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Articles 91 - 113 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Promise Of Advances In Simulation Methods For Protein Crystallography: Implicit Solvent Models, Time-Averaging Refinement, And Quantum Mechanical Modeling, Celia Schiffer, Jan Hermans Nov 2011

Promise Of Advances In Simulation Methods For Protein Crystallography: Implicit Solvent Models, Time-Averaging Refinement, And Quantum Mechanical Modeling, Celia Schiffer, Jan Hermans

Celia A. Schiffer

No abstract provided.


Competition Between Ski And Creb-Binding Protein For Binding To Smad Proteins In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling, Weijun Chen, Suvana Lam, Hema Srinath, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin Nov 2011

Competition Between Ski And Creb-Binding Protein For Binding To Smad Proteins In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling, Weijun Chen, Suvana Lam, Hema Srinath, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin

Celia A. Schiffer

The family of Smad proteins mediates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in cell growth and differentiation. Smads repress or activate TGF-beta signaling by interacting with corepressors (e.g. Ski) or coactivators (e.g. CREB-binding protein (CBP)), respectively. Specifically, Ski has been shown to interfere with the interaction between Smad3 and CBP. However, it is unclear whether Ski competes with CBP for binding to Smads and whether they can interact with Smad3 at the same binding surface on Smad3. We investigated the interactions among purified constructs of Smad, Ski, and CBP in vitro by size-exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and mutational ...


Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Hiv-1 Vif Reveals An Increase In Ordered Structure Upon Oligomerization In Regions Necessary For Viral Infectivity, Jared Auclair, Karin Green, Shivender Shandilya, James Evans, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Hiv-1 Vif Reveals An Increase In Ordered Structure Upon Oligomerization In Regions Necessary For Viral Infectivity, Jared Auclair, Karin Green, Shivender Shandilya, James Evans, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 Vif, an accessory protein in the viral genome, performs an important role in viral pathogenesis by facilitating the degradation of APOBEC3G, an endogenous cellular inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. In this study, intrinsically disordered regions are predicted in HIV-1 Vif using sequence-based algorithms. Intrinsic disorder may explain why traditional structure determination of HIV-1 Vif has been elusive, making structure-based drug design impossible. To characterize HIV-1 Vif's structural topology and to map the domains involved in oligomerization we used chemical cross-linking, proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. Cross-linking showed evidence of monomer, dimer, and trimer species via denaturing gel analysis and an ...


Viral Protease Inhibitors, Jeffrey Anderson, Celia Schiffer, Sook-Kyung Lee, Ronald Swanstrom Nov 2011

Viral Protease Inhibitors, Jeffrey Anderson, Celia Schiffer, Sook-Kyung Lee, Ronald Swanstrom

Celia A. Schiffer

This review provides an overview of the development of viral protease inhibitors as antiviral drugs. We concentrate on HIV-1 protease inhibitors, as these have made the most significant advances in the recent past. Thus, we discuss the biochemistry of HIV-1 protease, inhibitor development, clinical use of inhibitors, and evolution of resistance. Since many different viruses encode essential proteases, it is possible to envision the development of a potent protease inhibitor for other viruses if the processing site sequence and the catalytic mechanism are known. At this time, interest in developing inhibitors is limited to viruses that cause chronic disease, viruses ...


Mutation Patterns And Structural Correlates In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Following Different Protease Inhibitor Treatments, Thomas Wu, Celia Schiffer, Matthew Gonzales, Jonathan Taylor, Rami Kantor, Sunwen Chou, Dennis Israelski, Andrew Zolopa, W. Jeffrey Fessel, Robert Shafer Nov 2011

Mutation Patterns And Structural Correlates In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Following Different Protease Inhibitor Treatments, Thomas Wu, Celia Schiffer, Matthew Gonzales, Jonathan Taylor, Rami Kantor, Sunwen Chou, Dennis Israelski, Andrew Zolopa, W. Jeffrey Fessel, Robert Shafer

Celia A. Schiffer

Although many human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons are treated with multiple protease inhibitors in combination or in succession, mutation patterns of protease isolates from these persons have not been characterized. We collected and analyzed 2,244 subtype B HIV-1 isolates from 1,919 persons with different protease inhibitor experiences: 1,004 isolates from untreated persons, 637 isolates from persons who received one protease inhibitor, and 603 isolates from persons receiving two or more protease inhibitors. The median number of protease mutations per isolate increased from 4 in untreated persons to 12 in persons who had received four ...


Curling Of Flap Tips In Hiv-1 Protease As A Mechanism For Substrate Entry And Tolerance Of Drug Resistance, Walter Scott, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Curling Of Flap Tips In Hiv-1 Protease As A Mechanism For Substrate Entry And Tolerance Of Drug Resistance, Walter Scott, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is an essential viral protein that is a major drug target in the fight against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Access to the active site of this homodimeric enzyme is gained when two large flaps, one from each monomer, open. The flap movements are therefore central to the function of the enzyme, yet determining how these flaps move at an atomic level has not been experimentally possible.

