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2012

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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

New Applications Of Mass Spectrometry For Drug And Lipid Analysis, Elizabeth Lauren Emerson Dec 2012

New Applications Of Mass Spectrometry For Drug And Lipid Analysis, Elizabeth Lauren Emerson

Theses and Dissertations

Mass spectrometry is an important tool used in many different disciplines and settings that include forensics, drug discovery, environmental analysis, and proteomics. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI - TOF MS) are two of the most important instruments used for analysis of compounds. Chapters 1 and 2 of this discussion use GC-MS for the investigation of synthetic cannabinoids in `K2' incense products and the detection of metabolites in urine samples from individuals suspected of consuming these mixtures. Analytical standards were synthesized and used for identification and confirmation of structures. Detection of these ...


Activation Of Pad4 In Net Formation, Amanda S. Rohrbach, Daniel J. Slade, Paul R. Thompson, Kerri A. Mowen Nov 2012

Activation Of Pad4 In Net Formation, Amanda S. Rohrbach, Daniel J. Slade, Paul R. Thompson, Kerri A. Mowen

Thompson Lab Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various ...


Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod Oct 2012

Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects.

METHODS: RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known ...


Potential Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Enzymes And Protein Citrullination In Cancer Pathogenesis., Sunish Mohanan, Brian D. Cherrington, Sachi Horibata, John L. Mcelwee, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod Sep 2012

Potential Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Enzymes And Protein Citrullination In Cancer Pathogenesis., Sunish Mohanan, Brian D. Cherrington, Sachi Horibata, John L. Mcelwee, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of posttranslational modification enzymes that catalyze the conversion of positively charged protein-bound arginine and methylarginine residues to the uncharged, nonstandard amino acid citrulline. This enzymatic activity is referred to as citrullination or, alternatively, deimination. Citrullination can significantly affect biochemical pathways by altering the structure and function of target proteins. Five mammalian PAD family members (PADs 1-4 and 6) have been described and show tissue-specific distribution. Recent reviews on PADs have focused on their role in autoimmune diseases. Here, we will discuss the potential role of PADs in tumor progression and tumor-associated inflammation. In ...


The Development Of Organometallic Oboc Peptide Libraries For Use In Molecular Imaging, Dana R. Cruickshank Aug 2012

The Development Of Organometallic Oboc Peptide Libraries For Use In Molecular Imaging, Dana R. Cruickshank

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The discovery of peptide-based targeted imaging agents is hindered by the required addition of a radionuclide that can affect the binding properties of the peptide. Screening of peptide libraries is problematic because they do not take into account the presence of the imaging agent. Herein the development of an organometallic OBOC peptide library that contain a rhenium (I) tricarbonyl-based imaging entity surrogate incorporated directly onto the peptide chain, is reported. Additionally, MALDI tandem mass spectrometry is reported as a method to deconvolute organometallic peptides containing four different rhenium (I) tricarbonyl chelates on the N-terminus of octapeptides. Furthermore, an organometallic OBOC ...


Reactions Of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers With Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental And Theoretical Studies, Howard Knachel, Vladimir Benin, Chadwick Barklay, Janine C. Birkbeck, Billy D. Faubion, William E. Moddeman Aug 2012

Reactions Of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers With Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental And Theoretical Studies, Howard Knachel, Vladimir Benin, Chadwick Barklay, Janine C. Birkbeck, Billy D. Faubion, William E. Moddeman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reaction of an isomeric mixture of the methyl perfluoroalkyl ether, C4F9OCH3 (Novec-7100), in the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and/or water has been studied by measuring the rate of product formation using an ion-selective electrode (ISE) for fluoride ion, Karl Fisher coulometric titrations for water, and 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy for product identification and rate studies. The results showed the methyl perfluoroalkyl ether to be very stable with products forming at the rate of ∼1 ppm per year at a laboratory temperature of 20 °C. Measurements over the temperature range of 6° to 100 °C were made ...


