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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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Biochemistry

2015

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

The Preparation And Characterization Of Cyclodextrin:Sterol Inclusion Complexes As Anti-Tumor Therapeutics, Janet V. Cowins Dec 2015

The Preparation And Characterization Of Cyclodextrin:Sterol Inclusion Complexes As Anti-Tumor Therapeutics, Janet V. Cowins

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

An inclusion complex between β-cyclodextrin and insoluble guest compounds has been reported by several researchers. The main purpose of forming an inclusion complex between β-CD and sparingly soluble guests is to enhance the guest’s solubility and mask its undesirable properties. Preliminary studies have shown that when conjugated with target-specific moieties, these inclusion complexes can be used in pharmaceutical applications for drug delivery. β-Sitosterol, a plant sterol, has been well documented to reduce tumor cell growth and migration as well as exhibit apoptotic characteristics. An issue with this plant sterol and most pharmaceutical compounds is their lack of solubility. In ...


Molecular Targeting Of Protein Arginine Deiminases To Suppress Colitis And Prevent Colon Cancer, Erin E. Witalison, Xiangli Cui, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Lorne J. Hofseth Nov 2015

Molecular Targeting Of Protein Arginine Deiminases To Suppress Colitis And Prevent Colon Cancer, Erin E. Witalison, Xiangli Cui, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Lorne J. Hofseth

Thompson Lab Publications

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease, in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers leading to abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. The extent of these symptoms depends on disease severity. The protein arginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes converts peptidyl-Arginine to peptidyl-Citrulline through citrullination. PADs are dysregulated, with abnormal citrullination in many diseases, including UC and colorectal cancer (CRC). We have developed the small molecule, pan-PAD inhibitor, Chlor-amidine (Cl-amidine), with multiple goals, including treating UC and preventing CRC. Building off our recent results showing that: 1) Cl-amidine suppresses colitis in vivo in a dextran ...


Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey Oct 2015

Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to counter-current or flash chromatographic methods. Some of the crude extracts and chromatographic fractions had anti-tuberculosis and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang, 2006. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants, many of which have not been investigated for their ...


Structural Basis For Mutation-Induced Destabilization Of Profilin 1 In Als, Sivakumar Boopathy, Tania V. Silvas, Maeve Tischbein, Silvia Jansen, Shivender Shandilya, Jill A. Zitzewitz, John E. Landers, Bruce L. Goode, Celia A. Schiffer, Daryl A. Bosco Jun 2015

Structural Basis For Mutation-Induced Destabilization Of Profilin 1 In Als, Sivakumar Boopathy, Tania V. Silvas, Maeve Tischbein, Silvia Jansen, Shivender Shandilya, Jill A. Zitzewitz, John E. Landers, Bruce L. Goode, Celia A. Schiffer, Daryl A. Bosco

Schiffer Lab Publications

Mutations in profilin 1 (PFN1) are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, the pathological mechanism of PFN1 in this fatal disease is unknown. We demonstrate that ALS-linked mutations severely destabilize the native conformation of PFN1 in vitro and cause accelerated turnover of the PFN1 protein in cells. This mutation-induced destabilization can account for the high propensity of ALS-linked variants to aggregate and also provides rationale for their reported loss-of-function phenotypes in cell-based assays. The source of this destabilization is illuminated by the X-ray crystal structures of several PFN1 proteins, revealing an expanded cavity near the protein core of the ...


Chemical Biology Of Protein Arginine Modifications In Epigenetic Regulation, Jakob Fuhrmann, Kathleen W. Clancy, Paul R. Thompson Jun 2015

Chemical Biology Of Protein Arginine Modifications In Epigenetic Regulation, Jakob Fuhrmann, Kathleen W. Clancy, Paul R. Thompson

Thompson Lab Publications

Review article on histone citrullination (arginine deimination), histone arginine methylation, and noncanonical histone arginine modifications.


