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2011

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Pharmaceutics and Drug Design

Compound 49b: A Novel Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist In The Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Kimberly Williams-Guy Dec 2011

Compound 49b: A Novel Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist In The Treatment Of Diabetic Retinopathy, Kimberly Williams-Guy

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working Americans. While there are therapeutic regimens for the disease, more effective methods are needed. We have previously shown that a non-specific beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol, was effective in preventing functional and morphological changes associated with diabetic retinopathy in the rat. Isoproterenol also produced left ventricle remodeling suggesting it entered the systemic circulation. We therefore synthesized various novel beta-adrenergic receptor compounds and screened these compounds in vitro for their ability to reduce markers of inflammation and apoptosis. Of the various compounds tested, Compound 49b was able to reduce both inflammation and ...


Development And Evaluation Of Nano‑Scale Systems For Targeted Delivery To Treat Liver Fibrosis, Ningning Yang Dec 2011

Development And Evaluation Of Nano‑Scale Systems For Targeted Delivery To Treat Liver Fibrosis, Ningning Yang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Excessive deposition of ECM is the common characteristic of liver fibrosis. During hepatic fibrosis, various inflammatory cytokines are released and trigger the activation of quiescent HSCs. The activated HSCs play the major role in producing extra amount collagen. It becomes very crucial to focus on HSCs to find out therapeutics, such as inhibiting collagen synthesis, inhibiting activation to myofibroblasts, or controlling inflammation.

To control excessive collagen synthesis, one triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFO), was systemically administrated to prevent type I collagen mRNA transcription. To enhance circulation time and targeted delivery efficiency, TFO was conjugated to M6P‑HPMA and showed efficient targeted ...


Preclinical Pharmacology Of The Mdm2 Antagonist Nutlin-3a, Fan Zhang Dec 2011

Preclinical Pharmacology Of The Mdm2 Antagonist Nutlin-3a, Fan Zhang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Nutlin-3a is an MDM2-p53 interaction antagonist that is under investigation in preclinical models for a variety of pediatric malignancies, including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, leukemia, and rhabdomyosarcoma. In the current research, we conducted preclinical pharmacology studies of nutlin-3a to evaluate the synergistic effect of the nutlin-3a and topotecan combination on neuroblastoma cell growth, to assess the effect of nutlin-3a on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and to characterize the disposition of nutlin-3a in the mouse plasma and multiple tissues.

Activating the p53 pathway might offer a new therapy for neuroblastoma. In the first part of the study, we assessed the effect of ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation Of Na/K-Atpase Regulates Fibrosis And Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling, Jiang Liu, David J. Kennedy, Yanling Yan, Joseph I. Shapiro Md Nov 2011

Reactive Oxygen Species Modulation Of Na/K-Atpase Regulates Fibrosis And Renal Proximal Tubular Sodium Handling, Jiang Liu, David J. Kennedy, Yanling Yan, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

The Na/K-ATPase is the primary force regulating renal sodium handling and plays a key role in both ion homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Recently, cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling has been shown to regulate fibrosis, renal proximal tubule (RPT) sodium reabsorption, and experimental Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension in response to a high-salt diet. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important modulator of nephron ion transport. As there is limited knowledge regarding the role of ROS-mediated fibrosis and RPT sodium reabsorption through the Na/K-ATPase, the focus of this review is to examine the possible role of ROS in ...


Acetaminophen: Beyond Pain And Fever-Relieving, Eric R. Blough, Miaozong Wu Nov 2011

Acetaminophen: Beyond Pain And Fever-Relieving, Eric R. Blough, Miaozong Wu

MIIR Faculty Research

Acetaminophen, also known as APAP or paracetamol, is one of the most widely used analgesics (pain reliever) and antipyretics (fever reducer). According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, currently there are 235 approved prescription and over-the-counter drug products containing acetaminophen as an active ingredient. When used as directed, acetaminophen is very safe and effective; however when taken in excess or ingested with alcohol hepatotoxicity and irreversible liver damage can arise. In addition to well known use pain relief and fever reduction, recent laboratory and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that acetaminophen may also have beneficial effects on blood glucose ...


