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Analytical Chemistry

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Articles 1 - 30 of 166

Full-Text Articles in Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Analysis Of Drug-Protein Interactions During Diabetes By High-Performance Affinity Chromatography, Pingyang Tao Apr 2019

Analysis Of Drug-Protein Interactions During Diabetes By High-Performance Affinity Chromatography, Pingyang Tao

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

High-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) is a type of liquid chromatography in which solutes are separated based on their binding to a stationary phase that is a biologically-related agent. Sulfonylurea drugs have significant binding to proteins in blood, with most of this binding is believed to occur with human serum albumin (HSA). HSA is known to be modified as a result of the high serum levels of glucose that is present during diabetes, which may also alter the function of HSA as a binding agent for many drugs in circulation. Some modifications of HSA that can occur during diabetes involves early ...


Tracking Decitabine Incorporation Into Malignant Myeloid Cell Dna In Vitro And In Vivo By Lc-Ms/Ms With Enzymatic Digestion, Sujatha Chilakala, Ye Feng, Lan Li, Reda Mahfouz, Ebrahem Quteba, Yogen Saunthararajah, Yan Xu Mar 2019

Tracking Decitabine Incorporation Into Malignant Myeloid Cell Dna In Vitro And In Vivo By Lc-Ms/Ms With Enzymatic Digestion, Sujatha Chilakala, Ye Feng, Lan Li, Reda Mahfouz, Ebrahem Quteba, Yogen Saunthararajah, Yan Xu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The DNA hypomethylating agents decitabine and 5-azacytidine are the only two drugs approved for treatment of all subtypes of the myeloid malignancy myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The key to drug activity is incorporation into target cell DNA, however, a practical method to measure this incorporation is un-available. Here, we report a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure decitabine incorporation and DNA hypomethylation. A stable heavy isotope of 2'-deoxycytidine was used as an internal standard and one-step multi-enzyme digestion was used to release the DNA bound drug. Enzyme-released decitabine along with other mononucleosides were separated by a reverse-phase ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang Feb 2019

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai C. Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey Jan 2019

Urease Is An Essential Component Of The Acid Response Network Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Is Required For A Persistent Murine Kidney Infection, Chunyi Zhou, Fatema Bhinderwala, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Vinai C. Thomas, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Kelsey J. Yamada, Kirk W. Foster, Robert Powers, Tammy Kielian, Paul D. Fey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Staphylococcus aureus causes acute and chronic infections resulting in significant morbidity. Urease, an enzyme that generates NH3 and CO2 from urea, is key to pH homeostasis in bacterial pathogens under acidic stress and nitrogen limitation. However, the function of urease in S. aureus niche colonization and nitrogen metabolism has not been extensively studied. We discovered that urease is essential for pH homeostasis and viability in urea-rich environments under weak acid stress. The regulation of urease transcription by CcpA, Agr, and CodY was identified in this study, implying a complex network that controls urease expression in response to changes ...


Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar Jan 2019

Role Of Water On The Rotational Dynamics Of The Organic Methylammonium Cation: A First Principles Analysis, Ross D. Hoehn, Joseph S. Francisco, Sabre Kais, Ali Kachmar

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Understanding the degradation mechanisms of lead-halide perovskites (CH3NH3PbI3) under exposure to liquid/aerosol water is an essential problem within the photovoltaic community. Herein we investigate both the static and the dynamic properties of the methylammonuim cation (MA) as it coordinates with invading water molecules (MA.(H2O)n, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) using both stationary state quantum mechanics and first principle molecular dynamics simulations. Various solvation structures of MA were characterized by their stabilization energies, dipoles, and Maximally-Localized Wannier Function (MLWF) centers. Calculation – and analysis – of vibrational shifts in the IR spectral region ...


