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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 35

Full-Text Articles in Pharmaceutics and Drug Design

Nanotherapies For Treating Prostate Cancer, Michael Danquah Dec 2012

Nanotherapies For Treating Prostate Cancer, Michael Danquah

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Current prostate cancer treatment remains ineffective primarily due to ineffectual therapeutic strategies and numerous tumor-associated physiological barriers which hinder efficacy of anticancer agents. Therefore, the focus of this study was to investigate a new combination therapy approach for treating prostate cancer and develop polymeric nanocarriers to facilitate anticancer drug and nucleic acid delivery.

It was hypothesized that simultaneously targeting androgen-androgen receptor (AR) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) signaling pathways would be effective in treating prostate cancer. The effect of bicalutamide (antiandrogen) and embelin (XIAP inhibitor) on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was ...


Effect Of Compression Force On Agglomeration Of Micronized Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Techniques To Prevent Api Agglomeration During Compression, Suresh Potharaju Dec 2012

Effect Of Compression Force On Agglomeration Of Micronized Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Techniques To Prevent Api Agglomeration During Compression, Suresh Potharaju

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Micronization is one of the common processes for size reduction to increase surface area of poorly soluble Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient’s (API). This size reduction improves the dissolution rate and permeability thereby increasing the bioavailability for hydrophobic API’s.

Tablets and capsules are the most marketed and easy to manufacture solid dosage forms. During manufacturing of tablets, high compression forces are applied uniaxially on the powder bed to get a coherent consolidated compact with good tensile strength. So, diluents are required to mix with API’s and compress into tablets. When this mixture is compressed into tablets, there is a ...


Acetaminophen: Beyond Pain And Fever-Relieving, Eric Blough, Miaozong Wu Nov 2012

Acetaminophen: Beyond Pain And Fever-Relieving, Eric Blough, Miaozong Wu

Miaozong Wu

Acetaminophen, also known as APAP or paracetamol, is one of the most widely used analgesics (pain reliever) and antipyretics (fever reducer). According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, currently there are 235 approved prescription and over-the-counter drug products containing acetaminophen as an active ingredient. When used as directed, acetaminophen is very safe and effective; however when taken in excess or ingested with alcohol hepatotoxicity and irreversible liver damage can arise. In addition to well known use pain relief and fever reduction, recent laboratory and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that acetaminophen may also have beneficial effects on blood glucose ...


Development Of The Sustained Release Analgesic Formulations For Rodents And A Novel In Vitro Model For Parenteral Formulations With The Character Of A Level A Ivivc, Jin Xu Nov 2012

Development Of The Sustained Release Analgesic Formulations For Rodents And A Novel In Vitro Model For Parenteral Formulations With The Character Of A Level A Ivivc, Jin Xu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Laboratory animals are often subjected to various painful surgical procedures such as laparotomy, thoracotomy or orthopedic procedures as well as non-surgical procedures such as the induction of arthritis. Any procedure that causes pain in humans is assumed to cause pain in animals too. It is the ethical obligation of all research personnel to reduce or preferably eliminate pain and distress by using analgesics. Furthermore, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) requires that appropriate anesthetics and/or analgesics must be used to minimize or eliminate pain and distress for animals undergoing painful procedures.

The oral administration route is the ...


Anti-Cancer Drug Screening Of Dual Tubulin And Hsp27 Inhibitors With 2d And 3d Lung Cancer Cell Assays, Janine Maria Naim, Rati Lama Sep 2012

Anti-Cancer Drug Screening Of Dual Tubulin And Hsp27 Inhibitors With 2d And 3d Lung Cancer Cell Assays, Janine Maria Naim, Rati Lama

Undergraduate Research Posters 2012

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. The current treatment options available for lung cancer are limited and have drawbacks such as poor bioavailability, numerous side effects, poor efficacy and drug resistance. 3D model serve as a novel approach for drug screening purposes and the evaluation of compounds in the platform can help identify potent compounds for further in vivo xenograft studies.


