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Full-Text Articles in Dentistry

The Role Of Il-6 In Osteogenic And Neurogenic Differentiation Potentials Of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (Dpscs), Yongtae Park, Xiaoxing Kou, Songtao Shi Jun 2019

The Role Of Il-6 In Osteogenic And Neurogenic Differentiation Potentials Of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (Dpscs), Yongtae Park, Xiaoxing Kou, Songtao Shi

Dental Theses

Introduction: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic soluble mediator which is involved with many different parts of inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that there is a significantly higher concentration of IL-6 in inflamed pulp tissues when compared to healthy pulp tissues. However, there are no comprehensive studies on how IL-6 can interact with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from healthy (H-DPSCs) and inflamed pulp tissues (I-DPSCs) and how it can affect the differentiation potential of DPSCs. Therefore, I hypothesized that IL-6 can promote osteogenesis while inhibiting neurogenesis from DPSCs. The aims of this study were to investigate the baseline differences ...


Craniofacial Growth Of Untreated Children: A Longitudinal Cbct Study, Leah S. Yi Jun 2019

Craniofacial Growth Of Untreated Children: A Longitudinal Cbct Study, Leah S. Yi

Dental Theses

Objectives: To conduct a longitudinal study of growth in untreated patients using CBCT. Materials and Methods: CBCT images were obtained for eleven male children (mean age 8.8 years at T1, 11.8 years at T2) and eighteen females (mean age 9.1 years at T1, 10.8 years at T2) and had been taken at least 1 year apart. A non-magnified 2D lateral cephalogram was derived from each CBCT image and superimposed to evaluate sagittal and vertical growth. The transverse widths of various skeletal areas (anterior and posterior nasal cavity, infra orbital foramina, infrazygomatic, mental foramina, Gonion, Antegonion, condyle ...


The Role Of Mrgprx2/Mrgprb2 In Regulating Mast Cell Function, Ibrahim S. Alkanfari Jun 2019

The Role Of Mrgprx2/Mrgprb2 In Regulating Mast Cell Function, Ibrahim S. Alkanfari

Dental Theses

Mast"cells"(MCs)"are"derived"from"bone"marrow"pluripotent"hematopoietic" stem" cells" and" are" located" in" close" proximity" to" the" external" environment." MCs" expresses"several"receptors"on"their"surface"such"as"the"high"affinity"IgE"receptor" (Fc!RI)"and"G"ProteinECoupled"Receptors"(GPCRs)."MRGPRX2"is"a"GPCR,"which" consists"of"seven"transmembrane"domains"and"is"expressed"exclusively"in"MCs" but" no" other" immune" cells." This" receptor" is" activated" by" multiple" amphipathic" ligands" including" neuropeptides," US" Food" and" Drug" Administration" (FDA)E approved"peptidergic"drugs"and"host"defense"peptides"such"as"LL_37."HDPs"also" known" as" antimicrobial" peptides" (AMPs)" have" been ...


Validity Of Self-Perceived And Clinically Diagnosed Gingival Status Among 12–15-Year-Old Children In Indonesia, Robbykha Rosalien, Frida Avianing Isnanda Saragih, Ary Agustanti, Febriana Setiawati, Diah Ayu Maharani Jun 2019

Validity Of Self-Perceived And Clinically Diagnosed Gingival Status Among 12–15-Year-Old Children In Indonesia, Robbykha Rosalien, Frida Avianing Isnanda Saragih, Ary Agustanti, Febriana Setiawati, Diah Ayu Maharani

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

A few studies have revealed the self-perceived gingival status using questionnaires among children. Perceived health is a crucial factor that has an impact on quality of life. The objective of the study was to assess self-perceived and clinically diagnosed gingival status among children in Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study of 494 schoolchildren (aged 12–15 years). Periodontal status was recorded using the gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) based on the World Health Organization standards. Data were collected through a brief visual, noninvasive clinical oral examination and a self-administered questionnaire. The sensitivity and specificity of self-perceived assessment were ...


The Mechanism Kshv Plays In Mesenchymal To Endothelial Transition In Kaposi Sarcoma, Sausan Alfaris Jun 2019

The Mechanism Kshv Plays In Mesenchymal To Endothelial Transition In Kaposi Sarcoma, Sausan Alfaris

Dental Theses

To gain a better understanding of the tumorigenesis of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) it is essential to understand the role KSHV plays in the mesenchymal-to endothelial transition (MEndT). PROX1 in human related cancers can act as a transcriptional repressor or activator that leads to several effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation1-3. PROX1 upregulation may play a significant role in the MEndT and in turn effect the tumorigenesis of KS. This study was conducted to evaluate if PROX1 is upregulated by KSHV. To test this, human GMSCs and human PDLSCs were used, as well as 293T cells. They were transfected at ...


