Bonded Protein Loops That May Serve As Mediators Of Protein-Protein Interactions., Fergal J. Duffy, Marc Devocelle, David R. Croucher, Denis C. Shields

Chemistry Articles

BACKGROUND: Bioactive cyclic peptides derived from natural sources are well studied, particularly those derived from non-ribosomal synthetases in fungi or bacteria. Ribosomally synthesised bioactive disulphide-bonded loops represent a large, naturally enriched library of potential bioactive compounds, worthy of systematic investigation.

RESULTS: We examined the distribution of short cyclic loops on the surface of a large number of proteins, especially membrane or extracellular proteins. Available three-dimensional structures highlighted a number of disulphide-bonded loops responsible for the majority of the likely binding interactions in a variety of protein complexes, due to their location at protein-protein interfaces. We find that disulphide-bonded loops at ...


Upgrading Malic Acid To Bio-Based Benzoates Via A Diels–Alder-Initiated Sequence With The Methyl Coumalate Platform, Jennifer J. Lee, Gerald R. Pollock Iii, Donald Mitchell, Lindsay Kasuga, George A. Kraus Sep 2014

Upgrading Malic Acid To Bio-Based Benzoates Via A Diels–Alder-Initiated Sequence With The Methyl Coumalate Platform, Jennifer J. Lee, Gerald R. Pollock Iii, Donald Mitchell, Lindsay Kasuga, George A. Kraus

Chemistry Publications

The conversion of naturally-occurring malic acid to the 2-pyrone methyl coumalate was optimized using a variety of acid catalysts. Coupling methyl coumalate with electron-rich dienophiles in an inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder (IEDDA)/decarboxylation/elimination domino sequence resulted in an investigation of the scope and limitations of the methodology. The thermal, metal-free, and one-pot procedure allows regioselective access to diverse aromatic compounds including tricyclic, biphenyl, and pyridinyl systems for elaboration. A comparison with analogous pyrones demonstrates the striking efficacy of methyl coumalate as a versatile platform for the generation of biorenewable functionalized benzoates.


Small Molecule Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Of Erbb2/Her2/Neu In The Treatment Of Aggressive Breast Cancer., Richard L. Schroeder, Cheryl L. Stevens, Jayalakshmi Sridhar Sep 2014

Small Molecule Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Of Erbb2/Her2/Neu In The Treatment Of Aggressive Breast Cancer., Richard L. Schroeder, Cheryl L. Stevens, Jayalakshmi Sridhar

Faculty and Staff Publications

he human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of the erbB class of tyrosine kinase receptors. These proteins are normally expressed at the surface of healthy cells and play critical roles in the signal transduction cascade in a myriad of biochemical pathways responsible for cell growth and differentiation. However, it is widely known that amplification and subsequent overexpression of the HER2 encoding oncogene results in unregulated cell proliferation in an aggressive form of breast cancer known as HER2-positive breast cancer. Existing therapies such as trastuzumab (Herceptin®) and lapatinib (Tyverb/Tykerb®), a monoclonal antibody inhibitor and a dual ...


Inhibition Of The Thioesterase Activity Of Human Fatty Acid Synthase By 1,4- And 9,10-Diones, Herman H. Odens Sep 2014

Inhibition Of The Thioesterase Activity Of Human Fatty Acid Synthase By 1,4- And 9,10-Diones, Herman H. Odens

Faculty Works

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the enzyme that synthesizes fatty acids de novo in human cells. Although FASN is generally expressed at low levels in most normal tissues, its expression is highly upregulated in many cancers. Consistent with this notion, inhibition of FASN activity has demonstrated potential to halt proliferation and induce cell death in vitro and to block tumor growth in vivo. Consequently, FASN is widely recognized as a valuable therapeutic target. In this report, we describe a variety of 1,4-quinones and 9,10- anthraquinones, including several natural compounds and some newly synthesized compounds, that potently inhibit the ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminases: Novel Drug Targets For Prevention Of Neuronal Damage Following Hypoxic Ischemic Insult (Hi) In Neonates., Sigrun Lange, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Laura Thei, Priyanka Mawjee, Kate Bennett, Paul R. Thompson, Venkataraman Subramanian, Anthony P. Nicholas, Donald Peebles, Mariya Hristova, Gennadij Raivich Aug 2014