Discovery Of Dihydroartemisinin And Dasatinib Drug Combination To Cure Pooroutcome Bcr-Abl+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Harpreet Singh Aug 2012

Discovery Of Dihydroartemisinin And Dasatinib Drug Combination To Cure Pooroutcome Bcr-Abl+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Harpreet Singh

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Oncogenic signaling by the Philadelphia chromosome-encoded BCR-ABL fusion kinase initiates and drives both Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- approved BCR-ABL-specific kinase inhibitors (BCR-ABL–KIs) imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib induce prolonged remissions in CML but poor leukemia-reduction and relapse-control in Ph+ ALL. The relative primary BCR-ABL–KI-resistance in Ph+ ALL patients carrying predominantly BCR-ABLWT disease cannot be attributed to drug-resistant BCR-ABL mutations (BCR-ABLMUTANTS), and remains poorly understood.

We established a cell-based platform to evaluate the modulation of anti-Ph+ ALL activity of drugs by both tumor-extrinsic cytokines normally present in ...


Investigation Of Enhancement Of Furosemide Solubilization With Cyclodextrins And A Novel Octenyl Succinate Anhydride Starch, Rui Zhu Aug 2012

Investigation Of Enhancement Of Furosemide Solubilization With Cyclodextrins And A Novel Octenyl Succinate Anhydride Starch, Rui Zhu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Solubility behavior is one of the most challenging aspects for drug commercialization and often the main reason of drug that do not reach to its full potential. Now nearly 60% new chemical entities possess solubility problems, whereas practically no drug products with less than 10 µg/ml solubility in 70’s or 80’s. There is an ever increasing need to develop new formulation techniques and exicipients with novel mechanisms of action. Various techniques have been applied to enhance the drug solubility such as co-solvents, particle size reduction, lipid based drug delivery systems, nanosuspension, use of surfactants, salt formation, cyclodextrin ...


Targeting Traf6 For Cancer Therapeutical Development, John K. Morrow Aug 2012

Targeting Traf6 For Cancer Therapeutical Development, John K. Morrow

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-Receptor Associated Factors (TRAFs) are a family of signal transducer proteins. TRAF6 is a unique member of this family in that it is involved in not only the TNF superfamily, but the toll-like receptor (TLR)/IL-1R (TIR) superfamily. The formation of the complex consisting of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (RANK), with its ligand (RANKL) results in the recruitment of TRAF6, which activates NF-κB, JNK and MAP kinase pathways. TRAF6 is critical in signaling with leading to release of various growth factors in bone, and promotes osteoclastogenesis. TRAF6 has also been implicated as an ...


Hydrodynamic Effects Of An Arch-Shaped Fiber Optic Probe In A Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2, Yiran Zhang May 2012

Hydrodynamic Effects Of An Arch-Shaped Fiber Optic Probe In A Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2, Yiran Zhang

Theses

Dissolution testing is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate newly developed drug formulations and as a quality control method to insure that solid dosage forms have consistent dissolution property. Typically, samples are manually drawn from the dissolution vessel prior to analysis. An approach to overcome the limitations of manual sampling consists in the use of sampling probes, such as fiber optic probes, permanently inserted in the dissolution medium and continually sampling the drug concentration in it as the solid dosage form dissolves. Despite their advantages, permanently inserted fiber optic probes can alter the normal fluid flow within the ...


P-Glycoprotein Functional Studies To Evaluate The Effect Of Cyclosporine Emulsion Formulations On Reversal Of Resistance In The Multidrug Resistant Cancer Cell Line Mes-Sa-Dx5, Katherine E. Cich May 2012

P-Glycoprotein Functional Studies To Evaluate The Effect Of Cyclosporine Emulsion Formulations On Reversal Of Resistance In The Multidrug Resistant Cancer Cell Line Mes-Sa-Dx5, Katherine E. Cich

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Background: The overexpression of an efflux protein, p-glycoprotein (P-gp), is a leading cause of multi drug resistance (MDR). This research project is based on designing emulsions containing optimal doses of cyclosporine (CyA) and Pluronic® P-85 (P85), two agents found to be effective in inhibiting P-gp. Study

Objective: To investigate whether CyA exposure affects the quantity or functionality of P-gp in vitro.