Oral Rapid Hiv Testing In The Dental Setting: Experiences From Three Dental Hygiene Clinics, Anthony J. Santella, Susan H. Davide, Hanna Horowitz, Bhuma Krishnamachari, Petal Leuwaisee Jun 2019

Oral Rapid Hiv Testing In The Dental Setting: Experiences From Three Dental Hygiene Clinics, Anthony J. Santella, Susan H. Davide, Hanna Horowitz, Bhuma Krishnamachari, Petal Leuwaisee

Publications and Research

Background: Oral rapid HIV testing (ORHT) is implemented in the dental setting to make individuals aware of their possibly undiagnosed HIV infection. The testing process and characteristics of clients willing to receive ORHT has yet, however, to be systematically collected. Case description: Three dental hygiene clinics located in academic institutions implemented ORHT from March 2016 to April 2017. Results: 231 persons received ORHT; all had non-reactive results. Most had seen a primary care provider in the past year (n = 130), had had a previous ORHT (n = 111), and described themselves as extremely likely or likely to accept a chairside screening ...


In-Vitro Comparative Evaluation Of The Physical Properties Of Three Dimensional-Printed And Milled High Performance Ceramics, Laura Torrecillas-Martinez May 2019

In-Vitro Comparative Evaluation Of The Physical Properties Of Three Dimensional-Printed And Milled High Performance Ceramics, Laura Torrecillas-Martinez

Dental Theses

Aim: to investigate the potential role of 3D printing to produce zirconia

restorations and to assess the mechanical properties of the 3D printed zirconia.

Hypotheses: 1) The flexural strength of 3D printed yttria-stabilized zirconia is comparable or superior to milled yttria-stabilized, isostatic pressed zirconia, and 2) thermocycling and chewing simulation does not affect the flexural strength of 3D printed yttria-stabilized zirconia.

Material and methods: 30 bars of printed yttria-stabilized zirconia and 10 bars of milled yttria-stabilized, isostatic pressed zirconia were utilized in this study. Printed zirconia bars were divided in 3 groups (10 bars per group): untreated, thermocycling and chewing ...


The Role 18f-Fdg And 18f-Naf Pet/Ct In Assessment Of Temporomandibular Joint Metabolic Activity In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Abdulrahman A. Aseri May 2019

The Role 18f-Fdg And 18f-Naf Pet/Ct In Assessment Of Temporomandibular Joint Metabolic Activity In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Abdulrahman A. Aseri

Dental Theses

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF)PET/CT for assessing the status of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with healthy (non-RA) individuals.

Method:

Eighteen patients diagnosed with RA (mean age 55±12.1years: 4 females and 14 males) were included in the test group. Eighteen age-, sex- and race-matched healthy control subjects were selected from the CAMONA clinical trial. PET/CT images were acquired 180-minute post-intravenous administration of FDG and NaF (2.2 MBq/kg). For FDG analysis, regions of interest ...


The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid May 2019

The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid

Master's Theses

Cleft Lip/Palate, a congenital orofacial anomaly, carries an incidence rate of approximately 1 in every 1000 births. In addition to the stigma associated with the condition, the varying levels of cleft severity might result in lower life outcomes which could include lower cognitive ability, physical and psychological well-being, social and behavioral outcomes of adolescents. This paper focuses on the social integration element of life outcomes, which is composed of the social inclusion and prosocial behavior of the adolescent. Despite the affordability of restorative surgeries, patients in rural areas of Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) such as India face accessibility ...


Impact Belize 2010 Executive Report, Ritchie D. Taylor, Jordan Norris, Molly Calico, Bernie Strenecky, Daniel Carter, Dawn Garrett Wright, Eve Main, Bonny Petty, Molly Kerby, Jill Norris May 2019

Impact Belize 2010 Executive Report, Ritchie D. Taylor, Jordan Norris, Molly Calico, Bernie Strenecky, Daniel Carter, Dawn Garrett Wright, Eve Main, Bonny Petty, Molly Kerby, Jill Norris

Eve Main

No abstract provided.


Incorporating Oral Health Care In Pediatric Primary Care Practice, Salamatu Yusif May 2019

Incorporating Oral Health Care In Pediatric Primary Care Practice, Salamatu Yusif

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

The most common chronic disease in childhood is dental caries and is more prevalent than asthma and hay fever (HHS, 2000). Data show that in the United States from 2011-2014, 24% of children aged 2-5 years had experienced dental caries in their primary teeth, with 11% having untreated caries (Dye et al., 2017). Primary care clinicians have an important role to play in promoting children’s oral health as much as dentists because they have more contact with children. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project was to integrate an evidence-based oral health program for children in a pediatric primary ...


