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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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City University of New York (CUNY)

Theses/Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

“Treat Me Covalently” – New Tools To Improve Covalent Drug Design For Advancement Of Cancer Treatments, Yuliya Mazo Dec 2019

“Treat Me Covalently” – New Tools To Improve Covalent Drug Design For Advancement Of Cancer Treatments, Yuliya Mazo

Student Theses

The goal of this project was to investigate the complex mechanism of covalent bonding among different molecules and their targets in a modeling software ICM-Pro. Specifically, it included the identification of fundamental aspects of a covalent bonding mechanism of the Michael addition reaction. Michael addition reaction of electrophilic α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with a nucleophilic cysteine residue in thymidylate synthase, papain, and EGFR tyrosine kinase were examined. Thymidylate synthase and EGFR were chosen because they are important targets in the treatment of various types of cancer. In order to find the most optimal parameters, identification and assessment of the effect ...


Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein Aug 2019

Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein

Student Theses

Fast and easy screening procedures are essential in any forensic toxicology laboratory to differentiate negative samples from presumptive positive cases. Immunoassay techniques, such as enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), are routinely employed as screening procedures. However, these techniques lack specificity (only differentiate group of drugs and not individual compounds) and it is difficult to add new compounds to the panel. Direct analysis of dried urine spots (DUS) by mass spectrometry (MS) offers a novel strategy to overcome these issues. DUS offer an improved storage alternative for biological samples, reducing costs and space requirements. In this work, an original method to ...


Determination Of Anxiolytic And Antidepressant Medicines In New York City Wastewater Samples, Jasmine J. Gayle May 2019

Determination Of Anxiolytic And Antidepressant Medicines In New York City Wastewater Samples, Jasmine J. Gayle

Student Theses

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) provides information about a population’s exposure to certain chemical agents, such as drugs of abuse and medicines, by the analysis of human biomarkers, also known as excretion products, in wastewater samples. Although this is a growing field worldwide, mainly in Europe, Oceania, and Asia, limited data from the US are currently available. We developed and validated an analytical method to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the presence of commonly prescribed drugs to treat anxiety (alprazolam, buspirone, clonazepam, lorazepam, and propranolol) and depression (bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine, duloxetine, fluoxetine, imipramine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) in wastewater using liquid chromatography ...


A Pretargeted Spect Imaging Strategy Employing Technetium-99m Based On Bioorthogonal Diels-Alder Click Chemistry, Justin H. Walsh May 2019

A Pretargeted Spect Imaging Strategy Employing Technetium-99m Based On Bioorthogonal Diels-Alder Click Chemistry, Justin H. Walsh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A series of related N3S 99mTc-peptide complexes were synthesized and tested for use in pretargeting SPECT imaging that utilizes the bioorthogonal Diels-Alder click reaction between tetrazine (Tz) and transcyclooctene (TCO). The objective was to optimize the excretory pathways of the 99mTc-peptide complexes for maximum tumor targeting with the in vivo “click” and minimum non-target uptake. The 99mTc–tetrazine constructs were prepared by reaction of 99mTc-peptide complexes (99mTc-FKC, 99mTc-FKCR, 99mTc-DKC, and 99mTc-SKC) with Tz-NHS or Tz-PEG5-NHS to form 99mTc FK(Tz)C, 99mTc-FK(PEG5-Tz)CR ...


Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph May 2019

Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organometallic reagents containing the tin-carbon bond are used extensively in modern synthetic chemistry for the formation of new bonds to carbon. Over recent decades, transition metal catalyzed cross coupling reactions between two C(sp2) centers have been widely developed. However, the introduction of a C(sp3) center complicates the catalytic cycle, and opens unproductive chemical pathways which lead to isomerization, elimination, and racemization. Our lab has developed a modified-Stille reaction to combat the deleterious effects of β-hydride elimination. Our protocol enables unactivated 2° alkyl organotin nucleophiles to undergo efficient cross coupling reactions with C(sp2) electrophiles, avoiding ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang Feb 2019

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Discovery And Development Of A Three-Component Oxidopyrylium Cycloaddition And Its Application Towards Alpha-Hydroxytropolone Synthesis, Michael P. D'Erasmo Feb 2018

Discovery And Development Of A Three-Component Oxidopyrylium Cycloaddition And Its Application Towards Alpha-Hydroxytropolone Synthesis, Michael P. D'Erasmo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Historically, natural products have provided unique research opportunities and challenges for organic synthesis, chemical biology, and medicinal chemistry due to their molecular complexity and effects on physiological systems. The total synthesis of natural products has not only produced novel reaction methods and strategies capable of efficiently generating complex structural motifs but also granted access to sufficient quantities of otherwise scarce natural product material for clinical evaluation. These synthetic efforts have facilitated the formation of a transdisciplinary partnership between chemistry, biology, and medicine that has been paramount in elucidating the chemical and pharmaceutical utility of natural products. Chapter I of this ...