Peptidylarginine Deiminases: Novel Drug Targets For Prevention Of Neuronal Damage Following Hypoxic Ischemic Insult (Hi) In Neonates., Sigrun Lange, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Laura Thei, Priyanka Mawjee, Kate Bennett, Paul R. Thompson, Venkataraman Subramanian, Anthony P. Nicholas, Donald Peebles, Mariya Hristova, Gennadij Raivich

Thompson Lab Publications

Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) injury frequently causes neural impairment in surviving infants. Our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still limited. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by Ca(+2) -regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of five isozymes that display tissue-specific expression and different preference for target proteins. Protein deimination results in altered protein conformation and function of target proteins, and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, gene regulation and autoimmunity. In this study, we used the neonatal HI and HI/infection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation] murine models to investigate changes in protein deimination. Brains showed increases in deiminated ...


Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball Aug 2014

Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Normal abundant dietary sugars such as fructose and sucrose can contribute to hypertension and other health issues. To avoid these health complications, many individuals use artificial sweeteners. An equivalent intake of some artificial sweeteners also can lead to hypertension. However, Stevia, a sweetener that is isolated from a Paraguayan plant, was shown in relevant literature to decrease blood pressure in both rat specimens and humans. The general purpose of this research project was to study the effect of Stevia, saccharin, and sucrose on the expression of two key components of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS): prorenin receptor (PRR) and angiotensin ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of N-Heterocycles For Activity On Monoamine Transporters And Exploration Of Iridium Chemistry For Synthesis Of Medicinally Important Molecules, Tushar D. Apsunde Aug 2014

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of N-Heterocycles For Activity On Monoamine Transporters And Exploration Of Iridium Chemistry For Synthesis Of Medicinally Important Molecules, Tushar D. Apsunde

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The focus of these studies was directed towards the synthesis of novel N-heterocyclic compounds and pharmacological evaluation of these compounds for activity at monoamine transporters. A series of novel piperidine and pyrrolidine analogues were prepared from commercially available starting material with a three and four step synthetic method, respectively. A variety of substituents on the aromatic ring were incorporated to achieve a diverse library of compounds. The preliminary binding studies of piperidine molecules showed strong affinity towards serotonin transporters and moderate affinity towards dopamine transporters. The focus of further studies was directed towards utilization of iridium catalysis for the development ...


Synthesis And Applications Of Mutimodal Hybrid Albumin Nanoparticles For Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery And Phototherml Therapy Platforms, Donna V. Peralta Aug 2014

Synthesis And Applications Of Mutimodal Hybrid Albumin Nanoparticles For Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery And Phototherml Therapy Platforms, Donna V. Peralta

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Progress has been made in using human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSAPs) as carrier systems for targeted treatment of cancer. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant human blood protein, can form HSAPs via a desolvation and crosslinking method, with the size of the HSAPs having crucial importance for drug loading and in vivo performance. Gold nanoparticles have also gained medicinal attention due to their ability to absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. These relatively non-toxic particles offer combinational therapy via imaging and photothermal therapy (PPTT) capabilities.

A desolvation and crosslinking approach was employed to encapsulate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hollow gold nanoshells (AuNSs ...


Development Of A Gallium-Containing One-Bead One-Compound Peptide Library For The Discovery Of New Molecular Imaging Probes, Fernanda C. Bononi Aug 2014

Development Of A Gallium-Containing One-Bead One-Compound Peptide Library For The Discovery Of New Molecular Imaging Probes, Fernanda C. Bononi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An eight amino acid one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide library, containing a gallium-DOTA complex, was developed in an attempt to overcome common issues associated with the later addition of radionuclides to peptide chains of imaging probes. The further addition of a radionuclide often changes the binding properties of a peptide, as it adds bulk, and possibly charges. MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) tandem mass spectrometry was determined to be the method of choice in order to deconvolute gallium-containing peptide sequences. The library obtained was screened against the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Positive beads were isolated and sequences were ...