Xerostomia: A Comprehensive Review, Danevin Putrus May 2019

Xerostomia: A Comprehensive Review, Danevin Putrus

Honors College Theses

This thesis will be highlighting the condition known as Xerostomia. Xerostomia is the condition also known as “dry mouth”. This condition affects many people all throughout the world with symptoms causing bad breath, discomfort, difficulty speaking and many other. The seriousness of this condition can lead to cardiovascular disease, dementia, respiratory infections, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer (Absolutedental.com). Currently there is not any one specific solution for the condition although many have been proposed. Throughout the thesis I will closely examine former research studies, current solutions proposed, and propose my own study and solution based on research ...


Microleakage - The Main Culprit In Bracket Bond Failure?, Ioana Roxana Bordea, Adina Sîrbu, Ondine Lucaciu, Aranka Ilea, Radu Septimiu Câmpian, Doina Adina Todea, Teodora Gabriela Alexescu, Maria Aluaș, Corina Budin, Andreea Simona Pop Apr 2019

Microleakage - The Main Culprit In Bracket Bond Failure?, Ioana Roxana Bordea, Adina Sîrbu, Ondine Lucaciu, Aranka Ilea, Radu Septimiu Câmpian, Doina Adina Todea, Teodora Gabriela Alexescu, Maria Aluaș, Corina Budin, Andreea Simona Pop

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Microleakage is the most common cause of bracket debonding. Moreover, different thermal expansion coefficients between the enamel, the adhesive, and the bracket bases will cause repeated expansion and contraction, adding more stress to the bonding strength. Debonding represents the failure of the adhesion between the brackets and the tooth enamel. The debonding of brackets from the enamel surface is the result of several factors, such as acid-etching and drying, adhesive application, and the time and type of photo activation. The under polymerization process of composite photo activation may lead to early bracket debonding. Objective. The aim of this research is ...


Reliability Of Colour And Hardness Clinical Examinations In Detecting Dentine Caries Severity: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Larry Hon, Ahmed Mohamed, Edward Lynch Apr 2019

Reliability Of Colour And Hardness Clinical Examinations In Detecting Dentine Caries Severity: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis., Larry Hon, Ahmed Mohamed, Edward Lynch

Dental Medicine Faculty Publications

Dental caries is the most common human infectious disease and is caused by microorganisms producing acids, resulting in changes in dental tissue hardness and colour. However, the accuracy and reliability of dentine colour and hardness as indicators for carious lesion severity has never been assessed in a systematic review. By applying strict criteria, only seven papers (five randomized control trials and two diagnostic studies) were considered for full text qualitative and quantitative assessment. Only three studies produced high quality evidence and only four articles were considered for meta-analysis, as these provided log10 colony forming units (CFU) data from caries biopsies ...


Prevention Of Oral Mucositis In Cancer Patients, Patricia E. Biel Apr 2019

Prevention Of Oral Mucositis In Cancer Patients, Patricia E. Biel

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Oral mucositis [OM] is one of the most severe non-hematological problems related to cancer treatments and can impact quality of life. It is linked to poorer outcomes due to the associated weight loss, pain, dehydration, and risk of developing life-threatening infections. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project was to determine if OM is preventable with the use of an oral care protocol and zinc supplementation when compared to use of oral care protocols alone. The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model was used to guide project implementation in an outpatient oncology office. Recommendations were developed from an exhaustive review ...


In-Vitro Evaluation Of Accuracy Of Conventional And Cad/Cam Removable Partial Denture Frameworks, Pooya Soltanzadeh Apr 2019

In-Vitro Evaluation Of Accuracy Of Conventional And Cad/Cam Removable Partial Denture Frameworks, Pooya Soltanzadeh

Pooya Soltanzadeh, DDS, MS

Purpose: Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology is gaining popularity in dentistry, and more recently, to fabricate removable partial dentures (RPD). The purpose of this study was 1) to evaluate the overall accuracy and fit of conventional versus CAD/CAM fabricated printed RPD frameworks based on STL data analysis, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy and fit of each component of the RPD framework. Materials and Methods: A maxillary metal framework was designed for a Kennedy class III modification I situation. The master model was scanned and used to compare the fit and accuracy of the RPD frameworks. A ...


