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Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry Commons

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Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Activation Of Pad4 In Net Formation, Amanda S. Rohrbach, Daniel J. Slade, Paul R. Thompson, Kerri A. Mowen Nov 2012

Activation Of Pad4 In Net Formation, Amanda S. Rohrbach, Daniel J. Slade, Paul R. Thompson, Kerri A. Mowen

Thompson Lab Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various ...


Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod Oct 2012

Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects.

METHODS: RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known ...


Potential Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Enzymes And Protein Citrullination In Cancer Pathogenesis., Sunish Mohanan, Brian D. Cherrington, Sachi Horibata, John L. Mcelwee, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod Sep 2012

Potential Role Of Peptidylarginine Deiminase Enzymes And Protein Citrullination In Cancer Pathogenesis., Sunish Mohanan, Brian D. Cherrington, Sachi Horibata, John L. Mcelwee, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of posttranslational modification enzymes that catalyze the conversion of positively charged protein-bound arginine and methylarginine residues to the uncharged, nonstandard amino acid citrulline. This enzymatic activity is referred to as citrullination or, alternatively, deimination. Citrullination can significantly affect biochemical pathways by altering the structure and function of target proteins. Five mammalian PAD family members (PADs 1-4 and 6) have been described and show tissue-specific distribution. Recent reviews on PADs have focused on their role in autoimmune diseases. Here, we will discuss the potential role of PADs in tumor progression and tumor-associated inflammation. In ...


Potential Role For Padi-Mediated Histone Citrullination In Preimplantation Development., Rui Kan, Mei Jin, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod Jun 2012

Potential Role For Padi-Mediated Histone Citrullination In Preimplantation Development., Rui Kan, Mei Jin, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) convert positively charged arginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline on protein substrates in a process that is known as citrullination or deimination. Previous reports have documented roles for histone citrullination in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation in several tissue types, however, a potential role for histone citrullination in chromatin-based activities during early embryogenesis has not been investigated.

RESULTS: In the present study, we tested by laser scanning confocal indirect immunofluorescence microscopy whether specific arginine residues on the histone H3 and H4 N-terminal tails (H4R3, H3R2 + 8 + 17, and H3R26) were citrullinated in mouse oocytes and ...


Synthesis Of S-Ribosyl-L-Homocysteine And Analogs Modified At The Homocysteine-C3 Position, Ruoyi Liu May 2012

Synthesis Of S-Ribosyl-L-Homocysteine And Analogs Modified At The Homocysteine-C3 Position, Ruoyi Liu

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication that conveys population density information in order to coordinate gene expression to produce synchronized behaviors. QS regulates the expression of virulence genes in many species of bacteria; hence, the manipulation of QS pathways may lead to treatment options against many bacterial diseases. The LuxS enzyme converts S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine (SRH) into homocysteine (HCys) and 4(S),5-dihydroxypentane-2,3-dione (DPD), which is the precursor of autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Thus, inhibitors of LuxS could prevent QS by halting the conversion of SRH to AI-2 rendering the cell “uncommunicative”. This work shows the successful chemical ...


Breast Tumour Initiating Cell Fate Is Regulated By Microenvironmental Cues From An Extracellular Matrix, S. Saha, Pang-Kuo Lo, X. Duan, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2012

Breast Tumour Initiating Cell Fate Is Regulated By Microenvironmental Cues From An Extracellular Matrix, S. Saha, Pang-Kuo Lo, X. Duan, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells, also known as tumour-initiating cells (TICs), are identified as highly tumorigenic population within tumours and hypothesized to be main regulators in tumour growth, metastasis and relapse. Evidence also suggests that a tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer, by constantly modulating cell–matrix interactions. Scientists have tried to characterize and identify the TIC population but the actual combination of extracellular components in deciphering the fate of TICs has not been explored. The basic unanswered question is the phenotypic stability of this TIC population in a tissue extracellular matrix setting. The in ...


Discrimination Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Using Noncanonical Amino Acid, X. Duan, H. Li, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2012

Discrimination Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Using Noncanonical Amino Acid, X. Duan, H. Li, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumor recurrence. Metabolic labelling of newly synthesized proteins with non-canonical amino acids allows us to discriminate CSCs in mixed populations due to the quiescent nature of these cells.