Highly Stable And Efficient All-Inorganic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells With Native-Oxide Passivation, Min Chen, Ming-Gang Ju, Hector F. Garces, Alexander D. Carl, Luis K. Ono, Zafer Hawash, Yi Zhang, Tianyi Shen, Yabing Qi, Ronald L. Grimm, Domenico Pacifici, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture Jan 2019

Highly Stable And Efficient All-Inorganic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells With Native-Oxide Passivation, Min Chen, Ming-Gang Ju, Hector F. Garces, Alexander D. Carl, Luis K. Ono, Zafer Hawash, Yi Zhang, Tianyi Shen, Yabing Qi, Ronald L. Grimm, Domenico Pacifici, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhou, Nitin P. Padture

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

There has been an urgent need to eliminate toxic lead from the prevailing halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), but the current lead-free PSCs are still plagued with the critical issues of low efficiency and poor stability. This is primarily due to their inadequate photovoltaic properties and chemical stability. Herein we demonstrate the use of the lead-free, allinorganic cesium tin-germanium triiodide (CsSn0.5Ge0.5I3) solid-solution perovskite as the light absorber in PSCs, delivering promising efficiency of up to 7.11%. More importantly, these PSCs show very high stability, with less than 10% decay in efficiency after ...


The Inductive Effect In Organic Chemistry, Charles A. Kingsbury Jan 2019

The Inductive Effect In Organic Chemistry, Charles A. Kingsbury

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The subtle difference between the successive polarization model and the flow of electrons through sigma bonds is explored, as well as the alternating charge model of Pople and the pervasive field model. The present paper is concerned with the ability of alkyl groups to serve as sigma inductive electron donors.


Mass Spectrometry And Nuclear Magnetic Resonance In The Chemometric Analysis Of Cellular Metabolism, Eli Riekeberg Nov 2018

Mass Spectrometry And Nuclear Magnetic Resonance In The Chemometric Analysis Of Cellular Metabolism, Eli Riekeberg

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

The development and awareness of Machine Learning and “big data” has led to a growing interest in applying these methods to bioanalytical research. Methods such as Mass Spectrometry (MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can now obtain tens of thousands to millions of data points from a single sample, due to fundamental instrumental advances and ever-increasing resolution. Simple pairwise comparisons on datasets of this magnitude can obfuscate more complex underlying trends, and does a disservice to the richness of information contained within. This necessitates the need for multivariate approaches that can more fully take advantage of the complexity of these ...


‘Cassette’-Ises (In Situ Enzymatic Screening) Identifies Complementary Chiral Scaffolds For Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution Across A Range Of Epoxides, Sangeeta Dey, Douglas R. Powell, Chunhua Hu, David B. Berkowitz Oct 2018

‘Cassette’-Ises (In Situ Enzymatic Screening) Identifies Complementary Chiral Scaffolds For Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution Across A Range Of Epoxides, Sangeeta Dey, Douglas R. Powell, Chunhua Hu, David B. Berkowitz

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

‘Cassette’-ISES (In Situ Enzymatic Screening) Identifies Complementary Chiral Scaffolds for Hydrolytic Kinetic Resolution Across a Range of Epoxides

A new ‘Cassette’-In Situ Enzymatic Screen (ISES) for combinatorial catalysis is introduced. This allows the experimentalist to obtain an information-rich readout, in real time, providing an estimate of the sense and magnitude of enantioselectivity across more than one substrate. In its first iteration, the screen identified CoIII-salen catalysts with β-pinene- and α-naphthylalanine-derived chiral scaffolds with broad, yet complementary, substrate specificities.


Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee Oct 2018

Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

A high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI)-MS-based metabolomics platform was developed using a pre-fabricated microarray of nanoparticles and organic matrices. Selected organic matrices, inorganic nanoparticle (NP) suspensions, and sputter coated metal NPs, as well as various additives, were tested for metabolomics analysis of the turkey gut microbiome. Four NPs and one organic matrix were selected as the optimal matrix set: α-cyano-4-hydroycinnamic acid, Fe3O4 and Au NPs in positive ion mode with 10 mM sodium acetate, and Cu and Ag NPs in negative ion mode with no additive. Using this set of five matrices, over two thousand unique ...


The Effects Of Cold Plasma Treatment On Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum), Sauvelson Auguste Jul 2018

The Effects Of Cold Plasma Treatment On Sweet Basil (Ocimum Basilicum), Sauvelson Auguste

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The study discussed herein looks both to continue and to expand upon previous work conducted here at Seton Hall University, which investigated the effect of cold plasma processing on sweet basil and their essential oils. It was found that the application of cold plasma treatment increases plant growth and eugenol concentration, which is an essential oil component and one of the potential natural antioxidants used in food preservation. In this study, we considered methods for increasing the production and harvesting of plants that produce essential oils such as sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). The study also incorporated more controls than the ...