Insights On Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Inhibitors Obtained Through Qsar Studies, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Jiawang Liu, Maryam Foroozesh, Cheryl Stevens L. Klein Stevens Aug 2012

Insights On Cytochrome P450 Enzymes And Inhibitors Obtained Through Qsar Studies, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Jiawang Liu, Maryam Foroozesh, Cheryl Stevens L. Klein Stevens

Faculty and Staff Publications

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on ...


Characterization Of Polymeric Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Light Scattering Laser, Satish Kumar Murarishetty Jul 2012

Characterization Of Polymeric Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Light Scattering Laser, Satish Kumar Murarishetty

All Capstone Projects

The objective of this study is to use DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) to analyze polymeric copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles (CuPcNPs). CuPcNPs are synthesized in order to facilitate drug penetration of bacterial biofilms for the treatment of chronic wounds. Microorganisms that reside inside the biofilms of chronic wounds are very resistant to any kind of treatment, even to the host’s own immune system. Therefore we have proposed an alternative method to destroy the microorganisms existing within the biofilms. Photodynamic anti-bacterial chemotherapy (PACT) has received much attention for the past decade due to the multi-drug resistant strands. PACT uses photons, a photosensitizer ...


Potential Role For Padi-Mediated Histone Citrullination In Preimplantation Development., Rui Kan, Mei Jin, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod Jun 2012

Potential Role For Padi-Mediated Histone Citrullination In Preimplantation Development., Rui Kan, Mei Jin, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) convert positively charged arginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline on protein substrates in a process that is known as citrullination or deimination. Previous reports have documented roles for histone citrullination in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation in several tissue types, however, a potential role for histone citrullination in chromatin-based activities during early embryogenesis has not been investigated.

RESULTS: In the present study, we tested by laser scanning confocal indirect immunofluorescence microscopy whether specific arginine residues on the histone H3 and H4 N-terminal tails (H4R3, H3R2 + 8 + 17, and H3R26) were citrullinated in mouse oocytes and ...


Design And Synthesis Studies Of New S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Analogues, Shanshan Wu May 2012

Design And Synthesis Studies Of New S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Analogues, Shanshan Wu

Theses

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM), which is involved in methyl group transfers, is the second most abundant coenzyme in the human body. It is made from adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) and methionine catalyzed by adenosyltransferase. Methyltransferases (MTs) transfer the activated methyl group from the sulfur center to a specific position in a variety of substrates, e.g., DNA, RNA, proteins, and secondary metabolites. Methyltransferases have been linked to various diseases, including cancer.

In recent years, more and more SAM analogues have been reported. These analogues show activities in biological target labeling. The purpose of this thesis is to design and synthesize new SAM analogues to ...


Size Dependent Antimicrobial Properties Of Sugar Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles, Lakshmisri Manisha Vangala May 2012

Size Dependent Antimicrobial Properties Of Sugar Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles, Lakshmisri Manisha Vangala

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The antimicrobial properties of dextrose encapsulated gold nanoparticles (dGNPs) with average diameters of 25 nm, 60 nm, and 120 nm (± 5 nm) synthesized by green chemistry principles were investigated against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Studies were performed involving the effect of the dGNPs on the growth, morphology and the ultrastructural properties of bacteria. dGNPs were found to have significant dose dependent antibacterial activity which was directly proportional to their size and also their concentration. The microbial assays revealed the dGNPs to be bacteriostatic as well as bactericidal. The dGNPs exhibited their bactericidal action through the disruption of the bacterial ...