The Therapeutic Potential Of Natural Products From Vaccinium Berries For Viral And Lung Diseases Through An Improved Lc-Ms-Based Chemometric Approach, Vanya I. Petrova Feb 2018

The Therapeutic Potential Of Natural Products From Vaccinium Berries For Viral And Lung Diseases Through An Improved Lc-Ms-Based Chemometric Approach, Vanya I. Petrova

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Smoking is a global epidemic that creates serious health and economic burden. It is the primary, preventative factor for the majority of causes of death worldwide. Analysis of publicly available data revealed that smoking prevalence rates among the youth in developing countries, especially in Bulgaria, are alarmingly high. The Bulgarian population has one of the highest percentages of smokers and the second highest rate among teenage girls. Consequently, chronic diseases affected by smoking, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), have been increasing there in the last five years. Poland, on the other hand, is an exemplary outlier for the ...


From The Making To The Tuning To The Use Of Chlorins For Biomedical Applications, Junior Gonzales Jun 2017

From The Making To The Tuning To The Use Of Chlorins For Biomedical Applications, Junior Gonzales

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chlorins are porphyrins missing a double bond. These pigments are optimal platforms for the development of novel dyes that display drug-like attributes such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents. More recently, it was demonstrated that chlorins can serve both as a PDT agent and as a modality for fluorescence or PET imaging. Thus, multifunctional chlorins eliminate the differences that may occur in specificity, uptake, and distribution between separate compounds or constructs for imaging and therapy. The overall goal of this dissertation is to take advantage of the reputed intrinsic attributes of chlorins as a viable tool in biomedical applications. In this ...


Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui May 2017

Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui

Student Theses

Designer drugs are structural analogs of Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule I and II substances. They are synthesized to mimic the effects of illegal drugs of abuse and to bypass the provisions of drug regulations. Despite the increased availability of designer drugs, few studies have focused on specific analytical extraction techniques for their detection and quantification in biological samples. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is the most commonly used technique for sample preparation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the various SPE columns with different sorbent materials for two designer drugs, cathinone and mephedrone in ...


Synthesis Of Novel Aporphine-Inspired Neuroreceptor Ligands, Nirav R. Kapadia Feb 2016

Synthesis Of Novel Aporphine-Inspired Neuroreceptor Ligands, Nirav R. Kapadia

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Aporphines are a group of tetracyclic alkaloids that belong to the ubiquitous tetrahydroisoquinoline family. The aporphine template is known to be associated with a range of biological activities. Aporphines have been explored as antioxidants, anti-tuberculosis, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Within the Central Nervous Systems (CNS), aporphine alkaloids are known to possess high affinity for several clinically valuable targets including dopamine receptors (predominantly D1 and D2), serotonin receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT7) and α adrenergic receptors. Aporphines are also inhibitors of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme – a clinical target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Considering the diverse profile ...


Supercharging: An Investigation Into The Effects Of External Amino Acid Residue Charge On The Solubility And Internal Electric Character Of Bound Ligands In A Heme-Binding De Novo-Designed Protein, Cooper French Jan 2013

Supercharging: An Investigation Into The Effects Of External Amino Acid Residue Charge On The Solubility And Internal Electric Character Of Bound Ligands In A Heme-Binding De Novo-Designed Protein, Cooper French

Dissertations and Theses

De novo protein design offers many interesting prospects both as a means to better understand natural protein dynamics and as a potential resource in biomedical and industrial applications. In this work I describe the modification of a simple, well-characterized heme-binding protein by altering side chain residue identities on the hydrophilic surface of the protein to produce variants with a range of net external charges. These charge modifications had a significant impact on nearly every measurable character of the protein. This work establishes the hard limits of supercharging within our experimental protein scaffold system, demonstrating that excessive positive charge increased the ...