RESULTS: In the present study, we observe the flaps of HIV-1 protease completely opening during a 10 ns solvated molecular dynamics simulation starting from ...


Exploring The Role Of The Solvent In The Denaturation Of A Protein: A Molecular Dynamics Study Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The 434 Repressor, Celia Schiffer, Volker Dötsch, Kurt Wuthrich, Wilfred Van Gunsteren Nov 2011

Exploring The Role Of The Solvent In The Denaturation Of A Protein: A Molecular Dynamics Study Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The 434 Repressor, Celia Schiffer, Volker Dötsch, Kurt Wuthrich, Wilfred Van Gunsteren

Celia A. Schiffer

Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA binding domain of 434 repressor are presented which aim at unraveling the role of solvent in protein denaturation. Four altered solvent models, each mimicking various possible aspects of the addition of a denaturant to the aqueous solvent, were used in the simulations to analyze their effects on the stability of the protein. The solvent was altered by selectively changing the Coulombic interaction between water and protein atoms and between different water molecules. The use of a modified solvent model has the advantage of mimicking the presence of denaturant without having denaturant molecules present in ...


Resilience To Resistance Of Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors: Profile Of Darunavir, Eric Lefebvre, Celia A. Schiffer Nov 2011

Resilience To Resistance Of Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors: Profile Of Darunavir, Eric Lefebvre, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The current effectiveness of HAART in the management of HIV infection is compromised by the emergence of extensively cross-resistant strains of HIV-1, requiring a significant need for new therapeutic agents. Due to its crucial role in viral maturation and therefore HIV-1 replication and infectivity, the HIV-1 protease continues to be a major development target for antiretroviral therapy. However, new protease inhibitors must have higher thresholds to the development of resistance and cross-resistance. Research has demonstrated that the binding characteristics between a protease inhibitor and the active site of the HIV-1 protease are key factors in the development of resistance. More ...


Structural Analysis Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Crf01_Ae Protease In Complex With The Substrate P1-P6., Rajintha Bandaranayake, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Junko Kakizawa, Wataru Sugiura, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Structural Analysis Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Crf01_Ae Protease In Complex With The Substrate P1-P6., Rajintha Bandaranayake, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Junko Kakizawa, Wataru Sugiura, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The effect of amino acid variability between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clades on structure and the emergence of resistance mutations in HIV-1 protease has become an area of significant interest in recent years. We determined the first crystal structure of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE protease in complex with the p1-p6 substrate to a resolution of 2.8 A. Hydrogen bonding between the flap hinge and the protease core regions shows significant structural rearrangements in CRF01_AE protease compared to the clade B protease structure.


Investigation Of Protein Unfolding And Stability By Computer Simulation, Wilfred Van Gunsteren, P. Hunenberger, H. Kovacs, A. Mark, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Investigation Of Protein Unfolding And Stability By Computer Simulation, Wilfred Van Gunsteren, P. Hunenberger, H. Kovacs, A. Mark, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Structural, dynamic and energetic properties of proteins in solution can be studied in atomic detail by molecular dynamics computer simulation. Protein unfolding can be caused by a variety of driving forces induced in different ways: increased temperature or pressure, change of solvent composition, or protein amino acid mutation. The stability and unfolding of four different proteins (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, hen egg white lysozyme, the surfactant protein C and the DNA-binding domain of the 434 repressor) have been studied by applying the afore-mentioned driving forces and also to some artificial forces. The results give a picture of protein (in)stability ...


Cell Migration Dynamics After Alteration Of Cell-Cell Contacts In Fibrosarcoma And Glioblastoma Cell Lines, Hassan S. Rizvi, Ronald K. Gary Aug 2011

Cell Migration Dynamics After Alteration Of Cell-Cell Contacts In Fibrosarcoma And Glioblastoma Cell Lines, Hassan S. Rizvi, Ronald K. Gary

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Cell migration is a vital component of metastasis. In this study, our intent was to study cell migration by alteration of the Wnt/GSK-3 Pathway. Since BeSO4 is a known GSK-3 kinase inhibitor, we hypothesized that this agent would cause cell migration to decrease as a result of β-catenin stabilization. Two human cell lines, HT-1080 (fibrosarcoma) and A172 (glioblastoma), were used to observe migration levels in the presence and absence of BeSO4. Our results show that cell migration is diminished for cells that were pre-treated with BeSO4, in comparison to the untreated (control) cells.


Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Padi4 Cooperates With Elk-1 To Activate C-Fos Expression In Breast Cancer Cells., Xuesen Zhang, Matthew J. Gamble, Sonja Stadler, Brian D. Cherrington, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Mark S. Roberson, W Lee Kraus, Scott A. Coonrod Jun 2011

Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Padi4 Cooperates With Elk-1 To Activate C-Fos Expression In Breast Cancer Cells., Xuesen Zhang, Matthew J. Gamble, Sonja Stadler, Brian D. Cherrington, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Mark S. Roberson, W Lee Kraus, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PADI4) catalyzes the conversion of positively charged arginine and methylarginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline, and this activity has been linked to the repression of a limited number of target genes. To broaden our knowledge of the regulatory potential of PADI4, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter tiling array (ChIP-chip) analysis to more comprehensively investigate the range of PADI4 target genes across the genome in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that PADI4 is enriched in gene promoter regions near transcription start sites (TSSs); and, surprisingly, this pattern of binding is primarily associated with actively transcribed ...


Organometallic Iron(Iii)-Salophene Exerts Cytotoxic Properties In Neuroblastoma Cells Via Mapk Activation And Ros Generation, Kyu Kwang Kim, Rakesh K. Singh, Robert M. Strongin, Richard G. Moore, Laurent Brard, Thilo S. Lange Apr 2011

Organometallic Iron(Iii)-Salophene Exerts Cytotoxic Properties In Neuroblastoma Cells Via Mapk Activation And Ros Generation, Kyu Kwang Kim, Rakesh K. Singh, Robert M. Strongin, Richard G. Moore, Laurent Brard, Thilo S. Lange

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

The objective of the present study was to investigate the specific effects of Iron(III)-salophene (Fe-SP) on viability, morphology, proliferation, cell cycle progression, ROS generation and pro-apoptotic MAPK activation in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. A NCI-DTP cancer screen revealed that Fe-SP displayed high toxicity against cell lines of different tumor origin but not tumor type-specificity. In a viability screen Fe-SP exhibited high cytotoxicity against all three NB cell lines tested. The compound caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, suppression of cells progressing through S phase, morphological changes, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane depolarization potential, induction of apoptotic markers as ...


Pharmacological Chaperoning In Fabry Disease, Jerome Rogich Jan 2011

Pharmacological Chaperoning In Fabry Disease, Jerome Rogich

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Fabry Disease is an X-­‐linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a variety of symptoms including hypohydrosis, seizures, cardiac abnormalities, skin lesions, and chronic pain. These symptoms stem from a lack of functional endogenous α-­‐ Galactosidase A (α-­GAL), which leads to an accrual of its natural substrate. The severity of the disease symptoms can be directly correlated with the amount of residual enzyme activity. It has been shown that an imino sugar, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), can increase enzymatic activity and clear excess substrate. This pH-­‐dependent chaperoning phenomenon is believed to arise from the presence of aspartic acid 170 in ...


Structure-Based Design Of Inhibitors Targeting Influenza A Virus M2 Proton Channel (A/M2), Jun Wang Dec 2010

Structure-Based Design Of Inhibitors Targeting Influenza A Virus M2 Proton Channel (A/M2), Jun Wang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Influenza A virus M2 (A/M2) forms a homotetrameric channel in viral membranes that is highly selective for protons. A/M2 has been extensively studied by electrophysiologists, biophysicists, structural biologists and biochemists in order to understand the mechanism and selectivity of proton conductance from the structural basis. Medicinal chemists have also studied A/M2 as therapeutic target for anti-flu drugs. However, research on A/M2 drug binding lead to entirely different binding sites of two very similar anti-flu drugs. In light of the urgency in developing novel antivirals against drug resistant A/M2 mutants, it is imperative to solve this ...


Antimicrobial Activity Of D-Lenolate®, Andy Phui May 2010

Antimicrobial Activity Of D-Lenolate®, Andy Phui

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Olive trees are one of the most important fruit trees in the Mediterranean. Although not validated by research, olive leaves are traditionally believed to fight off fever and infections. It has been shown that olive leaf extracts possess antimicrobial activity. Olive leaf extracts contain polyphenols. One of the major phenolic compounds is oleuropein. Oleuropein and other polyphenols have been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity. East Park Research (EPR) developed an extraction process that they claim does not alter the chemical composition of the olive leaves. The extract is known by the commercial name d-lenolate®. Studies have provided evidence that d-lenolate ...


