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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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City University of New York (CUNY)

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Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein Aug 2019

Development Of A Screening Method For Drugs Of Abuse By Direct Analysis Of Dried Urine Spots Coupled To Mass Spectrometry, Melanie Goldstein

Student Theses

Fast and easy screening procedures are essential in any forensic toxicology laboratory to differentiate negative samples from presumptive positive cases. Immunoassay techniques, such as enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), are routinely employed as screening procedures. However, these techniques lack specificity (only differentiate group of drugs and not individual compounds) and it is difficult to add new compounds to the panel. Direct analysis of dried urine spots (DUS) by mass spectrometry (MS) offers a novel strategy to overcome these issues. DUS offer an improved storage alternative for biological samples, reducing costs and space requirements. In this work, an original method to ...


Determination Of Anxiolytic And Antidepressant Medicines In New York City Wastewater Samples, Jasmine J. Gayle May 2019

Determination Of Anxiolytic And Antidepressant Medicines In New York City Wastewater Samples, Jasmine J. Gayle

Student Theses

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) provides information about a population’s exposure to certain chemical agents, such as drugs of abuse and medicines, by the analysis of human biomarkers, also known as excretion products, in wastewater samples. Although this is a growing field worldwide, mainly in Europe, Oceania, and Asia, limited data from the US are currently available. We developed and validated an analytical method to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the presence of commonly prescribed drugs to treat anxiety (alprazolam, buspirone, clonazepam, lorazepam, and propranolol) and depression (bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine, duloxetine, fluoxetine, imipramine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) in wastewater using liquid chromatography ...


Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph May 2019

Preparation Of Enantioenriched Alkyltin Species And Their Application In Stereospecific Transformations, Glenn O. Ralph

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Organometallic reagents containing the tin-carbon bond are used extensively in modern synthetic chemistry for the formation of new bonds to carbon. Over recent decades, transition metal catalyzed cross coupling reactions between two C(sp2) centers have been widely developed. However, the introduction of a C(sp3) center complicates the catalytic cycle, and opens unproductive chemical pathways which lead to isomerization, elimination, and racemization. Our lab has developed a modified-Stille reaction to combat the deleterious effects of β-hydride elimination. Our protocol enables unactivated 2° alkyl organotin nucleophiles to undergo efficient cross coupling reactions with C(sp2) electrophiles, avoiding ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang Feb 2019

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Troponoids As A New Class Of Antibiotics, Feng Cao, Cari Orth, Maureen J. Donlin, Patrick Adegboyega, Marvin J. Meyers, Ryan P. Murelli, Mohamed Elagawany, Bahaa Elgendy, John E. Tavis Nov 2018

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Troponoids As A New Class Of Antibiotics, Feng Cao, Cari Orth, Maureen J. Donlin, Patrick Adegboyega, Marvin J. Meyers, Ryan P. Murelli, Mohamed Elagawany, Bahaa Elgendy, John E. Tavis

Publications and Research

Novel antibiotics are urgently needed. The troponoids [tropones, tropolones, and α-hydroxytropolones (α-HT)] can have anti-bacterial activity. We synthesized or purchased 92 troponoids and evaluated their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preliminary hits were assessed for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC80) and cytotoxicity (CC50) against human hepatoma cells. Sixteen troponoids inhibited S. aureus/E. coli/ A. baumannii growth by ≥80% growth at <30 >μM with CC50 values >50 μM. Two selected tropolones (63 and 285) inhibited 18 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains with similar MIC80 values as against a reference strain. Two selected thiotropolones (284 and ...


Greer Studies, Teaches How To Improve Medicines, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Feb 2018

Greer Studies, Teaches How To Improve Medicines, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

“As a child, I was interested in asking questions. Like why different substances work the way they do and why they have some effect on our bodies. I was fascinated by hydrogen-peroxide and how it decomposes when you pour it on the wound. I would ask why it happens, what is the reason?” That’s how Dr. Edyta Greer explains how she became interested in science. A native of Poland, Greer received her master’s from Warsaw University and her doctorate from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Today she is an associate professor in the ...


Discovery And Development Of A Three-Component Oxidopyrylium Cycloaddition And Its Application Towards Alpha-Hydroxytropolone Synthesis, Michael P. D'Erasmo Feb 2018

Discovery And Development Of A Three-Component Oxidopyrylium Cycloaddition And Its Application Towards Alpha-Hydroxytropolone Synthesis, Michael P. D'Erasmo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Historically, natural products have provided unique research opportunities and challenges for organic synthesis, chemical biology, and medicinal chemistry due to their molecular complexity and effects on physiological systems. The total synthesis of natural products has not only produced novel reaction methods and strategies capable of efficiently generating complex structural motifs but also granted access to sufficient quantities of otherwise scarce natural product material for clinical evaluation. These synthetic efforts have facilitated the formation of a transdisciplinary partnership between chemistry, biology, and medicine that has been paramount in elucidating the chemical and pharmaceutical utility of natural products. Chapter I of this ...


From The Making To The Tuning To The Use Of Chlorins For Biomedical Applications, Junior Gonzales Jun 2017

From The Making To The Tuning To The Use Of Chlorins For Biomedical Applications, Junior Gonzales

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chlorins are porphyrins missing a double bond. These pigments are optimal platforms for the development of novel dyes that display drug-like attributes such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents. More recently, it was demonstrated that chlorins can serve both as a PDT agent and as a modality for fluorescence or PET imaging. Thus, multifunctional chlorins eliminate the differences that may occur in specificity, uptake, and distribution between separate compounds or constructs for imaging and therapy. The overall goal of this dissertation is to take advantage of the reputed intrinsic attributes of chlorins as a viable tool in biomedical applications. In this ...


Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui May 2017

Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui

Student Theses

Designer drugs are structural analogs of Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule I and II substances. They are synthesized to mimic the effects of illegal drugs of abuse and to bypass the provisions of drug regulations. Despite the increased availability of designer drugs, few studies have focused on specific analytical extraction techniques for their detection and quantification in biological samples. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is the most commonly used technique for sample preparation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the various SPE columns with different sorbent materials for two designer drugs, cathinone and mephedrone in ...


Ionophoric Polyphenols Selectively Bind Cu2+, Display Potent Antioxidant And Anti-Amyloidogenic Properties, And Are Non-Toxic Toward Tetrahymena Thermophila, Alberto Martinez, Ralph Alcendor, Tanzeen Rahman, Magdalena Podgorny, Ismaila Sanogo, Rebecca Mccurdy Aug 2016

Ionophoric Polyphenols Selectively Bind Cu2+, Display Potent Antioxidant And Anti-Amyloidogenic Properties, And Are Non-Toxic Toward Tetrahymena Thermophila, Alberto Martinez, Ralph Alcendor, Tanzeen Rahman, Magdalena Podgorny, Ismaila Sanogo, Rebecca Mccurdy

Publications and Research

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting more than 28 million people in the world. Only symptomatic treatments are currently available. Anticipated tri-fold increase of AD incidence in the next 50 years has established the need to explore new possible treatments. Accumulation of extracellular amyloid-b (Ab) plaques, intracellular tangles in the brain, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major hallmarks of the disease. The active role of some metal ions, especially Cu2+, in promoting both Ab aggregation and reactive oxygen species formation has rendered ionophoric drugs as a promising treatment strategy ...


The Synthesis Of Angucyclines Using An Intramolecular Bradsher Cycloaddition, Abdullah Allaoa, Tony E. Nicolas May 2016

The Synthesis Of Angucyclines Using An Intramolecular Bradsher Cycloaddition, Abdullah Allaoa, Tony E. Nicolas

Publications and Research

The Angucyclines are natural products which possess a broad spectrum of biological properties. Of particular interest are the natural products which contain the cis-hydroxyl motif at the AB ring junction. Their synthesis is particularly challenging. Our model study has resulted in the synthesis of a model of the angucyclines with the required cis-hydroxyl features. The present work will apply the previously developed chemistry to an intramolecular version which will lead to the synthesis of the ABC ring system


Synthesis Of Novel Aporphine-Inspired Neuroreceptor Ligands, Nirav R. Kapadia Feb 2016

Synthesis Of Novel Aporphine-Inspired Neuroreceptor Ligands, Nirav R. Kapadia

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Aporphines are a group of tetracyclic alkaloids that belong to the ubiquitous tetrahydroisoquinoline family. The aporphine template is known to be associated with a range of biological activities. Aporphines have been explored as antioxidants, anti-tuberculosis, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Within the Central Nervous Systems (CNS), aporphine alkaloids are known to possess high affinity for several clinically valuable targets including dopamine receptors (predominantly D1 and D2), serotonin receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT7) and α adrenergic receptors. Aporphines are also inhibitors of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme – a clinical target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Considering the diverse profile ...


Polycations Xxii. Ru(Bpy)2l2 And Ru(Phen)2l2 Systems With Cationic 4,4’-Bipyridine Ligands: Syntheses, Characteristics, And Interactions With Dna, Jasmine Hatcher, Freida Zavurov, Leslie Babukutty, Thomas Strekas, Robert Engel Aug 2015

Polycations Xxii. Ru(Bpy)2l2 And Ru(Phen)2l2 Systems With Cationic 4,4’-Bipyridine Ligands: Syntheses, Characteristics, And Interactions With Dna, Jasmine Hatcher, Freida Zavurov, Leslie Babukutty, Thomas Strekas, Robert Engel

Publications and Research

Earlier efforts have been concerned with the association of Ruthenium octahedral complexes with DNA. Since the positively charged ruthenium species has been found to associate with the electron rich major groove of double-stranded DNA, it was proposed the addition of cationic sites on the ligands attached to ruthenium would facilitate such association. Thus, we have synthesized several series of octahedral ruthenium complexes bearing ligands having within themselves cationic sites. These have been investigated in their interaction with calf thymus DNA using fluorescence titration analysis. The introduction of the cationic ligands has been found to exhibit enhanced association of the ruthenium ...


Supercharging: An Investigation Into The Effects Of External Amino Acid Residue Charge On The Solubility And Internal Electric Character Of Bound Ligands In A Heme-Binding De Novo-Designed Protein, Cooper French Jan 2013

Supercharging: An Investigation Into The Effects Of External Amino Acid Residue Charge On The Solubility And Internal Electric Character Of Bound Ligands In A Heme-Binding De Novo-Designed Protein, Cooper French

Dissertations and Theses

De novo protein design offers many interesting prospects both as a means to better understand natural protein dynamics and as a potential resource in biomedical and industrial applications. In this work I describe the modification of a simple, well-characterized heme-binding protein by altering side chain residue identities on the hydrophilic surface of the protein to produce variants with a range of net external charges. These charge modifications had a significant impact on nearly every measurable character of the protein. This work establishes the hard limits of supercharging within our experimental protein scaffold system, demonstrating that excessive positive charge increased the ...