Family Postponement Of Medical And Dental Care: The Influence Of Income Level And Financial Hardship, Sara K. Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson Apr 2019

Family Postponement Of Medical And Dental Care: The Influence Of Income Level And Financial Hardship, Sara K. Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson

Clinton G. Gudmunson

Medical and dental care are some of the most expensive expenditures that consumers incur, and they are also some of the most common expenses that families postpone (Gallup, 2015; Kaiser, 2012). The goal of the present is to examine family and financial factors that influence families’ likelihood of delaying healthcare in a predominantly middle and upper income sample. A large body of research framed by the Family Stress Model has used the postponement of healthcare as one of many indicators of family economic pressure that together predict deleterious relationship and developmental outcomes (Gauthier & Furstenberg, 2010). However, only a handful of ...


Injectable Gels With Potential Use In Endodontics, Maksim Montatskiy Apr 2019

Injectable Gels With Potential Use In Endodontics, Maksim Montatskiy

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Objective: To formulate a thermoreversible hydrogel using methyl-cellulose, carbon dots and inorganic salts to achieve physiologically compatible gelation temperature; to test cytotoxic effects of formulation against dental pulp stem cells.Materials/Methods: A 5% w/v methylcellulose (MC) solution was prepared and equal volumes of NaCl aqueous solution were added to make various sodium chloride salt concentrations and reach the final MC concentration of 2.5%. Samples were analyzed using a shear rheometer to monitor complex shear viscosity as a function of temperature to arrive at onset gelation temperature closest to targeted temperature. Carbon dots were synthesized by thermal method ...


The Design And Physical Properties Of An Optimized Chitosan Hydrogel For Potential Use In Endodontics, Hunter Housley Apr 2019

The Design And Physical Properties Of An Optimized Chitosan Hydrogel For Potential Use In Endodontics, Hunter Housley

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Introduction: The aim of this study was to synthesize an optimized chitosan/carbon dot hydrogel and measure its effects on the proliferation of dental pulp stem cells. Methods: 1.5% w/v chitosan hydrogel samples were fabricated with 300 mg/ml aqueous β-glycerol phosphate (β-GP) to create an optimized chitosan with a gelation onset temperature below 37°C. Spermidine-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) were added to test groups in concentrations of 25 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml. Complex shear viscosity of the prepared hydrogel samples was evaluated with a Kinexus pro+ shear rheometer (Malvern Panalytical). Samples were evaluated for cellular ...


The Influence Of Full Coverage Restorations On Pulp Vitality: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study, Abby Yavorek Apr 2019

The Influence Of Full Coverage Restorations On Pulp Vitality: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study, Abby Yavorek

Master's Theses (2009 -)

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of pulpal disease after delivery of a full-coverage crown has been previously described as between 2-19%. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the factors that contribute to the incidence of NS-RCT after the delivery of single-unit full-coverage restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insurance claims from 88,409 crown placements in the Delta Dental of Wisconsin Insurance database were analyzed from the years 2008 to 2017. The Cox Regression model was used to analyze the effect of the predictor variables on the survival of the tooth. Untoward events were defined as NS-RCT, tooth extraction, retreatment ...


Insight - April 2019, Dugoni School Of Dentistry Apr 2019

Insight - April 2019, Dugoni School Of Dentistry

Insight

Whether you are involved in clinical research, biomedical research, the scholarship of teaching and learning, improvement of the health care system, or professional partnerships that advance the field, we aim to spotlight the work of people at the Dugoni School.


Contact Point Spring 2019, Arthur A. Dugoni School Of Dentistry Apr 2019

Contact Point Spring 2019, Arthur A. Dugoni School Of Dentistry

Contact Point

No abstract provided.


Periodontitis And The Elderly: An Overview Of The Disease And Its Impact On An Aging Population, Nicole Grace Weissenfluh Apr 2019

Periodontitis And The Elderly: An Overview Of The Disease And Its Impact On An Aging Population, Nicole Grace Weissenfluh

Senior Honors Theses

Periodontitis affects millions of Americans each year, and is especially prevalent among the elderly. Since periodontitis is a chronic, progressive condition, uninterrupted disease progression leads to irreversible oral damage; therefore, periodontitis often reduces the oral health-related quality of life. Furthermore, research strongly suggests a correlation between periodontitis and other systemic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus), highlighting the importance of understanding, treating, and preventing periodontitis. This thesis explores the pathology and etiology of periodontitis, with special focus given to the prevalence and impact of the disease in the elderly population. Additionally, the connection between periodontitis and other systemic ...