Methods: To study the functionality of P-gp, MDR cells were incubated with CyA solutions containing the P-gp substrate and fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123 (RI23). P-gp inhibition was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry, which indicates the accumulation of R123 inside the ...


Investigations Of Pharmacokinetic Challenges In Premature Infants, Yi Zhang May 2012

Investigations Of Pharmacokinetic Challenges In Premature Infants, Yi Zhang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Premature infants (gestational age less than 37 weeks) are considered a vulnerable patient population due to their immaturity at birth. Currently, off-label prescribing is common in younger pediatric populations, especially in premature neonates and infants, which is a primary group receiving intensive care. Unique pharmacokinetic (PK) challenges—such as limited blood volume and frequency of blood sample collections, rapid growth and continuous developmental changes, complexity of pediatric studies as well as scientific, practical, and ethical concerns— lead to the current lack of PK information and empirical dosing in premature neonates and infants. In this research, several approaches were investigated to ...


Development Of Co-Processed Plasticized Cellulose Acetate For Sustained Release Matrix Tablets, Yinqi Zhou May 2012

Development Of Co-Processed Plasticized Cellulose Acetate For Sustained Release Matrix Tablets, Yinqi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Cellulose Acetate (CA) is a polymer extensively used in pharmaceutical applications. Because of the hydrophobic nature and good film properties of CA, it is a good polymer candidate for sustained release matrix tablets. Sustained release matrix tablets of cellulose acetate can be prepared by direct compression or wet granulation methods. However, previous studies showed that a large amount of CA was required to achieve the desired sustained release profile for a sparingly soluble drug and it was difficult to formulate a highly water soluble drug by using CA as the retarding agent. Some studies concluded that CA is very sensitive ...


Preclinical Study Of Potential Antiglioma Novel Tetrahydroisoquinoline Analogs: Pharmacokinetics And Mechanism Of Action, Fei Ma May 2012

Preclinical Study Of Potential Antiglioma Novel Tetrahydroisoquinoline Analogs: Pharmacokinetics And Mechanism Of Action, Fei Ma

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Gliomas, the tumors of glial cells, account for 80% of primary malignant brain tumors. In 2011, there were about 18,300 new cases of maligant gliomas in the United States alone. Patients with glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma, the two major types of malignant gliomas, have a median survival of 14 months or 2 to 3 years, respectively. Therefore novel treatments for malignant glioma are urgently needed.

A novel series of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives with antiglioma activity has been undergoing drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics (DMPK)-guided lead optimization. EDL-291 was result from structure modification of last generation compound EDL-155. Its preclinical pharmacokinetics ...


The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Ms-275, Sensitizes Metastatic Osteosarcoma To Fasl-Induced Cell Death: A Role For C-Flip, Krithi R. Bindal May 2012

The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Ms-275, Sensitizes Metastatic Osteosarcoma To Fasl-Induced Cell Death: A Role For C-Flip, Krithi R. Bindal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, MS-275, on the Fas signaling pathway and susceptibility of osteosarcoma (OS) to Fas ligand (FasL)-induced cell death. OS metastasizes almost exclusively to the lungs. We have shown that Fas expression in OS cells is inversely correlated with their metastatic potential. Fas+ cells are rapidly eliminated when they enter the lungs via interaction with FasL, which is constitutively expressed in the lungs. Fas- OS cells escape this FasL-induced apoptosis and survive in the lung microenvironment. Moreover, upregulation of Fas in established OS lung metastases results ...


Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (Pk/Pd) Modeling Of Anti-Neoplastic Agents, Daniel Lexcen, Ahmed H. Salem, Walid F. Elkhatib, Virginia Haynes, Ayman Noreddin Apr 2012

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (Pk/Pd) Modeling Of Anti-Neoplastic Agents, Daniel Lexcen, Ahmed H. Salem, Walid F. Elkhatib, Virginia Haynes, Ayman Noreddin

Pharmacy Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Development of tumor resistance to chemotherapeutics is related to inherent tumor variations regarding sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and to sub-optimal dosing regimens, including variation in patient pharmacokinetics that result in suboptimal exposure of tumor cells to anti-neoplastic drugs [1, 2]. The rate and extent of drug efficacy depends on the extent of drug exposure at the tumor site and the time above the effective concentration [3]. In vitro models that incorporate these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) principles to optimize therapeutic response may be considered the method of choice for optimizing dosing schedules before translating data from static assays to animals ...


Application Of Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics (Pk/Pd) In Designing Effective Antibiotic Treatment Regimens, Ghada F. Ahmed, Ayman Noreddin Apr 2012

Application Of Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics (Pk/Pd) In Designing Effective Antibiotic Treatment Regimens, Ghada F. Ahmed, Ayman Noreddin

Pharmacy Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Designing antibiotic dosing regimens is often not optimal and the dose-response relationship for most antibiotics is not well-known1. Both Pharmacokinetics (PK) and Pharmacodynamics (PD) are characteristics of antimicrobial agents that should be considered in the development of effective antibiotic therapy. By linking the concentration time profile at the site of action to the drug effect (PK/PD), the effect of varying dosage regimens against pathogens could be simulated enabling the identification of effective dosage strategies. It is known that inadequate antibiotic dosing could not only lead to a therapeutic failure, but also to the development of bacterial resistance. Importantly, the ...


Doxorubicin Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System To Overcome Drug Resistance In Osteosarcoma, Michiro Susa, Arun K. Iyer, Keinosuke Ryu, Francis John Hornicek, Henry J. Mankin, Mansoor M. Amiji, Zhenfeng Duan Apr 2012

Doxorubicin Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System To Overcome Drug Resistance In Osteosarcoma, Michiro Susa, Arun K. Iyer, Keinosuke Ryu, Francis John Hornicek, Henry J. Mankin, Mansoor M. Amiji, Zhenfeng Duan

Arun Iyer

Background: Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated ...


Inhibition Of Abcb1 (Mdr1) Expression By An Sirna Nanoparticulate Delivery System To Overcome Drug Resistance In Osteosarcoma, Michiro Susa, Arun Iyer, Keinosuke Ryu, Edwin Choi, Francis Hornicek, Henry Mankin, Lara Milane, Mansoor Amiji, Zhenfeng Duan Apr 2012

Inhibition Of Abcb1 (Mdr1) Expression By An Sirna Nanoparticulate Delivery System To Overcome Drug Resistance In Osteosarcoma, Michiro Susa, Arun Iyer, Keinosuke Ryu, Edwin Choi, Francis Hornicek, Henry Mankin, Lara Milane, Mansoor Amiji, Zhenfeng Duan

Arun Iyer

Background: The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in treating osteosarcoma has improved patients’ average 5 year survival rate from 20% to 70% in the past 30 years. However, for patients who progress after chemotherapy, its effectiveness diminishes due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) after prolonged therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings: In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure resulting from MDR, we designed and evaluated a novel drug delivery system for MDR1 siRNA delivery. Novel biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles were used as the platform for MDR1 siRNA delivery; and the ...


Encapsulation And Controlled Release Of Rhu-Erythropoietin From Chitosan Biopolymer Nanoparticles, Cody Bulmer Apr 2012

Encapsulation And Controlled Release Of Rhu-Erythropoietin From Chitosan Biopolymer Nanoparticles, Cody Bulmer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this research project was to develop a drug delivery system for recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO), a glycoprotein hormone used in the treatment of renal anaemia and chemotherapy induced anaemia, using the biopolymer chitosan as the base component. Two types of chitosan nanoparticles were produced through ionotropic gelation using flush mixing with either tripolyphosphate (TPP) or carrageenan polymer. Chitosan-TPP and chitosan-carrageenan nanoparticles were generated under a variety of conditions to evaluate the effects of chitosan concentration, chitosan to anion mass ratio and solution pH on the nanoparticle characteristics of particle diameter, surface charge and particle size distribution. A ...