A High Throughput Approach For The Generation Of Orthogonally Interacting Protein Pairs, Justin Lawrie, Xi Song, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo Jan 2018

A High Throughput Approach For The Generation Of Orthogonally Interacting Protein Pairs, Justin Lawrie, Xi Song, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

In contrast to the nearly error-free self-assembly of protein architectures in nature, artificial assembly of protein complexes with pre-defined structure and function in vitro is still challenging. To mimic nature’s strategy to construct pre-defined three-dimensional protein architectures, highly specific proteinprotein interacting pairs are needed. Here we report an effort to create an orthogonally interacting protein pair from its parental pair using a bacteria-based in vivo directed evolution strategy. This high throughput approach features a combination of a negative and a positive selection. The newly developed negative selection from this work was used to remove any protein mutants that retain ...


Toward The Detection Of The Triatomic Negative Ion Spn−: Spectroscopy And Potential Energy Surfaces, Tarek Trabelsi, Majdi Hochlaf, Joseph S. Francisco Jan 2018

Toward The Detection Of The Triatomic Negative Ion Spn−: Spectroscopy And Potential Energy Surfaces, Tarek Trabelsi, Majdi Hochlaf, Joseph S. Francisco

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

High level theoretical calculations using coupled-cluster theory were performed to provide an accurate description of the electronic structure, spectroscopic properties, and stability of the triatomic negative ion comprising S, N, and P. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEAs) and vertical detachment energies

(VDEs) of PNS, SPN, PSN, and cyc-PSN were calculated. The predicted AEA and VDE of the linear SPN isomer are large: 2.24 and 3.04 eV, respectively. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the lowest-lying electronic states of the SPN isomer along the PN and SP bond lengths and bond angle were mapped. A set of spectroscopic ...


Characterization Of Solution-Phase Drug-Protein Interactions By Ultrafast Affinity Extraction, Sandya Beeram, Xiwei Zheng, Kyungah Suh, David S. Hage Jan 2018

Characterization Of Solution-Phase Drug-Protein Interactions By Ultrafast Affinity Extraction, Sandya Beeram, Xiwei Zheng, Kyungah Suh, David S. Hage

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

A number of tools based on high-performance affinity separations have been developed for studying drug-protein interactions. An example of one recent approach is ultrafast affinity extraction. This method has been employed to examine the free (or non-bound) fractions of drugs and other solutes in simple or complex samples that contain soluble binding agents. These free fractions have also been used to determine the binding constants and rate constants for the interactions of drugs with these soluble agents. This report describes the general principles of ultrafast affinity extraction and the experimental conditions under which it can be used to characterize such ...


Elastic Properties Of 2d Ti3c2tx Mxene Monolayers And Bilayers, Alexey Lipatov, Haidong Lu, Mohamed H. Alhabeb, Babak Anasori, Alexei Gruverman, Yury Gogotsi, Alexander Sinitskii Jan 2018

Elastic Properties Of 2d Ti3c2tx Mxene Monolayers And Bilayers, Alexey Lipatov, Haidong Lu, Mohamed H. Alhabeb, Babak Anasori, Alexei Gruverman, Yury Gogotsi, Alexander Sinitskii

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, are a large class of materials that are finding numerous applications ranging from energy storage and electromagnetic interference shielding to water purification and antibacterial coatings. Yet, despite the fact thatmore than 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, the mechanical properties of a MXene monolayer have not been experimentally studied. We measured the elastic properties of monolayers and bilayers of the most important MXene material to date, Ti3C2Tx (Tx stands for surface termination).We developed amethod for preparingwell-strainedmembranes of Ti3C2Tx ...


Systems And Methods For Actuating Soft Robotic Actuators, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam Stokes, Stephen A. Morin, Ludovico Cademartiri, Jacob Freake, Rui Nunes, Xin Chen, George M. Whitesides Jan 2018

Systems And Methods For Actuating Soft Robotic Actuators, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam Stokes, Stephen A. Morin, Ludovico Cademartiri, Jacob Freake, Rui Nunes, Xin Chen, George M. Whitesides

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Systems and methods for providing a soft robot is provided. In one system , a robotic device includes a flexible body having a fluid chamber, where a portion of the flexible body includes an elastically extensible material and a portion of the flexible body is strain limiting relative to the elastically extensible material. The robotic device can further include a pressurizing inlet in fluid communication with the fluid chamber, and a pressurizing device in fluid communication with the pressurizing inlet, the pressurizing device including a reaction chamber configured to accommodate a gas producing chemical reaction for providing pressurized gas to the ...


