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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 40

Full-Text Articles in Pharmaceutics and Drug Design

Cross-Sector Review Of Drivers And Available 3rs Approaches For Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing, Troy Seidle, Sally Robinson, Tom Holmes, Stuart Creton, Pilar Prieto, Julia Scheel, Magda Chlebus Dec 2014

Cross-Sector Review Of Drivers And Available 3rs Approaches For Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing, Troy Seidle, Sally Robinson, Tom Holmes, Stuart Creton, Pilar Prieto, Julia Scheel, Magda Chlebus

Troy Seidle, PhD

Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or ...


The Fit-Hansa Demonstrates Reliability And Convergent Validity Of Functional Performance In Patients With Shoulder Disorders, Prajyot Kumta, Joy Macdermid, Saurabh Mehta, Paul Stratford Dec 2014

The Fit-Hansa Demonstrates Reliability And Convergent Validity Of Functional Performance In Patients With Shoulder Disorders, Prajyot Kumta, Joy Macdermid, Saurabh Mehta, Paul Stratford

Saurabh Mehta

Study

DesignPsychometric study design.

Objectives

To assess the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the Functional Impairment Test-Hand and Neck/Shoulder/Arm (FIT-HaNSA) in patients with shoulder disorders.

Background

Performance tests that assess functional ability of patients with shoulder disorders can provide useful information for making clinical or return-to-activity decisions. No performance-based shoulder test has yet demonstrated sufficient relevance or clinical measurement properties. The FIT-HaNSA examines upper extremity performance during repetitive tasks that emphasize shoulder reaching and static postures and, therefore, has greater relevance for assessing performance.

Methods

Thirty-six patients with shoulder disorders and 65 healthy controls were recruited for ...


Computer-Aided Drug Design And Discovery, Screening And Synthesis Of Small Molecule Inhibitors Of Nucleoside Transporters, Hilaire Colleen Playa Dec 2014

Computer-Aided Drug Design And Discovery, Screening And Synthesis Of Small Molecule Inhibitors Of Nucleoside Transporters, Hilaire Colleen Playa

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Using prior biological data, pharmacophore models were made for hCNT1, hCNT3, hENT1, and hENT4. The hCNT3 and hCNT1 pharmacophore were used to select compounds for biological testing. The NBMPR analogue and dipyridamole analogue hENT1 pharmacophores were compared to each other and to a combined pharmacophore for hENT1. The dipyridamole analogue pharmacophore better predicted non-nucleoside small molecule inhibitors, and as such appears to be the better tool for aiding in the design of new small molecule inhibitors. The hCNT3 pharmacophore failed to select active compounds and as such must be redesigned. The hCNT1 pharmacophore succeeded in identifying two moderately active compounds ...


Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Possess Intrinsic Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Benjamin J. Fowler, Bradley D. Gelfand, Younghee Kim, Nagaraj Kerur, Valeria Tarallo, Yoshio Hirano, Shoba Amarnath, Daniel H. Fowler, Marta Radwan, Mark T. Young, Keir Pittman, Paul Kubes, Hitesh Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, David R. Hinton, Ana Bastos-Carvalho, Shengjian Li, Testuhiro Yasuma, Takeshi Mizutani, Reo Yasuma, Charles Wright, Jayakrishna Ambati Nov 2014

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Possess Intrinsic Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Benjamin J. Fowler, Bradley D. Gelfand, Younghee Kim, Nagaraj Kerur, Valeria Tarallo, Yoshio Hirano, Shoba Amarnath, Daniel H. Fowler, Marta Radwan, Mark T. Young, Keir Pittman, Paul Kubes, Hitesh Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, David R. Hinton, Ana Bastos-Carvalho, Shengjian Li, Testuhiro Yasuma, Takeshi Mizutani, Reo Yasuma, Charles Wright, Jayakrishna Ambati

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are mainstay therapeutics for HIV that block retrovirus replication. Alu (an endogenous retroelement that also requires reverse transcriptase for its life cycle)–derived RNAs activate P2X7 and the NLRP3 inflammasome to cause cell death of the retinal pigment epithelium in geographic atrophy, a type of age-related macular degeneration. We found that NRTIs inhibit P2X7-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation independent of reverse transcriptase inhibition. Multiple approved and clinically relevant NRTIs prevented caspase-1 activation, the effector of the NLRP3 inflammasome, induced by Alu RNA. NRTIs were efficacious in mouse models of geographic atrophy, choroidal neovascularization, graft-versus-host disease, and ...