A Glycosylated Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Produced In A Novel Protein Production System (Avi-014) In Healthy Subjects: A First-In Human, Single Dose, Controlled Study., Roslyn Varki, Ed Pequignot, Mark C Leavitt, Andres Ferber, Walter K Kraft Mar 2012

A Glycosylated Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Produced In A Novel Protein Production System (Avi-014) In Healthy Subjects: A First-In Human, Single Dose, Controlled Study., Roslyn Varki, Ed Pequignot, Mark C Leavitt, Andres Ferber, Walter K Kraft

walter k Kraft

BACKGROUND: AVI-014 is an egg white-derived, recombinant, human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This healthy volunteer study is the first human investigation of AVI-014. METHODS: 24 male and female subjects received a single subcutaneous injection of AVI-014 at 4 or 8 mcg/kg. 16 control subjects received 4 or 8 mcg/kg of filgrastim (Neupogen, Amgen) in a partially blinded, parallel fashion. RESULTS: The Geometric Mean Ratio (GMR) (90% CI) of 4 mcg/kg AVI-014/filgrastim AUC(0-72 hr) was 1.00 (0.76, 1.31) and Cmax was 0.86 (0.66, 1.13). At the 8 mcg/kg dose ...


Inhibition Of Adhesion And Invasion Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa To Lung Epithelial Cells: A Model Of Cystic Fibrosis Infection, Ayman Noreddin, Ghada Sawy, Walid Elkhatib, Ehab Noreddin, Atef Shibl Mar 2012

Inhibition Of Adhesion And Invasion Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa To Lung Epithelial Cells: A Model Of Cystic Fibrosis Infection, Ayman Noreddin, Ghada Sawy, Walid Elkhatib, Ehab Noreddin, Atef Shibl

Pharmacy Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Over their life time, CF patients experience multiple infections by various pneumoniacausing bacteria [6]. With more patients surviving to adulthood, chronic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are coming to the forefront as a leading cause of death [7]. Problems presented by infected CF lung are multi-dimensional; the electrolyte balance and pH of the fluids are abnormal. The mucus is thick and of an alternative composition compared to normal lung and may contribute to colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa [2, 3, 5]. As such, research is multi-pronged and includes gene therapy to correct the defective protein, amelioration of inflammatory response and thinning of ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Human Phosphodiesterases (Pde) 5 Inhibitor Analogs As Trypanosomal Pde Inhibitors. 1. Sildenafil Analogs, Cuihua Wang, Trent D. Ashton, Alden Gustafson, Nicholas D. Bland, Stefan O. Ochiana, Robert K. Campbell, Michael P. Pollastri Feb 2012

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Human Phosphodiesterases (Pde) 5 Inhibitor Analogs As Trypanosomal Pde Inhibitors. 1. Sildenafil Analogs, Cuihua Wang, Trent D. Ashton, Alden Gustafson, Nicholas D. Bland, Stefan O. Ochiana, Robert K. Campbell, Michael P. Pollastri

Michael Pollastri

Parasitic diseases, such as African sleeping sickness, have a significant impact on the health and well-being in the poorest regions of the world. Pragmatic drug discovery efforts are needed to find new therapeutic agents. In this report we describe target repurposing efforts focused on trypanosomal phosphodiesterases. We outline the synthesis and biological evaluation of analogs of sildenafil (1), a human PDE5 inhibitor, for activities against trypanosomal PDEB1 (TbrPDEB1). We find that, while low potency analogs can be prepared, this chemical class is a sub-optimal starting point for further development of TbrPDE inhibitors.