Heat Release Of Polyurethanes Containing Potential Flame Retardants Based On Boron And Phosphorus Chemistries, Vladimir Benin, Bastien Gardelle, Alexander Morgan Aug 2014

Heat Release Of Polyurethanes Containing Potential Flame Retardants Based On Boron And Phosphorus Chemistries, Vladimir Benin, Bastien Gardelle, Alexander Morgan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Using a polyurethane of methylene diphenyl isocyanate and 1,3-propane diol, several new non-halogenated aromatic boron and phosphorus flame retardants were evaluated for heat release reduction potential using the pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter (PCFC). The polyurethanes were prepared in the presence of the potential flame retardants via solvent mixing and copolymerization methods, and were then analyzed via spectroscopic methods to determine if the flame retardant was still present in the final product. PCFC testing on the resulting products showed that the flame retardant molecule can have different effects on heat release depending upon how it is mixed into the polyurethane ...


Selective Oxidations By Iron(Iii) Porphyrins And Iron(Iii) Corroles, Aaron Dalnamath Carver Aug 2014

Selective Oxidations By Iron(Iii) Porphyrins And Iron(Iii) Corroles, Aaron Dalnamath Carver

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The selective oxidation of organic compounds represents a leading technology for chemical industries. They are used in chemical synthesis in the pharmaceutical and petrochemicals industries, and possible the decontamination of harmful substances. However, oxidations reaction are among the most challenging processes to control. Many stoichiometric oxidants with heavy metals are expensive, or toxic maybe both, and therefore unfeasible to be utilized. The ideal processes for catalytic oxidation would use molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as the primary oxygen source, with transition metal catalysts to mimic the predominant oxidation catalysts in Nature, the cytochrome P450 enzymes. This study focuses on the ...


Antimicrobial Nanoparticles: A Green And Novel Approach For Enhancing Bactericidal Efficacy Of Commercial Antibiotics, Monic Shah Aug 2014

Antimicrobial Nanoparticles: A Green And Novel Approach For Enhancing Bactericidal Efficacy Of Commercial Antibiotics, Monic Shah

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

On the verge of entering the post-antibiotic era, numerous efforts are in place to regain the waning charm of antibiotics which are proving ineffective against most “Superbugs”. Engineered nanomaterials, especially gold nanoparticles (GNPs) capped with antibacterial agents, are proving to be an effective and novel strategy against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we report a one-step synthesis of antibioticcapped GNPs (25 ± 5 nm) utilizing the combined reducing and capping ability of a cephalosporin antibiotic, ceftazidime. No signs of aggregation or leaching of ceftazidime from GNP surface was observed upon its storage. Antibacterial testing showed dosedependent broad spectrum activity ...


Green Synthesis And Evaluation Of Catalytic Activity Of Sugar Capped Gold Nanoparticles, Yogesh A. Kherde Aug 2014

Green Synthesis And Evaluation Of Catalytic Activity Of Sugar Capped Gold Nanoparticles, Yogesh A. Kherde

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Owing to the importance of gold nanoparticles in catalysis, designing of them has become a major focus of the researchers. Most of the current methods available for the synthesis of gold nanoaprticles (GNPs) suffer from the challenges of polydispersity, stability and use of toxic and harmful chemicals. To overcome these limitations of conventional methods, in our present study, we made an attempt to design a method for the green synthesis of monodispersed and stable gold nanoparticles by sugars which act as reducing and stabilizing agent. Characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was done by using various analytical techniques such as transmission electron ...


Determination Of Corrosion Inhibitor Lubricity Improver In Jet Fuel By Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, David W. Johnson, Milissa Flake, Ryan Adams Jul 2014

Determination Of Corrosion Inhibitor Lubricity Improver In Jet Fuel By Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, David W. Johnson, Milissa Flake, Ryan Adams

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Military jet fuel (JP-8) is very similar to commercial jet fuel (Jet A) except for the presence of three additives, fuel system icing inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor–lubricity improver (CI-LI), and antistatic additive, which are added to improve characteristics of JP-8. Of particular interest is the CI-LI additive; the most common active ingredient is a dimer of linoleic acid. This article focuses on quantification of the active ingredient in the CI-LI additive by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). This method will allow the determination of CI-LI content in military jet fuel samples.