Flexible Robotic Actuators, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam Stokes, Filip Ilievski, Ramses V. Martinez, Jamie L. Branch, Carina R. Fish, Lihua Jin, Rui M. D. Nunes, Zhigang Suo, George M. Whitesides Jan 2018

Flexible Robotic Actuators, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, Adam Stokes, Filip Ilievski, Ramses V. Martinez, Jamie L. Branch, Carina R. Fish, Lihua Jin, Rui M. D. Nunes, Zhigang Suo, George M. Whitesides

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Systems and methods for providing flexible robotic actuators are disclosed. Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter include a soft robot capable of providing a radial deflection motions; a soft tentacle actuator capable of providing a variety of motions and providing transportation means for various types of materials; and a hybrid robotic system that retains desirable characteristics of both soft robots and hard robots. Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter also include methods for operating the dis closed robotic systems.


Application Of Group I Metal Adduction To The Separation Of Steroids By Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Alana L. Rister, Tiana L. Martin, Eric D. Dodds Jan 2018

Application Of Group I Metal Adduction To The Separation Of Steroids By Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Alana L. Rister, Tiana L. Martin, Eric D. Dodds

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Steroids represent an interesting class of small biomolecules due to their use as biomarkers and their status as scheduled drugs. Although the analysis of steroids is complicated by the potential for many isomers, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has previously shown promise for the rapid separation of steroid isomers. This work is aimed at the further development of IMS separation for the analysis of steroids. Here, traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) was applied to the study of group I metal adducted steroids and their corresponding multimers for five sets of isomers. Each set of isomers had a minimum of one ...


Tin Nanoparticles Encapsulated Carbon Nanoboxes As High-Performance Anode For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Ziming Yang, Hong-Hui Wu, Zhiming Zheng, Yong Cheng, Pei Li, Qiaobao Zhang, Ming-Sheng Wang Jan 2018

Tin Nanoparticles Encapsulated Carbon Nanoboxes As High-Performance Anode For Lithium-Ion Batteries, Ziming Yang, Hong-Hui Wu, Zhiming Zheng, Yong Cheng, Pei Li, Qiaobao Zhang, Ming-Sheng Wang

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

One of the crucial challenges for applying Sn as an anode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is the dramatic volume change during lithiation/delithiation process, which causes a rapid capacity fading and then deteriorated battery performance. To address this issue, herein, we report the design and fabrication of Sn encapsulated carbon nanoboxes (denoted as Sn@C) with yolk@shell architectures. In this design, the carbon shell can facilitate the good transport kinetics whereas the hollow space between Sn and carbon shell can accommodate the volume variation during repeated charge/discharge process. Accordingly, this composite electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of ...


Anatomy Of Stem Teaching In American Universities: A Snapshot From A Large-Scale Observation Study, Marilyne Stains, Jordan Harshman, Megan K. Barker, Stephanie V. Chasteen, Renee Cole, Sue Ellen Dechenne-Peters, M. Kevin Eagan Jr., Joan M. Esson, Jennifer K. Knight, Frank A. Laski, Marc Levis-Fitzgerald, Christopher J. Lee, Stanley M. Lo, Lisa M. Mcdonnell, Timothy A. Mckay, Nicole Michelotti, Michael S. Palmer, Kathryn M. Plank, Tamara M. Rodela, Erin R. Sanders, Natalie G. Schimpf, Patricia M. Schulte, Michelle Smith, Mackenzie Stetzer, Jackie Stewart, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Erin Vinson, Laura K. Weir, Paul J. Wendel, Lindsay B. Wheeler, Anna M. Young Jan 2018

Anatomy Of Stem Teaching In American Universities: A Snapshot From A Large-Scale Observation Study, Marilyne Stains, Jordan Harshman, Megan K. Barker, Stephanie V. Chasteen, Renee Cole, Sue Ellen Dechenne-Peters, M. Kevin Eagan Jr., Joan M. Esson, Jennifer K. Knight, Frank A. Laski, Marc Levis-Fitzgerald, Christopher J. Lee, Stanley M. Lo, Lisa M. Mcdonnell, Timothy A. Mckay, Nicole Michelotti, Michael S. Palmer, Kathryn M. Plank, Tamara M. Rodela, Erin R. Sanders, Natalie G. Schimpf, Patricia M. Schulte, Michelle Smith, Mackenzie Stetzer, Jackie Stewart, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Erin Vinson, Laura K. Weir, Paul J. Wendel, Lindsay B. Wheeler, Anna M. Young