Synthesis And Development Of Potential Cb1 Receptor Neutral Antagonists, Kimari Slaughter May 2012

Synthesis And Development Of Potential Cb1 Receptor Neutral Antagonists, Kimari Slaughter

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Cannabis and its derivatives have been used for both medicinal and recreational purposes. The study of this plant led to the discovery of over 60 cannabinoids, found exclusively in cannabis, that contribute to the behavioral effects of cannabis use, the most common is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabinoid receptors function to increase activity in the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in addition and its regulation plays a crucial role in mental and physical well-being. There is evidence that CB1 receptors are important to the reinforcing effects and the development of physical dependence on opiate ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Rigid Analogues Of Methamphetamines, Andrea N. Forsyth May 2012

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Rigid Analogues Of Methamphetamines, Andrea N. Forsyth

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A series of rigid azetidenyl-based methamphetamine analogs were synthesized from commercially available N-Boc-azetidinone. The benzylideneazetidine analogs were prepared via a Wittig olefination via the ylides generated from the corresponding triphenylphosphonium benzylhalide salts. The substituted benzylazetidine analogs were synthesized from the corresponding benzylideneazetidienes via hydrogention over palladium and platinum catalysts. The benzylideneazetidine and benzyliazetidine analogs were evaluated at monoamine transporters as a part of preliminary structure-activity study for the development of novel monoamine transporter ligands. The binding affinities of the azetidine analogs were determined at dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters in rat brain tissue preparations. The preliminary in vitro ...


Synthesis Of S-Ribosyl-L-Homocysteine And Analogs Modified At The Homocysteine-C3 Position, Ruoyi Liu May 2012

Synthesis Of S-Ribosyl-L-Homocysteine And Analogs Modified At The Homocysteine-C3 Position, Ruoyi Liu

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication that conveys population density information in order to coordinate gene expression to produce synchronized behaviors. QS regulates the expression of virulence genes in many species of bacteria; hence, the manipulation of QS pathways may lead to treatment options against many bacterial diseases. The LuxS enzyme converts S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine (SRH) into homocysteine (HCys) and 4(S),5-dihydroxypentane-2,3-dione (DPD), which is the precursor of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Thus, inhibitors of LuxS could prevent QS by halting the conversion of SRH to AI-2 rendering the cell “uncommunicative”. This work shows the successful chemical ...


Interaction Of Pharmaceutical Compounds With Dissolved Organic Matter, Carlen Nigl Smith Apr 2012

Interaction Of Pharmaceutical Compounds With Dissolved Organic Matter, Carlen Nigl Smith

Honors Theses

Highly prescribed pharmaceutical compounds and their metabolites used to treat conditions ranging from infections to depression are of environmental concern as these excreted compounds are increasingly appearing in wastewater influent. As pharmaceuticals enter treatment plants they also can interact with dissolved organic matter (DOM) present. This potential interaction between pharmaceutical compounds and DOM may inhibit the advanced oxidation process (AOP) based removal of drugs during water treatment. The focus of this research was to utilize multinuclear magnetic resonance and hydroxyl radical kinetics to assess whether an interaction between influent pharmaceuticals and DOM does occur, the extent of the interaction, and ...


Mesoionic Compounds, Mark Gordon Apr 2012

Mesoionic Compounds, Mark Gordon

Student Scholarship - Chemistry

A poster presentation defining what mesoionic compounds are, describing their uses in the medical field and beyond, and providing examples of common mesoionic compounds.


Near Ir Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy At Smooth Gold Films, Kristopher J. Mckee, Matthew W. Meyer, Emily A. Smith Apr 2012

Near Ir Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy At Smooth Gold Films, Kristopher J. Mckee, Matthew W. Meyer, Emily A. Smith

Chemistry Publications

Total internal reflection (TIR) Raman and reflectivity spectra were collected for nonresonant analytes as a function of incident angle at sapphire or sapphire/smooth 50 nm gold interfaces using 785 nm excitation. For both interfaces, the Raman signal as a function of incident angle is well-modeled by the calculated interfacial mean square electric field (MSEF) relative to the incident field times the thickness of the layer being probed in the Raman measurement (DRS). The Raman scatter was reproducibly enhanced at the interface containing a gold film relative to the sapphire interface by a factor of 4.3−4.6 for ...