Absolute Configuration And Biosynthesis Of Pahayokolide A From Lyngbya Sp. Strain 15-2 Of The Florida Everglades, Li Liu Nov 2009

Absolute Configuration And Biosynthesis Of Pahayokolide A From Lyngbya Sp. Strain 15-2 Of The Florida Everglades, Li Liu

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pahayokolides A-D are cytotoxic cyclic polypeptides produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. strain 15-2 that possess an unusual β-amino acid, 3-amino-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-10-methylundecanoic acid (Athmu). The absolute configuration of pahayokolides A-D was determined using advanced Marfey’s method. It was also confirmed that a pendant N-acetyl-N-methyl leucine moiety in pahayokolide A was absent in pahayokolides B and pahayokolides C-D were conformers of pahayokolide A. Feeding experiments indicated that the biosynthesis of the Athmu sidechain arises from leucine or α-ketoisovalerate, however could not be further extended by three rounds of condensation with malonate units. Putative four peptide and one ...


Identifying Biomarkers For Resistance To Novel Cisplatin Analogues In Human Lung, Breast And Prostate Cancers, Becky Michelle Hess May 2009

Identifying Biomarkers For Resistance To Novel Cisplatin Analogues In Human Lung, Breast And Prostate Cancers, Becky Michelle Hess

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cisplatin is a common therapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Unfortunately, resistance to cisplatin in addition to severe side effects limits its use in cancer treatment. Two novel cisplatin analogues, 4DB and 4TB were shown to have varying cytotoxicity in lung, breast and prostate cancer cells. The hypothesis for this study states that the differences in 4DB and 4TB cytotoxicity among different tissue types is due to the type and efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms involved in response to these drugs.

To test the hypothesis, proteins involved in the rate limiting step of nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair ...


Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Of The Multidrug Efflux Transporter Norm From Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Chih-Chia Su, Feng Long, Gerry Mcdermott, William M. Shafer, Edward Yu Jan 2008

Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Of The Multidrug Efflux Transporter Norm From Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Chih-Chia Su, Feng Long, Gerry Mcdermott, William M. Shafer, Edward Yu

Physics and Astronomy Publications

The crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of the NorM multidrug efflux pump produced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are reported. NorM is a cytoplasmic membrane protein that consists of 459 amino-acid residues. It is a member of the recently classified multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of transporters and recognizes a number of cationic toxic compounds such as ethidium bromide, acriflavin, 2-N-methylellipticinium and ciprofloxacin. Recombinant NorM protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. The protein was crystallized using hanging-drop vapor diffusion. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals at a synchrotron ...


Oriented Cell Growth On Self-Assembled Bacteriophage M13 Thin Films, J. Rong, L. A. Lee, K. Li, B. Harp, C. M. Mello, Z. Niu, Qian Wang Jan 2008

Oriented Cell Growth On Self-Assembled Bacteriophage M13 Thin Films, J. Rong, L. A. Lee, K. Li, B. Harp, C. M. Mello, Z. Niu, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Fibrillar M13 bacteriophages were used as basic building blocks to generate thin films with aligned nanogrooves, which, upon chemical grafting with RGD peptides, guide cell alignment and orient the cell outgrowth along defined directions.


Altered Phosphorylation Of [Beta]-Catenin In Glucocorticoid Treated 235-1 Rat Pituitary Tumor Cells, Susie K. Saunders Jan 2004

Altered Phosphorylation Of [Beta]-Catenin In Glucocorticoid Treated 235-1 Rat Pituitary Tumor Cells, Susie K. Saunders

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Beta-catenin is an essential cell adhesion and signaling protein, associated with high prolactin levels in rat pituitary tumor cells. It has been shown that phosphorylation affects the location and activity of b-catenin. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3-b) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates b-catenin on N-terminal residues, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. Studies have shown that C-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation decreases the association of b-catenin with cadherin. In 235-1 rat pituitary tumor cells, our lab has shown that the glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone (Dex) decreases the half- life of b-catenin while increasing the activity of GSK3-b. The current study was undertaken to examine ...


Sds Non-Acrylamide Polymeric Gel-Filled Capillary Electrophoresis For Molecular Size Separation Of Protein, Devon Andres Aug 1993

Sds Non-Acrylamide Polymeric Gel-Filled Capillary Electrophoresis For Molecular Size Separation Of Protein, Devon Andres

Honors Theses

Sodium dodecyl sulfide (SDS) non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary columns are a new technology being used for analysis and separation of biotechnology-derived proteins. This research was to compare this new technology to the current methods of SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular mass of four different recombinant proteins were determined by two commercialized SDS non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary columns, SDS-PAGE, and HPSEC. The data obtained showed that the SDS non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary columns were compatible with the SDS-PAGE technique for molecular mass determination. HPSEC was shown to be unreliable for molecular weight determination. SDS non-acrylamide gel-filled capillary ...


Pulling The Wool Off, Department Of Agriculture, Western Australia Jan 1979

Pulling The Wool Off, Department Of Agriculture, Western Australia

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

The Department of Agriculture has begun a three year project to study the potential for "chemical shearing" or, more correctly, biological defleecing.