Considering A New Paradigm For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian R. Langley Nov 2014

Considering A New Paradigm For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian R. Langley

Gill Langley, PhD

Using Alzheimer’s disease as a case study, this review argues that it might be time to consider a new paradigm in medical research and drug discovery. The existing framework is overly dependent on often unvalidated animal models, particularly transgenic mice. Translational success remains elusive and costly late-stage drug failure is common. The conventional paradigm tends to overlook species differences and assumes that animal-based findings are generally applicable to humans. Could pathways-based research using advanced human-specific models probed with new tools, including those of systems biology, take centre stage? The current transition in chemical toxicology to a 21st-century paradigm could ...


Are Elevated Vancomycin Serum Trough Concentrations Achieved Within The First 7 Days Of Therapy Associated With Acute Kidney Injury In Children?, Chad A. Knoderer, Kristen R. Nichols, Kelsey C. Lyon, Megan M. Veverka, Amy C. Wilson Nov 2014

Are Elevated Vancomycin Serum Trough Concentrations Achieved Within The First 7 Days Of Therapy Associated With Acute Kidney Injury In Children?, Chad A. Knoderer, Kristen R. Nichols, Kelsey C. Lyon, Megan M. Veverka, Amy C. Wilson

Chad A. Knoderer

Background In 2008, the empiric vancomycin dosing recommendation in children at our institution was changed from 40 to 60 mg/kg per day. Subsequently, an increased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving vancomycin was suspected. The objective of this study was to evaluate AKI in children receiving vancomycin and to determine risk factors for AKI development. Methods Medical records of patients aged 30 days through 17 years who received vancomycin for at least 72 hours between January and December 2007 (40 mg/kg per day) and January and December 2010 (60 mg/kg per day) were reviewed ...


Antispasmodic And Ca++ Antagonist Potential Of Marrubiin, A Labdane Type Diterpene From Phlomis Bracteosa, Javid Hussain, Riaz Ullah, Arif-Ullah Khan, Fazal Mabood, Mohammad Raza Shah, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Anwar Gilani Nov 2014

Antispasmodic And Ca++ Antagonist Potential Of Marrubiin, A Labdane Type Diterpene From Phlomis Bracteosa, Javid Hussain, Riaz Ullah, Arif-Ullah Khan, Fazal Mabood, Mohammad Raza Shah, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Anwar Gilani

Anwar Gilani

A tricyclic labdane type diterpene was isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate soluble part of Phlomis bracteosa. Its structure was confirmed by x-ray which was found to be marrubiin. When studied in isolated rabbit jejunum, marrubiin caused concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions, like that caused by verapamil, indicating that marrubiin exhibits spasmolytic activity, possibly mediated through Ca++ channel blocking action.


Canagliflozin, A New Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, In The Treatment Of Diabetes, Sarah A. Nisly, Denise M. Kolanczyk, Alison M. Walton Oct 2014

Canagliflozin, A New Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, In The Treatment Of Diabetes, Sarah A. Nisly, Denise M. Kolanczyk, Alison M. Walton

Sarah A. Nisly

Purpose. The published evidence on the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a promising investigational agent for managing type 2 diabetes is evaluated. Summary. Canagliflozin belongs to a class of agents—the sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors—whose novel mechanism of action offers potential advantages over other antihyperglycemic agents, including a relatively low hypoglycemia risk and weight loss-promoting effects. Canagliflozin has dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, and research in laboratory animals demonstrated high oral bioavailability (85%) and rapid effects in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values. In four early-stage clinical trials involving a total of over 500 patients, the use of canagliflozin ...


