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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Pharmaceutics and Drug Design

Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag Sep 2019

Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Chemical Epitope Targeting is a novel technology developed for designing peptide ligands with high affinity and specificity against specific regions of a protein that may be inaccessible to small molecules or antibodies. In this review, we summarize the key steps and significant applications of this technology. Operating on the same principles as antibody-antigen interactions, this technique involves chemically synthesizing the region of interest on the protein, called the epitope, as a polypeptide with a biotin detection tag and a strategically placed alkyne or azide presenting amino acid. The constructed epitope is screened against a comprehensive linear or cyclic One Bead ...


Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent May 2019

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the development of a novel lectin-Fc fusion protein and its antiviral and anti-cancer activity. The molecule, Avaren-Fc (AvFc), is a fusion of a variant of the actinomycete lectin actinohivin (Avaren) and the Fc region of human IgG1, and is selective for the terminal α1,2-mannose residues found at the ends of high-mannose-type glycans that can be found on the surface of certain heavily glycosylated viruses and cancer cells. Here, AvFc was found to be able to neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus as well as Hepatitis C virus with nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, AvFc recognizes a number of ...


Discovery And Effects Of Pharmacological Inhibition Of The E3 Ligase Skp2 By Small Molecule Protein-Protein Interaction Disruptors, John K. Morrow Apr 2018

Discovery And Effects Of Pharmacological Inhibition Of The E3 Ligase Skp2 By Small Molecule Protein-Protein Interaction Disruptors, John K. Morrow

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Skp2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2), one component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, directly interacts with Skp1 and indirectly associates with Cullin1 and Rbx1 to bridge the E2 conjugating enzyme with its protein substrate to execute its E3 ligase activity. Skp2 is an Fbox protein (due to it containing an Fbox domain) and it is the rate-limiting component of the SCF complex. Skp2 targets several cell-cycle regulatory proteins for ubiquitination and degradation; most notable and significant for cancer are the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. Skp2 is an oncogene and studies have shown that over-expression of Skp2 leads to increased ...


Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury Jul 2017

Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions ofmenthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating thatmenthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at ...


Benzylideneoxymorphone: A New Lead For Development Of Bifunctional Mu/Delta Opioid Receptor Ligands, Jason R. Healy, Padmavani Bezawada, Nicholas W. Griggs, Andrea L. Devereaux, Rae Reiko Matsumoto, John R. Traynor, Christopher W. Cunningham Jan 2017

Benzylideneoxymorphone: A New Lead For Development Of Bifunctional Mu/Delta Opioid Receptor Ligands, Jason R. Healy, Padmavani Bezawada, Nicholas W. Griggs, Andrea L. Devereaux, Rae Reiko Matsumoto, John R. Traynor, Christopher W. Cunningham

College of Pharmacy (TUC) Publications and Research

Opioid analgesic tolerance remains a considerable drawback to chronic pain management. The finding that concomitant administration of delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonists attenuates the development of tolerance to mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists has led to interest in producing bifunctional MOR agonist/DOR antagonist ligands. Herein, we present 7-benzylideneoxymorphone (6, UMB 246) displaying MOR partial agonist/DOR antagonist activity, representing a new lead for designing bifunctional MOR/DOR ligands.


Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez May 2016

Hiv Vaccines: Progress, Limitations And A Crispr/Cas9 Vaccine, Omar A. Garcia Martinez

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 pandemic continues to thrive due to ineffective HIV-1 vaccines. Historically, the world’s most infectious diseases, such as polio and smallpox, have been eradicated or have come close to eradication due to the advent of effective vaccines. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is able to delay the onset of AIDS but can neither rid the body of HIV-1 proviral DNA nor prevent further transmission. A prophylactic vaccine that prevents the various mechanisms HIV-1 has to evade and attack our immune system is needed to end the HIV-1 pandemic. Recent advances in engineered nuclease systems, like the CRISPR/Cas9 ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel May 2016

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Computational Modeling Of Rna-Small Molecule And Rna-Protein Interactions, Lu Chen Aug 2015

Computational Modeling Of Rna-Small Molecule And Rna-Protein Interactions, Lu Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The past decade has witnessed an era of RNA biology; despite the considerable discoveries nowadays, challenges still remain when one aims to screen RNA-interacting small molecule or RNA-interacting protein. These challenges imply an immediate need for cost-efficient while predictive computational tools capable of generating insightful hypotheses to discover novel RNA-interacting small molecule or RNA-interacting protein. Thus, we implemented novel computational models in this dissertation to predict RNA-ligand interactions (Chapter 1) and RNA-protein interactions (Chapter 2).

Targeting RNA has not garnered comparable interest as protein, and is restricted by lack of computational tools for structure-based drug design. To test the potential ...


Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen Jan 2015

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most ...


The Efficacy And Specificity Of Gold Nanoparticles As Antibiotics For Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Nicole Osbaugh Jan 2015

The Efficacy And Specificity Of Gold Nanoparticles As Antibiotics For Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Nicole Osbaugh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared antibiotic resistance a serious health threat to the global community. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have become particularly problematic, as very few new classes of small-molecule antibiotics for Gram-negative bacteria have emerged in recent decades. The Feldheim Lab has developed a combinatorial screening process for identifying mixed-ligand monolayer gold nanoparticle conjugates with antibiotic activity. The gold nanoparticle conjugates have been found to be highly active against E. coli. The bacteria develop resistance to the nanoparticles at a significantly slower rate than commercially available small-molecule drugs.

The Feldheim Research Team ...