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Human Phosphodiesterases (Pde) 5 Inhibitor Analogs As Trypanosomal Pde Inhibitors. 2. Tadalafil Analogs, Stefan O. Ochiana, Alden Gustafson, Nicholas D. Bland, Cuihua Wang, Michael J. Russo, Robert K. Campbell, Michael P. Pollastri Feb 2012

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Human Phosphodiesterases (Pde) 5 Inhibitor Analogs As Trypanosomal Pde Inhibitors. 2. Tadalafil Analogs, Stefan O. Ochiana, Alden Gustafson, Nicholas D. Bland, Cuihua Wang, Michael J. Russo, Robert K. Campbell, Michael P. Pollastri

Michael Pollastri

In this report we describe our ongoing target repurposing efforts focused on discovery of inhibitors of the essential trypanosomal phosphodiesterase TbrPDEB1. This enzyme has been implicated in virulence of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We outline the synthesis and biological evaluation of analogs of tadalafil, a human PDE5 inhibitor currently utilized for treatment of erectile dysfunction, and report that these analogs are weak inhibitors of TbrPDEB1.


Identification And Characterization Of Kava-Derived Compounds Mediating Tnf-Α Suppression, Michael P. Pollastri, Adrian Whitty, Jamie Cassidy Merrill, Trent D. Ashton, Salomon Amar Jan 2012

Identification And Characterization Of Kava-Derived Compounds Mediating Tnf-Α Suppression, Michael P. Pollastri, Adrian Whitty, Jamie Cassidy Merrill, Trent D. Ashton, Salomon Amar

Michael Pollastri

There is a substantial unmet need for new classes of drugs that block TNF-α-mediated inflammation, and particularly for small molecule agents that can be taken orally. We have screened a library of natural products against an assay measuring TNF-α secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells, seeking compounds capable of interfering with the TNF-α inducing transcription factor Lipopolysaccharide Induced TNF Alpha Factor (LITAF). Among the active compounds were several produced by the kava plant (Piper mysticum), extracts of which have previously been linked to a range of therapeutic effects. When tested in vivo, a representative of these compounds, kavain, was ...


The Challenge Of Developing Robust Drugs To Overcome Resistance, Celia Schiffer, Amy C. Anderson, Michael P. Pollastri, Norton P. Peet Jan 2012

The Challenge Of Developing Robust Drugs To Overcome Resistance, Celia Schiffer, Amy C. Anderson, Michael P. Pollastri, Norton P. Peet

Michael Pollastri

Drug resistance is problematic in microbial disease, viral disease and cancer. Understanding at the outset that resistance will impact the effectiveness of any new drug that is developed for these disease categories is imperative. In this Perspective, we detail approaches that have been taken with selected drug targets to reduce the susceptibility of new drugs to resistance mechanisms. We will also define the concepts of robust drugs and resilient targets, and discuss how the design of robust drugs and the selection of resilient targets may lead to successful strategies for combating resistance.


The Fit-Hansa Demonstrates Reliability And Convergent Validity Of Functional Performance In Patients With Shoulder Disorders, Prajyot Kumta, Joy C. Macdermid, Saurabh Mehta, Paul W. Stratford Jan 2012

The Fit-Hansa Demonstrates Reliability And Convergent Validity Of Functional Performance In Patients With Shoulder Disorders, Prajyot Kumta, Joy C. Macdermid, Saurabh Mehta, Paul W. Stratford

Physical Therapy Faculty Research

Study

DesignPsychometric study design.

Objectives

To assess the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the Functional Impairment Test-Hand and Neck/Shoulder/Arm (FIT-HaNSA) in patients with shoulder disorders.

Background

Performance tests that assess functional ability of patients with shoulder disorders can provide useful information for making clinical or return-to-activity decisions. No performance-based shoulder test has yet demonstrated sufficient relevance or clinical measurement properties. The FIT-HaNSA examines upper extremity performance during repetitive tasks that emphasize shoulder reaching and static postures and, therefore, has greater relevance for assessing performance.