Use Of A Subcutaneous Insulin Computerized Glucostabilizer™ Program On Glycemic Control In The Intensive Care Setting: A Retrospective Data Analysis., Sarah A. Nisly, Serena Harris, Laura Aykroyd, Joni Carrol, Brian Ulmer, Michael Waddell, Samuel Flanders, Rattan Juneja Oct 2014

Use Of A Subcutaneous Insulin Computerized Glucostabilizer™ Program On Glycemic Control In The Intensive Care Setting: A Retrospective Data Analysis., Sarah A. Nisly, Serena Harris, Laura Aykroyd, Joni Carrol, Brian Ulmer, Michael Waddell, Samuel Flanders, Rattan Juneja

Sarah A. Nisly

Background: Despite guidelines that recommend strongly against Sliding Scale Insulin (SSI) it continues to be the most commonly insulin regimen used in hospitals to treat hyperglycemia. In addition to being reactionary to a glucose that has already increased, SSI offers practical challenges in the randomness of the doses of insulin prescribed and often a disconnect with glucose testing that should be occurring in congruence to the insulin dosing. While many clinical trials have shown improved glycemic control in critical care patients receiving intravenous insulin; few studies have demonstrated the efficacy of subcutaneous (SQ) insulin in this setting. In this study ...


“So You Think You Have A Drug You Want To Develop”, Mark S. Klempner Oct 2014

“So You Think You Have A Drug You Want To Develop”, Mark S. Klempner

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Seminar Series

Mark Klempner, MD, Executive Vice Chancellor, MassBiologics of UMass Medical School and Professor of Medicine, describes MassBiologics and their process for developing a new medicine. MassBiologics is the only non-profit, FDA-licensed manufacturer of vaccines and biologics in the United States.


Inhibition Of The Thioesterase Activity Of Human Fatty Acid Synthase By 1,4- And 9,10-Diones, Herman H. Odens Sep 2014

Inhibition Of The Thioesterase Activity Of Human Fatty Acid Synthase By 1,4- And 9,10-Diones, Herman H. Odens

Faculty Works

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the enzyme that synthesizes fatty acids de novo in human cells. Although FASN is generally expressed at low levels in most normal tissues, its expression is highly upregulated in many cancers. Consistent with this notion, inhibition of FASN activity has demonstrated potential to halt proliferation and induce cell death in vitro and to block tumor growth in vivo. Consequently, FASN is widely recognized as a valuable therapeutic target. In this report, we describe a variety of 1,4-quinones and 9,10- anthraquinones, including several natural compounds and some newly synthesized compounds, that potently inhibit the ...


Effect Of Twin Screw Granulator Process Parameters On Granule Attributes, Haosheng Xu, Ridade Sayin, James Litster Aug 2014

Effect Of Twin Screw Granulator Process Parameters On Granule Attributes, Haosheng Xu, Ridade Sayin, James Litster

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Twin screw wet granulation has been considered as an efficient and effective technique of manufacturing granules (agglomerates made up of small particles) and has been widely applied in pharmaceutical industry. However, narrow granule size distributions are difficult to achieve. This study aims to elucidate the effect of process parameters such as liquid feed rate and screw configuration on the granule attributes through granule characterization. The methods used are sieve analysis (for size distribution), liquid distribution (determining the dye concentration in the granules) and density and porosity (percentage gas volume in the granule) analyses. A sieve shaker is used to divide ...


Electrochemical Investigations Of Benzanthrone, Antonio Trevino, Kefa Karimu Onchoke Aug 2014

Electrochemical Investigations Of Benzanthrone, Antonio Trevino, Kefa Karimu Onchoke

Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


In Vitro Metabolic Stability Study Of New Cyclen Based Antimalarial Drug Leads Using Rp-Hplc And Lc-Ms/Ms, Apoorva V. Rudraraju, Mohammad F. Hossain, Anjuli Shrestha, Prince N.A. Amoyaw, Babu L. Tekwani, M. O. Faruk Khan Jul 2014

In Vitro Metabolic Stability Study Of New Cyclen Based Antimalarial Drug Leads Using Rp-Hplc And Lc-Ms/Ms, Apoorva V. Rudraraju, Mohammad F. Hossain, Anjuli Shrestha, Prince N.A. Amoyaw, Babu L. Tekwani, M. O. Faruk Khan

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

Metabolic stability of the new antimalarial drug leads is determined using Human Liver Microsome (HLM) and specific cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP2C8) taking the clinically used antimalarial drug chloroquine as a positive control. Experiment is done using standard methods. All the assays were conducted in 0.5 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. In general the metabolic reaction was initiated by adding 1 mM NADPH and 0.5 mg of enzyme. Incubations were done with time frequency of 0 hr, 1 hr, and 2 hrs at 37°C and the reactions were terminated by adding acetonitrile in the equal amounts ...