Therapeutic Efficacy And Safety Of Paclitaxel/Lonidamine Loaded Egfr-Targeted Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Multi-Drug Resistant Cancer, Lara S. Jabr-Milane, Zhenfeng Duan, Mansoor M. Amiji Oct 2011

Therapeutic Efficacy And Safety Of Paclitaxel/Lonidamine Loaded Egfr-Targeted Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Multi-Drug Resistant Cancer, Lara S. Jabr-Milane, Zhenfeng Duan, Mansoor M. Amiji

Mansoor M. Amiji

The treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer is a clinical challenge. Many MDR cells over-express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We exploit this expression through the development of EGFR-targeted, polymer blend nanocarriers for the treatment of MDR cancer using paclitaxel (a common chemotherapeutic agent) and lonidamine (an experimental drug; mitochondrial hexokinase 2 inhibitor). An orthotopic model of MDR human breast cancer was developed in nude mice and used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nanoparticle treatment. The efficacy parameters included tumor volume measurements from day 0 through 28 days post-treatment, terminal tumor weight measurements, tumor density and morphology assessment ...


Multi-Functional Nanocarriers To Overcome Tumor Drug Resistance, Lara S. Jabr-Milane, Lilian E. Van Vlerkin, Sunita Yadav, Mansoor M. Amiji Sep 2011

Multi-Functional Nanocarriers To Overcome Tumor Drug Resistance, Lara S. Jabr-Milane, Lilian E. Van Vlerkin, Sunita Yadav, Mansoor M. Amiji

Mansoor M. Amiji

The development of resistance to variety of chemotherapeutic agents is one of the major challenges in effective cancer treatment. Tumor cells are able to generate a multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype due to microenvironmental selection pressures. This review addresses the use of nanotechnology-based delivery systems to overcome MDR in solid tumors. Our own work along with evidence from the literature illustrates the development of various types of engineered nanocarriers specifically designed to enhance tumor-targeted delivery through passive and active targeting strategies. Additionally, multi-functional nanocarriers are developed to enhance drug delivery and overcome MDR by either simultaneous or sequential delivery of resistance ...


Lectin-Functionalized Carboxymethylated Kappa-Carrageenan Microparticles For Oral Insulin, Kok Hoong Leong Aug 2011

Lectin-Functionalized Carboxymethylated Kappa-Carrageenan Microparticles For Oral Insulin, Kok Hoong Leong

Kok Hoong Leong

We hypothesized that pH-responsive carboxymethylated kappa-carrageenan microparticles could protect entrapped oral insulin from acidic and proteolytic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize insulin entrapped in lectin-functionalized carboxymethylated kappa-carrageenan microparticles and to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The encapsulation of insulin was performed using an ionic gelation technique and was optimized to give an encapsulation efficiency of 94.2 ± 2.6% and a drug-loading capacity of 13.5 ± 0.4%. The microparticles were further surface-lectin-functionalized for improved intestinal mucoadhesiveness. The oral administration of insulin entrapped in the ...


A System Dynamics Model Of Pharmaceutical Opioids: Medical Use, Diversion, And Nonmedical Use, Teresa D. Schmidt, Wayne W. Wakeland, J. David Haddox Jul 2011

A System Dynamics Model Of Pharmaceutical Opioids: Medical Use, Diversion, And Nonmedical Use, Teresa D. Schmidt, Wayne W. Wakeland, J. David Haddox

Wayne W. Wakeland

Abstract: A dramatic rise in the nonmedical of pharmaceutical opioids has presented the United States with a substantial public health problem. Nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers has become increasingly prevalent in the US over the last two decades, and diversion of medicines obtained by prescription is assumed to be a major source of supply for nonmedical opioid use. Policymakers striving to protect population health by ameliorating the adverse outcomes of nonmedical use of opioid analgesics could benefit from a systems-level model which reflects the complexity of the system and incorporates the full range of available data. To address this ...