Identification And Analysis Of Stereoselective Drug Interactions With Low Density Lipoprotein By High-Performance Affinity Chromatography, Matt Sobansky, David S. Hage Apr 2012

Identification And Analysis Of Stereoselective Drug Interactions With Low Density Lipoprotein By High-Performance Affinity Chromatography, Matt Sobansky, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Columns containing immobilized low density lipoprotein (LDL) were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with this agent by high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). R/SPropranolol was used as a model drug for this study. The LDL columns gave reproducible binding to propranolol over 60 h of continuous use in the presence of pH 7.4, 0.067 M potassium phosphate buffer. Experiments conducted with this type of column through frontal analysis indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R-propranolol and LDL, while only a single type of interaction was observed between S-propranolol and LDL. The first ...


Reversed Chloroquine Molecules As A Strategy To Overcome Resistance In Malaria, David H. Peyton Mar 2012

Reversed Chloroquine Molecules As A Strategy To Overcome Resistance In Malaria, David H. Peyton

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

This short review tells the story of how Reversed Chloroquine drugs (RCQs) were developed. These are hybrid molecules, made by combining the quinoline nucleus from chloroquine (CQ) with moieties which are designed to inhibit efflux via known transporters in the membrane of the digestive vacuole of the malaria parasite. The resulting RCQ drugs can have potencies exceeding that of CQ, while at the same time having physical chemical characteristics that may make them favorable as partner drugs in combination therapies. The need for such novel antimalarial drugs will continue for the foreseeable future.


The Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Tamandarin B Analogs, Kenneth Lassen Feb 2012

The Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Tamandarin B Analogs, Kenneth Lassen

Kenneth Lassen

The tamandarin and didemnins are a class of cyclodepsipeptides that have shown a wide range of biological activity. The didemnins have demonstrated antitumor, antiviral and immunosuppressive activity at low nano- and femtomolar levels. Didemnin B was the first marine natural product to enter clinical trials in humans in the United States. The structures of tamandarins A and B were reported in 2000 and possess almost identical structure and biological activity to didemnin B. These compounds have shown impressive biological activity and some progress has been made in establishing structure-activity relationships. However, their molecular mechanism of action is still unclear. The ...


Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis And Evaluation Of Their Multipotent Antioxidant Activities, Azhar Ariffin Jan 2012

Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis And Evaluation Of Their Multipotent Antioxidant Activities, Azhar Ariffin

Azhar Ariffin

A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and 5 showed more inhibition of DPPH stable free radical at 10(-4) M than the well-known standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Compound 5 exhibited promising in vitro inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of the essential egg yolk as a lipid-rich medium (83.99%, IC50 16.07 +/- 3.51 mu M/mL ...


Synthesis And Flame Retardant Testing Of New Boronated And Phosphonated Aromatic Compounds, Vladimir Benin, Sravanthi Durganala, Alexander Morgan Jan 2012

Synthesis And Flame Retardant Testing Of New Boronated And Phosphonated Aromatic Compounds, Vladimir Benin, Sravanthi Durganala, Alexander Morgan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The present report describes the preparation and use of some dimethyl terephthalate derivatives in transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions to produce new reactive flame retardants. Dimethyl iodoterephthalate and dimethyl 2,5-diiodoterephthalate were successfully employed in the preparation of phosphonic and boronic esters and acids. The latter were tested for heat release with a microcombustion calorimeter (ASTM D7309) to determine the potential for heat release reduction of these flame retardant molecules. The results showed that the addition of boronic or phosphonic acids greatly lowered the heat release, due to a condensed phase (char formation) mechanism. Adding ester groups to the boronic acids ...


