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Full-Text Articles in Pharmaceutics and Drug Design

Ultra-Fine Particle Formation Using Principle Of Rapid Expansion Of Supercritical Solutions`, Miraj Minesh Sheth Dec 2007

Ultra-Fine Particle Formation Using Principle Of Rapid Expansion Of Supercritical Solutions`, Miraj Minesh Sheth

Theses

There are indications in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries that the reduction in size of a crystalline particle can lead to better performance of the drug compound, particularly for water insoluble drugs, in the final dosage form. Many particle formation techniques have been investigated in recent years by researchers to obtain desired particulate sizes and size distributions. Supercritical fluid technologies have been successfully investigated for particle formation due to its unique gas/liquid properties in the supereritical state. In this report, results of particle formation using the principles of Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS) have been documented.

In the ...


Development And Evaluation Of Brain Tumor Targeted Liposome Delivery System For Paclitaxel, Murali Krishna Divi Dec 2007

Development And Evaluation Of Brain Tumor Targeted Liposome Delivery System For Paclitaxel, Murali Krishna Divi

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Primary brain tumors are a relatively common cause of cancer-related deaths. High-grade gliomas are the most common type of primary brain cancer, and the affected patients have a median survival of less than 1 year. Almost all malignant gliomas are incurable with the present standards of healthcare. Currently accepted therapeutic adjuvants to surgery, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, provide only a minor improvement in the disease course and life expectancy for patients diagnosed with malignant gliomas. Often, chemotherapy has failed to make any significant impact on the prognosis of disease because of significant local and systemic toxicity, problems with transport ...


The Role Of Multi-Drug Resistance Associated Protein 4 And P-Glycoprotein In Resistance Of Neuroblastoma To Topotecan And Irinotecan, Patricia Kellie Turner Dec 2007

The Role Of Multi-Drug Resistance Associated Protein 4 And P-Glycoprotein In Resistance Of Neuroblastoma To Topotecan And Irinotecan, Patricia Kellie Turner

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

High-risk neuroblastoma presents a significant therapeutic challenge because the 5-year survival rate remains less than 30% despite the use of surgery, multi-agent chemotherapy, radiation, and autologous bone marrow transplant. Novel therapeutic modalities are under development. The camptothecin analogs topotecan and irinotecan have been identified as successful cytotoxic agents. For topotecan, pharmacokinetically guided dosing to achieve a systemic exposure associated with preclinical anti-tumor activity in neuroblastoma xenograft models is feasible and has elicited favorable responses in children with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, some children with high-risk disease did not respond to the putatively effective topotecan systemic exposure. These children represent a subset ...


Synthesis Of Novel Sulfonamide-Based Calpain Inhibitors And Their Potential As Anti-Tumor Agents, Jin Xu Dec 2007

Synthesis Of Novel Sulfonamide-Based Calpain Inhibitors And Their Potential As Anti-Tumor Agents, Jin Xu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Calpain is a class of intracellular cytoplasmic cysteine proteases.1 The enzyme participates in different intracellular signaling pathways that are mediated by Ca2+.2 The two major isoforms of calpain universally distributed in most mammalian tissues are calpain 1 (µ-calpain) and calpain 2 (m-calpain). The exact in vivo function of the enzyme is not clear, but calpain has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions,3 such as cancer, stroke, cardiac ischaemia, muscular dystrophy, cataract and Alzheimer’s disease. Calpain inhibitors are therefore of interest as therapeutic agents and as biomedical tools.

Several potent calpain inhibitors isolated ...


Characterization Of A 30s Ribsomal Subunit Intermediate Found In Escherichia Coli Cells Growing With Neomycin And Paromomycin., Cerrone Renee Foster Aug 2007

Characterization Of A 30s Ribsomal Subunit Intermediate Found In Escherichia Coli Cells Growing With Neomycin And Paromomycin., Cerrone Renee Foster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The bacterial ribosome is a target for inhibition by numerous antibiotics. Neomycin and paromomycin are aminoglycoside antibiotics that specifically stimulate the misreading of mRNA by binding to the decoding site of 16S rRNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit. Recent work has shown that both antibiotics also inhibit 30S subunit assembly in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus cells. This work describes the characteristics of an assembly intermediate produced in E.coli cells grown with neomycin or paromomycin. Antibiotic treatment stimulated the accumulation of a 30S assembly precursor with a sedimentation coefficient of 21S. The particle was able to bind radio labeled ...


Novel Carbopol-Wax Blends For Controlled Release Oral Dosage Forms, Natarajansoundarapandian Mariageraldrajan May 2007

Novel Carbopol-Wax Blends For Controlled Release Oral Dosage Forms, Natarajansoundarapandian Mariageraldrajan

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Carbopol is crosslinked acrylic acid. Carbopol can be used in developing formulations for transdermal, oral, rectal use. It is forms strong gel in low concentration. Therefore, it can be used in low concentration in developing controlled release formulations. This increases the cost effectiveness and number of formulation options. In spite of its effectiveness, carbopol is one of the most efficient however underutilized polymer in oral controlled drug delivery system development. This is attributed to the difficulty in processing the carbopol. Carbopol has poor flow characteristics and stickiness. Objective of our research is to eliminate processing difficulties of carbopol using hot ...


Effect Of Standard Treatment Guidelines With Or Without Prescription Audit On Prescribing For Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (Ari) And Diarrhoea In Some Thana Health Complexes (Thcs) Of Bangladesh, M. O. Faruk Khan, A.K. Azad Chowdhury, M. A. Matin, K. Begum, M. A. Galib Apr 2007

Effect Of Standard Treatment Guidelines With Or Without Prescription Audit On Prescribing For Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (Ari) And Diarrhoea In Some Thana Health Complexes (Thcs) Of Bangladesh, M. O. Faruk Khan, A.K. Azad Chowdhury, M. A. Matin, K. Begum, M. A. Galib

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

Inappropriate prescribing for ARI and diarrhoea is a serious health problem in many developing countries including Bangladesh. A baseline retrospective prescribing survey for ARI and diarrhoea have been conducted in randomly selected 60 thana health complexes (THCs) of Dhaka division of Bangladesh. In the 38 of 60 THCs, the prescribers did not comply with the standard treatment guidelines (STG) for ARI. They are marked as 'unsatisfactory performers'. In these THCs unnecessary antibiotics were prescribed in more than 50% of the encounters. The study further revealed that in 26 THCs, comprising 41.6% of the 38 THCs, the situation was even ...


Trypanothione Reductase: A Viable Chemotherapeutic Target For Antitrypanosomal And Antileishmanial Drug Design, M. O. Faruk Khan Jan 2007

Trypanothione Reductase: A Viable Chemotherapeutic Target For Antitrypanosomal And Antileishmanial Drug Design, M. O. Faruk Khan

Pharmaceutical Science and Research

Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are two debilitating disease groups caused by parasites of Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. and affecting millions of people worldwide. A brief outline of the potential targets for rational drug design against these diseases are presented, with an emphasis placed on the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Trypanothione reductase was identified as unique to parasites and proposed to be an effective target against trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. The biochemical basis of selecting this enzyme as a target, with reference to the simile and contrast to human analogous enzyme glutathione reductase, and the structural aspects of its active site are presented. The ...