A System Dynamics Model Of Pharmaceutical Opioids: Medical Use, Diversion, And Nonmedical Use, Teresa Schmidt, Wayne Wakeland, J. David Haddox Jul 2011

A System Dynamics Model Of Pharmaceutical Opioids: Medical Use, Diversion, And Nonmedical Use, Teresa Schmidt, Wayne Wakeland, J. David Haddox

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

A dramatic rise in the nonmedical of pharmaceutical opioids has presented the United States with a substantial public health problem. Nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers has become increasingly prevalent in the US over the last two decades, and diversion of medicines obtained by prescription is assumed to be a major source of supply for nonmedical opioid use. Policymakers striving to protect population health by ameliorating the adverse outcomes of nonmedical use of opioid analgesics could benefit from a systems-level model which reflects the complexity of the system and incorporates the full range of available data. To address this need ...


Dissolution Of Disintegrating Solid Dosage Forms In A Modified Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2, Shrutiben Rameshbhai Parekh May 2011

Dissolution Of Disintegrating Solid Dosage Forms In A Modified Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2, Shrutiben Rameshbhai Parekh

Theses

Dissolution tests are routinely carried out in the pharmaceutical industry to determine the dissolution rate of solid dosage forms. Dissolution testing serves as a surrogate for drug bioavailability through in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVR), and it additionally helps in guiding the development of new formulations and in assessing lot-to-lot consistency, thus ensuring product quality. The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2 is the device most commonly used for this purpose. Despite its widespread use, dissolution testing using this apparatus remains susceptible to significant error and test failures. There is documented evidence that this apparatus is sensitive to ...


Transdermal And Transbuccal Delivery Of Lidocaine And Nicotine : Combined Effects Of Iontophoresis And Chemical Enhancers, Ran Wei May 2011

Transdermal And Transbuccal Delivery Of Lidocaine And Nicotine : Combined Effects Of Iontophoresis And Chemical Enhancers, Ran Wei

Theses

This study focused on the effects of iontophoresis and chemical enhancers on drug release. The transport of Lidocaine HCl (LHCl) and Nicotine Hydrogen Tartrate (NHT) through the skin and mucosa was evaluated for potential clinical applications. These two potential delivery routes have the advantage of avoiding first-pass effect. Samples were pretreated with enhancer solutions for one hour before the experiments. Passive or 0.3 mA iontophoresis-assisted drug diffusion was conducted for 8 hours to monitor the cumulative amount of drug released. Graphical methods and mathematical optimization techniques were implemented to analyze the data. The effects of chemical enhancers on the ...


Dissolution Testing Of Prednisone And Salicylic Acid Calibrator Tablets At Different Tablet Locations, Anandhavalavan Arulmozhi May 2011

Dissolution Testing Of Prednisone And Salicylic Acid Calibrator Tablets At Different Tablet Locations, Anandhavalavan Arulmozhi

Theses

Dissolution testing is routinely carried out in the pharmaceutical industry to determine the rate of dissolution of solid dosage forms. This test is one of the several tests that pharmaceutical companies typically conduct on oral dosage formulations (e.g., tablets) to determine compliance. The USP Dissolution Testing Apparatus 2 is the most common of the apparatuses listed in the USP. However, it has been shown previously that the dissolution profile of a tablet undergoing dissolution in the USP Dissolution Apparatus 2 can be affected by the tablet location in the apparatus.

In this work, the dissolution rates of both non-disintegrating ...


The Design And Synthesis Of Autotaxin Inhibitors And Analogs Of Lysophosphatidic Acid, Renuka Niranjan Gupte May 2011

The Design And Synthesis Of Autotaxin Inhibitors And Analogs Of Lysophosphatidic Acid, Renuka Niranjan Gupte

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring bioactive phospholipid. It has a wide array of biological effects like cell proliferation, survival, migration, apoptosis invasion, wound healing and angiogenesis. Autotaxin (ATX) was identified as an autocrine tumor cell motility factor from A2058 melanoma conditioned medium. ATX has lysophospholipase D enzyme activity and is responsible for the cleavage of lysophophatidylcholine (LPC) leading to the generation of LPA. Antagonists of Autotaxin would have a potential therapeutic application in cancer research. Chapter 1 is an introduction of LPA and autotaxin. It provides the background and significance of the research. Chapter 2 explores the synthesis ...


Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Studies Of A Novel Spectinamide Series Of Antituberculosis Agents, V. N. R. Pavan Kumar Vaddady May 2011

Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Studies Of A Novel Spectinamide Series Of Antituberculosis Agents, V. N. R. Pavan Kumar Vaddady

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Spectinamides are novel amide derivatives of the antibiotic spectinomycin that have emerged as a new class of agents to treat tuberculosis. These agents showed potent in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) compared to spectinomycin and in a preliminary in vivo study in interferon gamma (IFN‑γ) knockout mice, spectinamide Lee1329 reduced the lung bacillary load of TB comparable to streptomycin. We hypothesized that the application of an iterative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) guided approach would facilitate the optimization of these lead compounds suitable for further development.

A series of in vitro experiments including parallel artificial membrane permeability assay ...


Rna Interference For Improving The Outcome Of Islet Transplantation And Polymeric Micelle‑Based Nanomedicine For Cancer Therapy, Feng Li May 2011

Rna Interference For Improving The Outcome Of Islet Transplantation And Polymeric Micelle‑Based Nanomedicine For Cancer Therapy, Feng Li

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Ex vivo gene transfer has been used to improve the outcome of islet transplantation for treating type I diabetes. RNA interference is an effective approach for reducing gene expressions at the mRNA level. The application of RNA interference to improve the outcome of islet transplantation was reviewed in Chapter 2, where I summarized biological obstacles to islet transplantation, various types of RNAi techniques, combinatorial RNAi in islet transplantation, and different delivery strategies.

Upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent product of radical nitric oxide (NO) impair islet β cell function. Therefore, we hypothesized that iNOS gene silencing could ...


Antispasmodic And Ca++ Antagonist Potential Of Marrubiin, A Labdane Type Diterpene From Phlomis Bracteosa, Javid Hussain, Riaz Ullah, Arif-Ullah Khan, Fazal Mabood, Mohammad Raza Shah, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Anwar Gilani Jan 2011

Antispasmodic And Ca++ Antagonist Potential Of Marrubiin, A Labdane Type Diterpene From Phlomis Bracteosa, Javid Hussain, Riaz Ullah, Arif-Ullah Khan, Fazal Mabood, Mohammad Raza Shah, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Anwar Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

A tricyclic labdane type diterpene was isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate soluble part of Phlomis bracteosa. Its structure was confirmed by x-ray which was found to be marrubiin. When studied in isolated rabbit jejunum, marrubiin caused concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions, like that caused by verapamil, indicating that marrubiin exhibits spasmolytic activity, possibly mediated through Ca++ channel blocking action.


Constructing A Critical Path For Product Development, Commercialization, And Access, Martha Brady Jan 2011

Constructing A Critical Path For Product Development, Commercialization, And Access, Martha Brady

HIV and AIDS

This brief discusses the Council's health technologies development and the product development path from conceptualization to market. It defines the steps in the Critical Path Framework, and examines activities at the preclinical and clinical stage.


Day Of Dialogue On Multipurpose Prevention Technologies: Toward Clarity In Nomenclature, Martha Brady, C. Elizabeth Mcgrory Jan 2011

Day Of Dialogue On Multipurpose Prevention Technologies: Toward Clarity In Nomenclature, Martha Brady, C. Elizabeth Mcgrory

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The report summarizes a half-day meeting convened by the Population Council to clarify the wide variety of nomenclature and concepts associated with multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs). The first section outlines where different types of products are reviewed within the FDA and existing processes that could be applied to MPTs. This is followed by a section that reviews what guidance exists and what else may be needed for review of products like MPTs that address two (or more) indications, including those with a single active, two actives, and multiple components. This meeting identified some of the specific opportunities and challenges for ...