Materials For Diabetes Therapeutics, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Roger L. York, Michael A. Invernale, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson Jan 2012

Materials For Diabetes Therapeutics, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Roger L. York, Michael A. Invernale, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

This review is focused on the materials and methods used to fabricate closedloop systems for type 1 diabetes therapy. Herein, we give a brief overview of current methods used for patient care and discuss two types of possible treatments and the materials used for these therapies-(i) artificial pancreases, comprised of insulin producing cells embedded in a polymeric biomaterial, and (ii) totally synthetic pancreases formulated by integrating continuous glucose monitors with controlled insulin release through degradable polymers and glucose-responsive polymer systems. Both the artificial and the completely synthetic pancreas have two major design requirements: the device must be both biocompatible ...


Targeted Antimicrobial Peptides., Marc Devocelle Jan 2012

Targeted Antimicrobial Peptides., Marc Devocelle

Chemistry Articles

The existence of natural antimicrobial substances, contributing to the mechanisms of host defenses, has been recognized since the late nineteenth century. In 1963, the in vitro antibacterial activity of leukocyte extracts was attributed to basic proteins. Since the late 1980s, cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties have been subsequently identified in other host cells and tissues and in virtually every living species (Lehrer, 2004). The properties of these “Nature’s antibiotics” and their multiple functions in host defenses of multicellular organisms support the rationale of developing entirely novel peptide-based therapeutics harnessing the effector mechanisms of innate immunity (Hancock and Sahl, 2006 ...


Structural Properties Of Thermoresponsive Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-Poly(Ethyleneglycol) Microgels, J. Clara-Rahola, A. Fernandez-Nieves, B. Sierra-Martin, A. B. South, L. Andrew Lyon, J. Kohlbrecher, A. F. Barbero Jan 2012

Structural Properties Of Thermoresponsive Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-Poly(Ethyleneglycol) Microgels, J. Clara-Rahola, A. Fernandez-Nieves, B. Sierra-Martin, A. B. South, L. Andrew Lyon, J. Kohlbrecher, A. F. Barbero

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The application of RNA interference to treat disease is an important yet challenging concept in modern medicine. In particular, small interfering RNA (siRNA) have shown tremendous promise in the treatment of cancer. However, siRNA show poor pharmacological properties, which presents a major hurdle for effective disease treatment especially through intravenous delivery routes. In response to these shortcomings, a variety of nanoparticle carriers have emerged, which are designed to encapsulate, protect, and transport siRNA into diseased cells. To be effective as carrier vehicles, nanoparticles must overcome a series of biological hurdles throughout the course of delivery. As a result, one promising ...


The Use Of A Ditopic Gd(Iii) Paramagnetic Probe For Investigating Α-Bungarotoxin Surface Accessibility, Andrea Bernini, Ottavia Spiga, Vincenzo Venditti, Filippo Prischi, Mauro Botta, Gianluca Croce, Angela Pui-Ling Tong, Wing-Talk Wong, Neri Niccolai Jan 2012

The Use Of A Ditopic Gd(Iii) Paramagnetic Probe For Investigating Α-Bungarotoxin Surface Accessibility, Andrea Bernini, Ottavia Spiga, Vincenzo Venditti, Filippo Prischi, Mauro Botta, Gianluca Croce, Angela Pui-Ling Tong, Wing-Talk Wong, Neri Niccolai

Vincenzo Venditti

Protein surface accessibility is a critical parameter which drives all intermolecular interaction processes. In this respect a big deal of information has been derived by analyzing paramagnetic perturbation profiles obtained from NMR protein spectra, particularly in the case that the effects due to different soluble paramagnets can be compared. Here Gd2L7, a neutral ditopic paramagnetic NMR probe, has been characterized in terms of structure and relaxivity and its paramagnetic perturbations on α-bungarotoxin CαH signals in 1H–13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum coherence) spectra have been analyzed. Then, these signal attenuations have been compared with the ones previously obtained in the ...