Dispersion And Dissolution Kinetics Of Api Particles In Pharmaceutical Hot Melt Extrusion, Wang Zhan May 2014

Dispersion And Dissolution Kinetics Of Api Particles In Pharmaceutical Hot Melt Extrusion, Wang Zhan

Theses

Pharmaceutical Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) is essentially a special case of polymer compounding. The elementary steps involved in traditional plastics melt processing are handling of particulates, melting, dispersive and distributive mixing, devolatilization and stripping, and finally pressurization and pumping. However, for pharmaceutical HME, the dissolution of the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) is an additional and very important elementary step, along with the melting of the polymeric excipient that precedes it, and mixing which accelerates the dissolution process. A major concern in pharmaceutical HME is the thermal degradation of the API. To avoid overexposure of API to heat while ensuring complete ...


Hydrodynamic Cfd Modeling Of A Pharmaceutical Reactor Vessel Provided With A Retreat-Blade Impeller Under Different Baffling Conditions, Christopher G. Foehner May 2014

Hydrodynamic Cfd Modeling Of A Pharmaceutical Reactor Vessel Provided With A Retreat-Blade Impeller Under Different Baffling Conditions, Christopher G. Foehner

Theses

In the pharmaceutical industry, glass-lined reactors and vessels are often utilized to carry out a variety of different unit operations. Within these systems, both the vessel and impellers are typically glass-lined in order to provide superior corrosion resistance, prevent product contamination, and enhance cleanability. This approach, in turn, often requires the use of different, and sometimes sub-optimal, baffling conditions, which affect the hydrodynamics of the vessels and the reactor performance.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a computational tool that employs numerical methods and algorithms to discretize and numerically solve partial differential equations (PDEs) representing mass, energy, and momentum conservation equations ...


Assessment Of A Marine Polysaccharide For Use As Excipient In Pharmaceutical Hot-Melt Extrusion, Qing Ye May 2014

Assessment Of A Marine Polysaccharide For Use As Excipient In Pharmaceutical Hot-Melt Extrusion, Qing Ye

Theses

Pharmaceutical Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) is currently investigated by both industry and academia as a method for manufacturing solid oral dosages with improved bioavailability of poorly-water soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and control drug release of water-soluble APIs. Although HME is traditionally utilizing synthetic polymers to produce such dosages, biopolymers constantly gain ground by virtue of renewability, biocompatibility and in some cases biodegradability. In this work, the possibility of using Keltone, a marine polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, as a polymeric excipient for pharmaceutical HME is explored. Keltone is insoluble in acidic pH and soluble in basic pH, therefore making ...


Experimental Determination Of The Mixing Requirements For Solid Suspension In Pharmaceutical Stirred Tank Reactors, Anqi Zhou May 2014

Experimental Determination Of The Mixing Requirements For Solid Suspension In Pharmaceutical Stirred Tank Reactors, Anqi Zhou

Theses

Glass and glass-lined, stirred-tank reactors are of significant importance in the pharmaceutical and related industries. Because of fabrication issues, a retreat blade impeller (RBI) with a low impeller clearance off the tank bottom is commonly used in glass-lined reactors, typically combined with a single baffle (providing only partial baffling conditions) mounted from the top of the reactor. In addition, these reactors are often provided with a torispherical bottom. Other configurations are also used, including full baffling or no baffles at all, hemispherical bottoms, and different impeller types. Despite their common use, some of the most important mixing characteristics of this ...


Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood May 2014

Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This work seeks to contribute to the discipline of neuropharmacology by way of structure activity relationship from the standpoint of an organic chemist. More specifically, we sought to develop robust synthetic methodology able to efficiently produce an array of compounds for the purpose of systematic evaluation of their interaction with specific sights within the central nervous system (CNS) in order to better understand the mind and to develop drugs that may have beneficial effects on neurological function.

The focus of these studies has been toward the development of novel molecules, using a structure-activity relationship approach, that exhibit binding affinity at ...


Nanotoxicity In Cells Of The Immune System, Jonathan J. Pelc May 2014

Nanotoxicity In Cells Of The Immune System, Jonathan J. Pelc

Science Scholars

Nanoparticles (NPs) provide a new medical approach to drug therapy. As with every new approach, safety precautions need to be taken, and the immediate and long-term effects for many NPs are still unclear. When administering a medical treatment into the human body, the first issue that needs to be addressed is host detection of the medicine and inflammation as a possible result of the treatment. If a new NP treatment causes inflammation before it releases its medicine, that treatment may be ineffective, even damaging to the patient. Small metallic and organic particles have been shown to elicit an inflammatory responses ...


Development Of A Novel Vaccine Adjuvant System Utilizing An In Situ Implant System To Modified Release, Qiuye Zhang May 2014

Development Of A Novel Vaccine Adjuvant System Utilizing An In Situ Implant System To Modified Release, Qiuye Zhang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Pulsatile release formulations for single dose vaccines have been studied for many years because of the advantages that they may provide to vaccine administration with a single dose instead of prime and booster shots.

The aim of this work is to develop novel formulations based on an In Situ Implant (ISI) systems to provide a modified vaccine release and altered immune response, which could act as a booster administration. This type of system was selected because ISI systems are used for long acting administration of various drugs and ease of administration. A typical ISI system is comprised of hydrophilic organic ...


Glioma: A Tale Of Corticosteroids, Thiopurines And Proposed Novel Antiglioma Small Molecules, Amira Ahmed May 2014

Glioma: A Tale Of Corticosteroids, Thiopurines And Proposed Novel Antiglioma Small Molecules, Amira Ahmed

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Glioma is a brain tumor that arises from glial cells or glial progenitor cells, and represents 80% of malignant brain tumor incidence in the United States. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor malignancy with fewer than 8% of patients with GBM surviving for 3 years. Over the past 10 years, despite improvement in diagnosis and therapies for cancer, the survival rate for high-grade glioma patients remains unchanged. The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate two therapeutic agents that are related to increase tumor resistance or increase secondary tumor incidence, which might play a role ...


Psychiatric Taxonomy, Psychopharmacology And Big Pharma, Lisa Cosgrove Apr 2014

Psychiatric Taxonomy, Psychopharmacology And Big Pharma, Lisa Cosgrove

Lisa Cosgrove

Clinicians practicing today need to be aware of the ways in which the current industry-dominated climate may undermine the integrity of the scientific process and, thus, may compromise patient care. In the mental health field, corporate sponsorship bias can affect psychiatric taxonomy and clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). Financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) can occur when there are financial associations between researchers, authors, or panel members developing psychiatric diagnostic and treatment guidelines, and the pharmaceutical industry, or when randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are industry funded. Therefore, clinicians need to be especially vigilant about the informed consent process when patients are prescribed ...


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres Jan 2014

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...


Are Elevated Vancomycin Serum Trough Concentrations Achieved Within The First 7 Days Of Therapy Associated With Acute Kidney Injury In Children?, Chad A. Knoderer, Kristen R. Nichols, Kelsey C. Lyon, Megan M. Veverka, Amy C. Wilson Jan 2014

Are Elevated Vancomycin Serum Trough Concentrations Achieved Within The First 7 Days Of Therapy Associated With Acute Kidney Injury In Children?, Chad A. Knoderer, Kristen R. Nichols, Kelsey C. Lyon, Megan M. Veverka, Amy C. Wilson

Scholarship and Professional Work – COPHS

Background In 2008, the empiric vancomycin dosing recommendation in children at our institution was changed from 40 to 60 mg/kg per day. Subsequently, an increased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving vancomycin was suspected. The objective of this study was to evaluate AKI in children receiving vancomycin and to determine risk factors for AKI development.