Structure-Guided Design Of A High Affinity Inhibitor To Human Ctbp, Brendan Hilbert, Benjamin Morris, Keith Ellis, Janet Paulsen, Celia Schiffer, Steven Grossman, William Royer May 2015

Structure-Guided Design Of A High Affinity Inhibitor To Human Ctbp, Brendan Hilbert, Benjamin Morris, Keith Ellis, Janet Paulsen, Celia Schiffer, Steven Grossman, William Royer

Celia A. Schiffer

Oncogenic transcriptional coregulators C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) 1 and 2 possess regulatory d-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (D2-HDH) domains that provide an attractive target for small molecule intervention. Findings that the CtBP substrate 4-methylthio 2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) can interfere with CtBP oncogenic activity in cell culture and in mice confirm that such inhibitors could have therapeutic benefit. Recent crystal structures of CtBP 1 and 2 revealed that MTOB binds in an active site containing a dominant tryptophan and a hydrophilic cavity, neither of which are present in other D2-HDH family members. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting these active site ...


The Use Of Shape Memory Polymers As A Tool To Study Human Fibrosarcoma And Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration, Justin N. Elkhechen May 2015

The Use Of Shape Memory Polymers As A Tool To Study Human Fibrosarcoma And Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration, Justin N. Elkhechen

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of “smart” materials that can transform between two distinct conformations through external stimuli, such as heat or electricity. Their usage in bioengineering has led to a promising field of research that lies at the interface of cell and mechanobiology, potentially providing insight into cancer therapies and tissue development—two processes that exist in dynamic environments in vivo. The present work involves creating new, shape changing, scaffolds for studies to analyze cell migration upon changes to the environmental topography. Specifically, this Capstone has been primarily focused on the development of a “half and half ...


Rediii: A Pipeline For Automated Structure Solution, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Celia A. Schiffer May 2015

Rediii: A Pipeline For Automated Structure Solution, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Celia A. Schiffer

Schiffer Lab Publications

High-throughput crystallographic approaches require integrated software solutions to minimize the need for manual effort. REdiii is a system that allows fully automated crystallographic structure solution by integrating existing crystallographic software into an adaptive and partly autonomous workflow engine. The program can be initiated after collecting the first frame of diffraction data and is able to perform processing, molecular-replacement phasing, chain tracing, ligand fitting and refinement without further user intervention. Preset values for each software component allow efficient progress with high-quality data and known parameters. The adaptive workflow engine can determine whether some parameters require modifications and choose alternative software strategies ...


Improving The Resistance Profile Of Hepatitis C Ns3/4a Inhibitors: Dynamic Substrate Envelope Guided Design, Aysegul Ozen, Woody Sherman, Celia Schiffer Jan 2015

Improving The Resistance Profile Of Hepatitis C Ns3/4a Inhibitors: Dynamic Substrate Envelope Guided Design, Aysegul Ozen, Woody Sherman, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Drug resistance is a principal concern in the treatment of quickly evolving diseases. The viral protease NS3/4A is a primary drug target for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is known to evolve resistance mutations in response to drug therapy. At the molecular level, drug resistance reflects a subtle change in the balance of molecular recognition by NS3/4A; the drug resistant protease variants are no longer effectively inhibited by the competitive active site inhibitors but can still process the natural substrates with enough efficiency for viral survival. In previous works we have developed the "substrate envelope" hypothesis, which ...