An Efficient Protocol For Incorporation Of An Unnatural Amino Acid In Perdeuterated Recombinant Proteins Using Glucose-Based Media, Vincenzo Venditti, Nicolas L. Fawzi, G. Marius Clore Jan 2012

An Efficient Protocol For Incorporation Of An Unnatural Amino Acid In Perdeuterated Recombinant Proteins Using Glucose-Based Media, Vincenzo Venditti, Nicolas L. Fawzi, G. Marius Clore

Vincenzo Venditti

The in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins is a well-established technique requiring an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair specific for the unnatural amino acid that is incorporated at a position encoded by a TAG amber codon. Although this technology provides unique opportunities to engineer protein structures, poor protein yields are usually obtained in deuterated media, hampering its application in the protein NMR field. Here, we describe a novel protocol for incorporating unnatural amino acids into fully deuterated proteins using glucose-based media (which are relevant to the production, for example, of amino acid-specific methyl-labeled proteins used in the ...


Conformational Selection And Substrate Binding Regulate The Monomer/Dimer Equilibrium Of The C-Terminal Domain Of Escherichia Coli Enzyme I, Vincenzo Venditti, G. Marius Clore Jan 2012

Conformational Selection And Substrate Binding Regulate The Monomer/Dimer Equilibrium Of The C-Terminal Domain Of Escherichia Coli Enzyme I, Vincenzo Venditti, G. Marius Clore

Vincenzo Venditti

The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a signal transduction pathway that couples phosphoryl transfer to active sugar transport across the cell membrane. The PTS is initiated by the binding of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the C-terminal domain (EIC) of enzyme I (EI), a highly conserved protein that is common to all sugar branches of the PTS. EIC exists in a dynamic monomer/dimer equilibrium that is modulated by ligand binding and is thought to regulate the overall PTS. Isolation of EIC has proven challenging, and conformational dynamics within the EIC domain during the catalytic cycle are still largely unknown. Here, we ...


Breast Tumour Initiating Cell Fate Is Regulated By Microenvironmental Cues From An Extracellular Matrix, S. Saha, Pang-Kuo Lo, X. Duan, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2012

Breast Tumour Initiating Cell Fate Is Regulated By Microenvironmental Cues From An Extracellular Matrix, S. Saha, Pang-Kuo Lo, X. Duan, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells, also known as tumour-initiating cells (TICs), are identified as highly tumorigenic population within tumours and hypothesized to be main regulators in tumour growth, metastasis and relapse. Evidence also suggests that a tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer, by constantly modulating cell–matrix interactions. Scientists have tried to characterize and identify the TIC population but the actual combination of extracellular components in deciphering the fate of TICs has not been explored. The basic unanswered question is the phenotypic stability of this TIC population in a tissue extracellular matrix setting. The in ...


From Cox-2 Inhibitor Nimesulide To Potent Anti-Cancer Agent: Synthesis, In Vitro, In Vivo And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation, Bo Zhong, Xiaohan Cai, Snigdha Chennamaneni, Xin Yi, Lili Liu, John J. Pink, Afshin Dowlati, Yan Xu, Aimin Zhou, Bin Su Jan 2012

From Cox-2 Inhibitor Nimesulide To Potent Anti-Cancer Agent: Synthesis, In Vitro, In Vivo And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation, Bo Zhong, Xiaohan Cai, Snigdha Chennamaneni, Xin Yi, Lili Liu, John J. Pink, Afshin Dowlati, Yan Xu, Aimin Zhou, Bin Su

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor nimesulide inhibits the proliferation of various types of cancer cells mainly via COX-2 independent mechanisms, which makes it a good lead compound for anti-cancer drug development. In the presented study, a series of new nimesulide analogs were synthesized based on the structure–function analysis generated previously. Some of them displayed very potent anti-cancer activity with IC50s around 100 nM–200 nM to inhibit SKBR-3 breast cancer cell growth. CSUOH0901 (NSC751382) from the compound library also inhibits the growth of the 60 cancer cell lines used at National Cancer Institute Developmental therapeutics Program (NCIDTP) with IC50s around 100 ...