Methods Medical records of patients aged 30 days through 17 years who received vancomycin for at least 72 hours between January and December 2007 (40 mg/kg per day) and January and December 2010 (60 mg/kg per day) were reviewed ...


An Introduction To Drugs And The Neuroscience Of Behavior, Adam J. Prus Jan 2014

An Introduction To Drugs And The Neuroscience Of Behavior, Adam J. Prus

Books

This up-to-date text provides an introductory overview of the nervous system actions and behavioral effects of the major classes of psychoactive drugs, using pedagogy unique among pharmacology texts to make the topic approachable.


Cinacalcet Administration By Gastrostomy Tube In A Child Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis, Kristen R. Nichols, Chad A. Knoderer, Bethanne Johnston, Amy C. Wilson Jan 2014

Cinacalcet Administration By Gastrostomy Tube In A Child Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis, Kristen R. Nichols, Chad A. Knoderer, Bethanne Johnston, Amy C. Wilson

Scholarship and Professional Work – COPHS

A 2-year-old male with chronic kidney disease with secondary hyperparathyroidism developed hypercalcemia while receiving calcitriol, without achieving a serum parathyroid hormone concentration within the goal range. Cinacalcet 15 mg (1.2 mg/kg), crushed and administered via gastrostomy tube, was added to the patient’s therapy. This therapy was effective in achieving targeted laboratory parameters in our patient despite instructions in the prescribing information that cinacalcet should always be taken whole.


Mechanisms Of Protein Stability In Lyophilized Samples, Yemin Xu Jan 2014

Mechanisms Of Protein Stability In Lyophilized Samples, Yemin Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Lyophilization is often the choice for therapeutic proteins when an aqueous formulation is not sufficiently stable to achieve the desired shelf life. Lyophilization incorporates molecules in rigid and inert glassy matrices by added excipients, where proteins generally exhibit slower degradation kinetics. Unfortunately, both physical and chemical degradations may still occur at unacceptable rates, and the factors that control the rates of these degradations are not well understood. There are a few properties often considered critical to the stability of proteins: a) the extent of native structural retention during lyophilization, b) the dynamic properties of the glassy matrix, c) phase separation ...


Quantification Of Factors Governing Drug Release Kinetics From Nanoparticles: A Combined Experimental And Mechanistic Modeling Approach, Kyle Daniel Fugit Jan 2014

Quantification Of Factors Governing Drug Release Kinetics From Nanoparticles: A Combined Experimental And Mechanistic Modeling Approach, Kyle Daniel Fugit

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Advancements in nanoparticle drug delivery of anticancer agents require mathematical models capable of predicting in vivo formulation performance from in vitro characterization studies. Such models must identify and incorporate the physicochemical properties of the therapeutic agent and nanoparticle driving in vivo drug release. This work identifies these factors for two nanoparticle formulations of anticancer agents using an approach which develops mechanistic mathematical models in conjunction with experimental studies.

A non-sink ultrafiltration method was developed to monitor liposomal release kinetics of the anticancer agent topotecan. Mathematical modeling allowed simultaneous determination of drug permeability and interfacial binding to the bilayer from release ...


Preparation Of Gold Nanoparticle-Cisplatin Conjugates And Investigation Of Their Toxicity In Zebrafish, Jasper Zee Williams Jan 2014

Preparation Of Gold Nanoparticle-Cisplatin Conjugates And Investigation Of Their Toxicity In Zebrafish, Jasper Zee Williams

Senior Projects Spring 2014

The chemotherapy drug cisplatin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers; however, it has a number of side effects, such as damage to hearing or balance functions of the ear defined as ototoxicity, that can limit its use. The goal of this study was to use larval zebrafish as an in vivo model to investigate whether conjugation to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) reduces cisplatin’s ototoxicity. AuNPs-cisplatin conjugates were synthesized using a seeded-growth approach, and the loading of cisplatin on the nanoparticles was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The conjugates synthesized were found to contain ...