Tang Et Al 2019.Pdf, Michael A. Etnier Mar 2019

Tang Et Al 2019.Pdf, Michael A. Etnier

Michael Etnier


A mature, adult female, offshore killer whale (Orcinus orca) was stranded deceased in Portage Bay, Alaska, in October 2015. Full necropsy examination with histopathology was performed. Consistent with previous studies of offshore killer whales, and thought to be a result of their unique elasmobranch diet, all the teeth were significantly abraded and almost flush with the gingival margin. Age was estimated at 30-35 years based on annuli and growth arrest lines in a remaining tooth. The dentate portion of the mandibles were excised en bloc and
frozen until imaging could be completed. Radiography and computed tomography revealed lesions consistent with ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr Mar 2019

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of Bioactive Proteins In Emd That Modulate Adhesion Of Gingival Fibroblast To Improve Bio-Integration Of Dental Implants, David Zuanazzi Machado Jr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titanium implants are used in dental practice to replace damaged or lost teeth. The implant needs to integrate with the surrounding gingiva to protect it against bacterial invasion that leads to implant loss. The biointegration is dependent on the implant surface that interacts with proteins from biological fluids to modulate tissues response. Tailoring the surface with specific proteins from the enamel matrix derivative (EMD) would be beneficial to improve the implant-gingiva interface since EMD can affect various cells including gingival fibroblasts. A surface-affinity approach using three different titanium surfaces and saliva was utilized as a model in combination with tandem ...


The Role Of Specific Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (Instis) In The Alteration Of Oligodendrocyte Maturation And Myelination In Hand, Bassam N. Zidane Mar 2019

The Role Of Specific Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (Instis) In The Alteration Of Oligodendrocyte Maturation And Myelination In Hand, Bassam N. Zidane

Dental Theses

Currently, thirty-seven million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) worldwide. Thankfully, the development of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens has decreased mortality and significantly improved the overall quality of life for these patients. However, approximately half of all patients clinically manifest with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a spectrum of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities which histologically present as non-specific gliosis, synaptodendritc damage and loss of white matter and myelin. Furthermore, the severity of white matter damage correlates with the length of ART duration. However, almost no studies have been performed to determine how the myelin sheath or the ...


Diagnosis Of B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder Through Concomitant Management Of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis Of The Jaw: A Case Report, Robert Diecidue, Allen F. Champion, Ruifeng Zhou, James G. Buckley Mar 2019

Diagnosis Of B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder Through Concomitant Management Of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis Of The Jaw: A Case Report, Robert Diecidue, Allen F. Champion, Ruifeng Zhou, James G. Buckley

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Trident - March 2019, Arthur A. Dugoni School Of Dentistry Mar 2019

Trident - March 2019, Arthur A. Dugoni School Of Dentistry

Trident

The newsletter of the Pacific Orthodontic Alumni Chapter at University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry.


A Systematic Review Of The Caries Prevalence Among Children Living In Chernobyl Fallout Countries, Michael Wolgin, Nicole Filina, Valentyn Dvornyk, Edward Lynch, Andrej M. Kielbassa Mar 2019

A Systematic Review Of The Caries Prevalence Among Children Living In Chernobyl Fallout Countries, Michael Wolgin, Nicole Filina, Valentyn Dvornyk, Edward Lynch, Andrej M. Kielbassa

Dental Medicine Faculty Publications

The present study analyzed the data concerning the caries prevalence in children born and permanently residing in Chernobyl fallout areas. Setting forth to evaluate if differences regarding the caries prevalence can be observed compared to non-contaminated sites of affected East European countries. Methods used to assess the caries prevalence were limited to DMFT/dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth) for the primary and the permanent dentitions. The databases PubMed, EMBASE/Ovid, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and eLIBRARY were consulted for the electronic literature search...(Please see text for full abstrast)


Implant Impression Accuracy Of Parallel And Non-Parallel Implants: A Comparative In-Vitro Analysis Of Open And Closed Tray Techniques, Motaz S. Osman, Hassan M. Ziada, Neamat H. Abubakr, Ahmed M. Suliman Feb 2019

Implant Impression Accuracy Of Parallel And Non-Parallel Implants: A Comparative In-Vitro Analysis Of Open And Closed Tray Techniques, Motaz S. Osman, Hassan M. Ziada, Neamat H. Abubakr, Ahmed M. Suliman

Dental Medicine Faculty Publications

Background The outcome of the evaluation of impression techniques accuracy may improve the selection criteria for an ideal technique. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the open and closed tray techniques for implant impressions, in a partially edentulous maxilla, replaced with a three-unit fixed partial denture, as well as to assess the effect of implants parallelism on accuracy. Material and methods This is an experimental in vitro study to evaluate impressions accuracy of a simulated area restored with an implant retained FPD, using the open and closed tray implant impression techniques. The effect of implant position angulation, parallelism ...