Development Of A Novel Screening Strategy Designed To Discover A New Class Of Hiv Drugs, Nancy Cheng, Sook-Kyung Lee, P. Donover, Mel Reichman, Celia Schiffer, Emily Hull-Ryde, Ronald Swanstrom, William Janzen Jan 2015

Development Of A Novel Screening Strategy Designed To Discover A New Class Of Hiv Drugs, Nancy Cheng, Sook-Kyung Lee, P. Donover, Mel Reichman, Celia Schiffer, Emily Hull-Ryde, Ronald Swanstrom, William Janzen

Celia A. Schiffer

Current antiretroviral treatments target multiple pathways important for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) multiplication, including viral entry, synthesis and integration of the DNA provirus, and the processing of viral polyprotein precursors. However, HIV is becoming increasingly resistant to these "combination therapies." Recent findings show that inhibition of HIV Gag protein cleavage into its two structural proteins, matrix (MA) and capsid (CA), has a devastating effect on viral production, revealing a potential new target class for HIV treatment. Unlike the widely used HIV protease inhibitors, this new class of inhibitor would target the substrate, not the protease enzyme itself. This approach offers ...


Crystal Structures Of Human Ctbp In Complex With Substrate Mtob Reveal Active Site Features Useful For Inhibitor Design, Brendan Hilbert, Steven Grossman, Celia Schiffer, William Royer Jan 2015

Crystal Structures Of Human Ctbp In Complex With Substrate Mtob Reveal Active Site Features Useful For Inhibitor Design, Brendan Hilbert, Steven Grossman, Celia Schiffer, William Royer

Celia A. Schiffer

The oncogenic corepressors C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) 1 and 2 harbor regulatory d-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (d2-HDH) domains. 4-Methylthio 2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) exhibits substrate inhibition and can interfere with CtBP oncogenic activity in cell culture and mice. Crystal structures of human CtBP1 and CtBP2 in complex with MTOB and NAD(+) revealed two key features: a conserved tryptophan that likely contributes to substrate specificity and a hydrophilic cavity that links MTOB with an NAD(+) phosphate. Neither feature is present in other d2-HDH enzymes. These structures thus offer key opportunities for the development of highly selective anti-neoplastic CtBP inhibitors. Elsevier B.V ...


Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized With Mpeg-Grafted Poly(L-Lysine): In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Potential Theranostic Agent, Alexei A. Bogdanov, Suresh Gupta, Nadezhda Koshkina, Stuart J. Corr, Surong Zhang, Steven A. Curley, Gang Han Jan 2015

Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized With Mpeg-Grafted Poly(L-Lysine): In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Potential Theranostic Agent, Alexei A. Bogdanov, Suresh Gupta, Nadezhda Koshkina, Stuart J. Corr, Surong Zhang, Steven A. Curley, Gang Han

Radiology Publications and Presentations

As the number of diagnostic and therapeutic applications utilizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases, so does the need for AuNPs that are stable in vivo, biocompatible, and suitable for bioconjugation. We investigated a strategy for AuNP stabilization that uses methoxypolyethylene glycol-graft-poly(l-lysine) copolymer (MPEG-gPLL) bearing free amino groups as a stabilizing molecule. MPEG-gPLL injected into water solutions of HAuCl4 with or without trisodium citrate resulted in spherical (Zav = 36 nm), monodisperse (PDI = 0.27), weakly positively charged nanoparticles (AuNP3) with electron-dense cores (diameter: 10.4 +/- 2.5 nm) and surface amino groups that were amenable to covalent modification. The AuNP3 were ...


Responsive Supramolecular Assemblies Based On Amphiphilic Polymers And Hybrid Materials, Longyu Li Jan 2015

Responsive Supramolecular Assemblies Based On Amphiphilic Polymers And Hybrid Materials, Longyu Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The design and synthesis of responsive supramolecular assemblies are of great interest due to their applications in a variety of areas such as drug delivery and sensing. We have developed a facile method to prepare self-crosslinking disulfide-based nanogels derived from an amphiphilic random copolymer containing a hydrophilic oligo-(ethylene glycol)-based side-chain functionality and a hydrophobic pyridyl disulfide functional group. This thesis first provides a concept of studying the influence of Hofmeister ions on the size and guest encapsulation stability of a polymeric nanogel. The size and core density of nanogel can be fine-tuned through the addition of both chaotropes ...