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

National and local initiatives focused on the transformation of STEM teaching in higher education have multiplied over the last decade. These initiatives often focus on measuring change in instructional practices, but it is difficult to monitor such change without a national picture of STEM educational practices, especially as characterized by common observational instruments. We characterized a snapshot of this landscape by conducting the first large scale observation-based study. We found that lecturing was prominent throughout the undergraduate STEM curriculum, even in classrooms with infrastructure designed to support active learning, indicating that further work is required to reform STEM education. Additionally ...


Magnetic Assembly Of Soft Robots With Hard Components, Sen Wai Kwok, Stephen A. Morin, Bobak Mosadegh, Ju-Hee So, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides Jan 2018

Magnetic Assembly Of Soft Robots With Hard Components, Sen Wai Kwok, Stephen A. Morin, Bobak Mosadegh, Ju-Hee So, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Reconfigurable soft robotic actuators with hard components are described. Magnetic attraction is used to couple flexible molded bodies capable of actuation upon pressurization with other flexible molded bodies and/or with hard components (e.g., frames and connectors) to form a seal for fluidic communication and cooperative actuation. Pneumatic decoupling chambers built into the hard components to decouple the hard components from the magnetically-coupled soft molded bodies are described. The use of magnetic self- alignment coupling and pneumatic de-coupling allows for the remote assembly and disassembly of complex structures involving hard and soft components. The magnetic coupling allows for rapid ...


Flexible Thin Robotic Actuators, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides, William B. Kalb Jan 2018

Flexible Thin Robotic Actuators, Aaron D. Mazzeo, Stephen A. Morin, Robert F. Shepherd, George M. Whitesides, William B. Kalb

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter includes a laminated robotic actuator. The laminated robotic actuator includes a strain-limiting layer comprising a flexible, non extensible material in the form of a sheet or thin film, a flexible inflatable layer in the form of a thin film or sheet in facing relationship with the strain-limiting layer, wherein the inflatable layer is selectively adhered to the strain-limiting layer, and wherein a portion of an un-adhered region between the strain-limiting layer and the inflatable layer defines a pressurizable channel, and at least one fluid inlet in fluid communication with the pressurizable channel. The ...


Crystallographic,Vibrational Modes And Optical Properties Data Of Α-Dipabcrystal, Ahmad Alsaad, Chris M. Marin, Nabil Alaqtash, Hsien-Wen Chao, Tsun-Hsu Chang, Chin Li Cheung, A. Ahmad, I. A. Qattan, Renat F. Sabirianov Jan 2018

Crystallographic,Vibrational Modes And Optical Properties Data Of Α-Dipabcrystal, Ahmad Alsaad, Chris M. Marin, Nabil Alaqtash, Hsien-Wen Chao, Tsun-Hsu Chang, Chin Li Cheung, A. Ahmad, I. A. Qattan, Renat F. Sabirianov

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The Crystallographic data of the α-DIPAB sample was measured using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The crystal structure was also optimized using density functional based method. The calculations were performed both including vander Waals (vdW) interactions and excluding them to quantify the effects of vdW interaction on the crystal formation. The vibrational modes of DIPAB crystal corresponding to the Bromine deficient samples are calculated and presented. These show the origin of drastic change in dielectric response in Br deficient samples as compared to the ideal stoichiometric DIPAB crystal (Alsaad et al. 2018) [4]. Optical properties of an ideal α-DIPAB were calculated ...


Integrating Microscale Enzyme And Lectin Reactions Using Nanogel Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis, Srikanth Gattu Jan 2018

Integrating Microscale Enzyme And Lectin Reactions Using Nanogel Assisted Capillary Electrophoresis, Srikanth Gattu

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Protein glycosylation is one of the most prevalent post-translational modifications which plays an important role in determining the structure, stability, and function of proteins. Changes in glycosylation patterns are a hallmark of cancer and other diseases. Characterizing glycosylation is difficult because these structures vary in their linkage and monomer sequence, which gives rise to vast microheterogenity that could affect the function of the molecule. A novel method using capillary gel electrophoresis by integrating microscale enzymes and lectin reactions in the capillary was developed to verify glycan structure by analyzing monosaccharides. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) improves upon conventional methods of glycan structure ...