Synthesis And Application Of The Doxaz-Marcks Prodrug, Alla Balabanova Jan 2015

Synthesis And Application Of The Doxaz-Marcks Prodrug, Alla Balabanova

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chemotherapeutic prodrugs have demonstrated success in killing cancer cells; however they also pose harm to healthy cells. The objective of this project was to synthesize an improved prodrug that is selectively activated only in the cancer microenvironment, thus minimally affecting healthy tissue. A photolabile linker was hypothesized to achieve said objective. The Yin group discovered that the MARCKS-ED peptide can localize to the exosome via curvature sensing and electrostatic interactions. In addition, the Koch group determined that Doxazolidine (Doxaz) is more cytotoxic than its clinical drug precursor. Also, no cancer cell lines have shown resistance to this anthracycline. Based on ...


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres Jan 2014

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...


Simultaneous Bactericidal And Osteogenic Effect Of Nanoparticulate Calcium Phosphate Powders Loaded With Clindamycin On Osteoblasts Infected With Staphylococcus Aureus, Vuk Uskoković, Tejal A. Dasai Jan 2014

Simultaneous Bactericidal And Osteogenic Effect Of Nanoparticulate Calcium Phosphate Powders Loaded With Clindamycin On Osteoblasts Infected With Staphylococcus Aureus, Vuk Uskoković, Tejal A. Dasai

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

S aureus internalized by bone cells and shielded from the immune system provides a reservoir of bacteria in recurring osteomyelitis. Its targeting by the antibiotic therapy may thus be more relevant for treating chronic bone infection than eliminating only the pathogens colonizing the bone matrix. Assessed was the combined osteogenic and antibacterial effect of clindamycinloaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles of different monophasic compositions on co-cultures comprising osteoblasts infected with S aureus. Antibiotic-carrying particles were internalized by osteoblasts and minimized the concentration of intracellular bacteria. In vitro treatments of the infected cells, however, could not prevent cell necrosis due to the formation ...


Rescuing Acetylcholinesterase From Nerve Agent Inhibition: Protein Dynamics Driven Drug Discovery, Aiyana M. Emigh, Brian Bennion Jan 2013

Rescuing Acetylcholinesterase From Nerve Agent Inhibition: Protein Dynamics Driven Drug Discovery, Aiyana M. Emigh, Brian Bennion

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Severe morbidity and mortality consequences result from irreversible inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by organophosphates (OPs). Oxime-based reactivators are currently the only available treatments but lack efficacy in the central nervous system (CNS) where the most damage occurs. Computational docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveal complex structural barriers that may reduce oxime efficacy. These results may guide future drug designs of more effective countermeasures.


Towards Elucidation Of A Viral Dna Packaging Motor, Chad T. Schwartz Jan 2013

Towards Elucidation Of A Viral Dna Packaging Motor, Chad T. Schwartz

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Previously, gp16, the ATPase protein of phi29 DNA packaging motor, was an enigma due to its tendency to form multiple oligomeric states. Recently we employed new methodologies to decipher both its stoichiometry and also the mechanism in which the protein functions to hydrolyze ATP and provide the driving force for DNA packaging. The oligomeric states were determined by biochemical and biophysical approaches. Contrary to many reported intriguing models of viral DNA packaging, it was found that phi29 DNA packaging motor permits the translocation of DNA unidirectionally and driven cooperatively by three rings of defined shape. The mechanism for the generation ...


Phase Composition Control Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles For Tunable Drug Delivery Kinetics And Treatment Of Osteomyelitis. Part 2: Antibacterial And Osteoblastic Response, Vuk Uskoković, Tejal A. Dasai Jan 2013

Phase Composition Control Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles For Tunable Drug Delivery Kinetics And Treatment Of Osteomyelitis. Part 2: Antibacterial And Osteoblastic Response, Vuk Uskoković, Tejal A. Dasai

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Osteomyelitis has been traditionally treated by the combination of long-term antibiotic therapies and surgical removal of diseased tissue. The multifunctional material was developed in this study with the aim to improve this therapeutic approach by: (a) enabling locally delivered and sustained release of antibiotics at a tunable rate, so as to eliminate the need for repetitive administration of systemically distributed antibiotics; and (b) controllably dissolving itself, so as to promote natural remineralization of the portion of bone lost to disease. We report hereby on the effect of the previously synthesized calcium phosphates (CAPs) with tunable solubilities and drug release time ...


Nanoparticles Of Cobalt-Substituted Hydroxyapatite In Regeneration Of Mandibular Osteoporotic Bones, Nenad Ignjatović, Zorica Ajduković, Vojin Savić, Stevo Najman, Dragan Mihailović, Perica Vasilijević, Zoran Stojanović, Vuk Uskoković, Dragab Uskoković Jan 2013

Nanoparticles Of Cobalt-Substituted Hydroxyapatite In Regeneration Of Mandibular Osteoporotic Bones, Nenad Ignjatović, Zorica Ajduković, Vojin Savić, Stevo Najman, Dragan Mihailović, Perica Vasilijević, Zoran Stojanović, Vuk Uskoković, Dragab Uskoković

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Indications exist that paramagnetic calcium phosphates may be able to promote regeneration of bone faster than their regular, diamagnetic counterparts. In this study, analyzed was the influence of paramagnetic cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osteoporotic alveolar bone regeneration in rats. Simultaneously, biocompatibility of the material was tested in vitro, on osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 and epithelial Caco-2 cells in culture. The material was shown to be biocompatible and nontoxic when added to epithelial monolayers in vitro, while it caused a substantial decrease in the cell viability as well as deformation of the cytoskeleton and cell morphology when incubated with the osteoblastic cells. In ...