Methods

Thirty-six patients with shoulder disorders and 65 healthy controls were recruited for ...


Simulating Molecular Mechanisms Of The Mdm2-Mediated Regulatory Interactions: A Conformational Selection Model Of The Mdm2 Lid Dynamics, Gennady M. Verkhivker Jan 2012

Simulating Molecular Mechanisms Of The Mdm2-Mediated Regulatory Interactions: A Conformational Selection Model Of The Mdm2 Lid Dynamics, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Diversity and complexity of MDM2 mechanisms govern its principal function as the cellular antagonist of the p53 tumor suppressor. Structural and biophysical studies have demonstrated that MDM2 binding could be regulated by the dynamics of a pseudo-substrate lid motif. However, these experiments and subsequent computational studies have produced conflicting mechanistic models of MDM2 function and dynamics. We propose a unifying conformational selection model that can reconcile experimental findings and reveal a fundamental role of the lid as a dynamic regulator of MDM2-mediated binding. In this work, structure, dynamics and energetics of apo-MDM2 are studied as a function of posttranslational modifications ...


Hepatic Immunosuppressive Effects Of Systemically- Administered Novel Dextran-Methylprednisolone Prodrugs With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Imam H. Shaik, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar Jan 2012

Hepatic Immunosuppressive Effects Of Systemically- Administered Novel Dextran-Methylprednisolone Prodrugs With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Imam H. Shaik, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The hepatic immunosuppressive activities of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP1) or five (DMP5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. At various times (02 weeks) after intravenous administration of single 5 mg/kg (MP equivalent) doses of each prodrug or MP succinate (MPS), livers were isolated and immunologically stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in the outlet perfusate were then quantitated to assess immune response. Additionally, the concentrations of DMP1, DMP5, and/or MP were measured in the liver. MPS, DMP5, or DMP1 injections caused a maximum ...


Bsa Nanoparticles For Sirna Delivery: Coating Effects On Nanoparticle Properties, Plasma Protein Adsorption, And In Vitro Sirna Delivery, Haran Yogasundaram, Markian Stephan Bahniuk, Harsh-Deep Singh, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Larry David Unsworth Jan 2012

Bsa Nanoparticles For Sirna Delivery: Coating Effects On Nanoparticle Properties, Plasma Protein Adsorption, And In Vitro Sirna Delivery, Haran Yogasundaram, Markian Stephan Bahniuk, Harsh-Deep Singh, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Larry David Unsworth

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Developing vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules, like siRNA, is an area of active research. Nanoparticles composed of bovine serum albumin, stabilized via the adsorption of poly-L-lysine (PLL), have been shown to be potentially inert drug-delivery vehicles. With the primary goal of reducing nonspecific protein adsorption, the effect of using comb-type structures of poly(ethylene glycol) (1 kDa, PEG) units conjugated to PLL (4.2 and 24 kDa) on BSA-NP properties, apparent siRNA release rate, cell viability, and cell uptake were evaluated. PEGylated PLL coatings resulted in NPs with ζ-potentials close to neutral. Incubation with platelet-poor plasma showed the ...


Confounding Issues In Estimation Of Patient-Specific Pharmacokinetic Parameters And Dosage Individualization Of Aminoglycosides, Reza Mehvar Jan 2012

Confounding Issues In Estimation Of Patient-Specific Pharmacokinetic Parameters And Dosage Individualization Of Aminoglycosides, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are usually administered by multiple short intravenous infusions at fixed intervals. Today, equations reported 35 years ago by Sawchuk and Zaske are still the cornerstone of methods used for determination of patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameters of aminoglycosides and individualization of drug dosage regimens in many clinical settings. Additionally, these methods are included in many clinical pharmacology curricula in pharmacy and other related fields. However, there are a few issues with regard to the application and/or modification of this method in clinical settings, which may result in some confusion among novice clinicians. For example, serum samples collected from different ...