Folding Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti) Is Faster Using Aromatic Thiols And Their Corresponding Disulfides, Ram Prasad Marahatta Nov 2017

Folding Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti) Is Faster Using Aromatic Thiols And Their Corresponding Disulfides, Ram Prasad Marahatta

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Improvement in the in vitro oxidative folding of disulfide-containing proteins, such as extracellular and pharmaceutically important proteins, is required. Traditional folding methods using small molecule aliphatic thiol and disulfide, such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) are slow and low yielding. Small molecule aromatic thiols and disulfides show great potentiality because aromatic thiols have low pKa values, close to the thiol pKa of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), higher nucleophilicity and good leaving group ability. Our studies showed that thiols with a positively charged group, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), are better than thiols with negatively charged groups such as phosphonic ...


Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui May 2017

Detection Of Cathinone And Mephedrone In Plasma By Lc-Ms/Ms Using Standard Addition Quantification Technique, Theron W. Ng-A-Qui

Student Theses

Designer drugs are structural analogs of Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule I and II substances. They are synthesized to mimic the effects of illegal drugs of abuse and to bypass the provisions of drug regulations. Despite the increased availability of designer drugs, few studies have focused on specific analytical extraction techniques for their detection and quantification in biological samples. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is the most commonly used technique for sample preparation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the various SPE columns with different sorbent materials for two designer drugs, cathinone and mephedrone in ...


Development Of Neurotensin-Based Radiopharmaceuticals For Neurotensin-Receptor-1-Positive Tumors Targeting, Yinnong Jia May 2017

Development Of Neurotensin-Based Radiopharmaceuticals For Neurotensin-Receptor-1-Positive Tumors Targeting, Yinnong Jia

Theses & Dissertations

The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) is overexpressed in many cancers, due to its role as a growth pathway. These NTR1-positive cancers include pancreatic, colon, prostate and breast cancers. In the radiopharmaceutical field, the overexpression of NTR1 in cancer has prompted the development of NTR1-targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. The neurotensin (NT) peptide exhibits low nanomolar affinity for NTR1 and has been the paradigm for NTR1-targeted agents. Since the 1980’s, radiolabeled NT analogs have been developed and evaluated for targeting NTR1-positive cancers. Since native NT is rapidly degraded in vivo by a variety of peptidases, a tremendous amount of effort has ...


A Dilute-And-Shoot Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For Quantification Of Phenobarbital In Urine, Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo Jan 2017

A Dilute-And-Shoot Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method For Quantification Of Phenobarbital In Urine, Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo

Chemistry Faculty Publications

RATIONALE: Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized.

METHODS: This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute-and-shoot flow-injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system. Briefly, a urine sample containing phenobarbital was first diluted by 10 times, followed by flow injection of ...


Nitric Oxide Release From Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles And Titanium Alloy, Nina A. Reger Jan 2017

Nitric Oxide Release From Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles And Titanium Alloy, Nina A. Reger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current methods for the treatment of bacterial infection involve the use of systemic antibiotics, which are high concentrations of antibiotics delivered over a long period time. Unfortunately, the use of systemic antibiotics can cause harmful side effects to the patient and increases the possibility for antibiotic resistance. The delivery of antibiotics or alternative antimicrobial compounds, such as nitric oxide, directly to the site of infection would decrease the amount of antibiotic necessary to treat a bacterial infection.

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/polyvinyl alcohol nanoparticles and a titanium- aluminum-vanadium metal oxide alloy implant were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. Polymer nanoparticles ...


Analytical Methods To Support Design And Optimization Of Protein Drug Conjugate: Focusing On Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex As A Drug Carrier, Shengsheng Xu Jan 2017

Analytical Methods To Support Design And Optimization Of Protein Drug Conjugate: Focusing On Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin Complex As A Drug Carrier, Shengsheng Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains one of the most serious public health challenges and a significant cause of mortality for certain populations. Despite the large number of antiretrovirals (mostly nucleotide and nucleoside analogs) developed in the past two decades, the inability of small molecule therapeutics to target HIV reservoirs directly creates a significant obstacle to their effective utilization. Indeed, achieving the desired therapeutic effect in the absence of the effective targeted delivery must rely on dosage escalation, which frequently causes severe toxicity. This problem may be solved by conjugation of antiretroviral agents to endogenous proteins (e.g., hemoglobin haptoglobin complex ...