Investigations Of Synthetic Models Of Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Dioxygenases, Michael Bittner Jul 2014

Investigations Of Synthetic Models Of Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Dioxygenases, Michael Bittner

Dissertations (2009 -)

Ring cleaving dioxygenases, such as o-aminophenol dioxygenase (APDO) and extradiol catechol dioxygenases (CatD), play an important role in human metabolism and the degradation of aromatic pollutants, yet questions still remain concerning the enzymatic mechanisms. One area of the catalytic cycle that remains controversial is the geometric and electronic structure of the intermediate formed after O2 binding to the Fe(II) centers. Synthetic model systems can be useful for studying enzyme active sites, as they are easier to modify and characterize than the enzymes themselves. However, synthetic models of APDOs have been relatively rare thus far. We prepared several monoiron ...


Bu4n(+) Alkoxide-Initiated/Autocatalytic Addition Reactions With Organotrimethylsilanes., Manas Das, Donal F. O'Shea Jun 2014

Bu4n(+) Alkoxide-Initiated/Autocatalytic Addition Reactions With Organotrimethylsilanes., Manas Das, Donal F. O'Shea

Chemistry Articles

The use of Me3SiO(-)/Bu4N(+) as a general activator of organotrimethylsilanes for addition reactions has been established. The broad scope of the method offers trimethylsilanes (including acetate, allyl, propargyl, benzyl, dithiane, heteroaryl, and aryl derivatives) as bench-stable organometallics that can be readily utilized as carbanion equivalents for synthesis. Reactions are achieved at rt without the requirement of specialized precautions that are commonplace for other organometallics.


Lead Optimization Of Dual Tubulin And Hsp27 Inhibitors, Bo Zhong, Rati Lama, Daniel G. Kulman, Bibo Li Ph.D., Bin Su Ph.D. Jun 2014

Lead Optimization Of Dual Tubulin And Hsp27 Inhibitors, Bo Zhong, Rati Lama, Daniel G. Kulman, Bibo Li Ph.D., Bin Su Ph.D.

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Tubulin and heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) are well-characterized molecular targets for anti-cancer drug development. We previously identified lead compounds that inhibited both Hsp27 and tubulin. These compounds exhibited extensive anti-cancer activities against the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines. In the current study, a systematic ligand based structural optimization led to new analogs that significantly inhibited the growth of a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the most potent compounds were examined with tubulin polymerization assay and Hsp27 chaperone activity assay. The compounds showed potent tubulin polymerization inhibition but no Hsp27 inhibitory effect. The structural optimization dissected ...


Studies On The Synthesis Of Orthogonally Protected Azalanthionines, And Of Routes Towards B-Methyl Azalanthionines, By Ring-Opening Of N-Activated Aziridine-2-Crboxylates, Keith O'Brien, Keith Ó Proinsias, Fintan Kelleher Jun 2014

Studies On The Synthesis Of Orthogonally Protected Azalanthionines, And Of Routes Towards B-Methyl Azalanthionines, By Ring-Opening Of N-Activated Aziridine-2-Crboxylates, Keith O'Brien, Keith Ó Proinsias, Fintan Kelleher

Articles

Orthogonally protected azalanthionines were successfully synthesised by the ring-opening of N-activated aziridine-2-carboxylates with protected diaminopropanoic acids (DAPs). The required DAPs were also prepared by ring-opening of N-activated aziridine-2-carboxylates with para-methoxybenzylamine, but it was found that the choice of aziridine protecting groups dictated both the success of the reaction as well as the regioselectivity of the isolated products. Attempts to extend the methodology to the preparation of the more sterically demanding b-methyl azalanthionines have, so far, been unsuccessful.