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Articles 1 - 30 of 15118

Full-Text Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Using Tree-Ring Growth And Stable Isotopes To Explore Ponderosa Pine Ecophysiological Responses To Climate Variability And The 2012-2015 California Drought, Rachel M. Keen Aug 2019

Using Tree-Ring Growth And Stable Isotopes To Explore Ponderosa Pine Ecophysiological Responses To Climate Variability And The 2012-2015 California Drought, Rachel M. Keen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate warming in recent decades has resulted in more frequent and severe drought events in the western United States. These changes are projected to continue, making it exceedingly important to understand how forests respond to severe drought stress, and how we can manage these forests to reduce mortality during future events. The 2012-2015 California drought is a recent example of a severe, multi-year drought that was coupled with an epidemic-scale outbreak of western pine beetle, killing nearly 90% of ponderosa pines in the central and southern Sierra Nevadas. In the first portion of this study, we compared pairs of surviving ...


Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb Aug 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Scallops (Pectinidae) are one of the most diverse families of bivalves and have been a model system in evolutionary biology. However, in order to understand phenotypic evolution, the Pectinidae needs to be placed in a deeper phylogenetic framework within the superfamily Pectinoidea. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny for 60 species from four of the five extant families within the Pectinoidea using a five gene dataset (12S, 16S, 18S, 28S rRNAs and histone H3). Our analyses give consistent support for the non-monophyly of the Propeamussiidae, with a subset of species as the sister group to the Pectinidae, the Propeamussiidae type species ...


Eocene Terrestrial Mammals From Central Georgia, Parker D. Rhinehart, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley Jun 2019

Eocene Terrestrial Mammals From Central Georgia, Parker D. Rhinehart, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley

Georgia Journal of Science

Descriptions of fossils of Eocene terrestrial mammals from the southeastern United States are rare, and particularly so in the Eocene sediments of Georgia. Here we describe a small collection of fossilized teeth and tooth fragments representing four mammalian taxa. The fossils were recovered by surface collecting overburden sediments and screen washing in situ Clinchfield Formation sediments exposed in an inactive kaolin mine, Hardie Mine, in Wilkinson County, Georgia. The Clinchfield Formation has been described as a Late Eocene coastal unit with abundant gastropods, bivalves, sharks, and rays. This is the first detailed description of terrestrial mammals from this unit. Although ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney Jun 2019

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney Jun 2019

Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney

DePaul Discoveries

Ocean acidification is a growing problem that may affect many marine organisms in the future. Within 100 years the pH of the ocean is predicted to decrease to 7.8, from the current ocean pH of around 8.1. Using phenolic acid levels as a stress indicator as well as respiration and chlorophyll content as a measure of health, the effect of lowering pH was tested on the seagrass, Cymodocea nodosa, in a controlled environment. Plant samples, water, and soil were taken from the Bay of Cádiz, Spain, and placed in aquaria in a temperature-controlled room. One control group was ...


If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar Jun 2019

If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Language And Socioeconomics Predict Geographic Variation In Peer Review Outcomes At An Ecology Journal, C. Sean Burns, Charles W. Fox Jun 2019

Language And Socioeconomics Predict Geographic Variation In Peer Review Outcomes At An Ecology Journal, C. Sean Burns, Charles W. Fox

C. Sean Burns

Papers submitted by scientists located in western nations generally fare better in the peer review process than do papers submitted by scientists from elsewhere. This paper examines geographic variation in peer review outcomes (whether a manuscript is sent for review, review scores obtained, and final decisions by editors) for 3529 submissions over a 4.5 year period at the journal Functional Ecology. In particular, we test whether geographic variation in language and socioeconomics are adequate to explain most or are all of this variation. There was no relationship between the geographic regions of handling editors and the decisions to send ...


Hawk On Wire: Ecopoems By Scott T. Starbuck, Vivian M. Hansen Jun 2019

Hawk On Wire: Ecopoems By Scott T. Starbuck, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Scott T. Starbuck’s Hawk on Wire: Ecopoems


Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez Jun 2019

Becoming The Good Shepherds, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

It is very important that we clarify what we owe to nonhuman animals. To that end, we need a better understanding of animal cognition and emotion. Marino & Merskin’s target article is a welcome contribution to this project. Sheep, like most other animals, are sentient beings with interests of their own. It is wrong to discriminate against them based on species-membership or cognitive sophistication. We are morally required not to harm them, and to help them have the best possible lives, just as we would be in the case of human beings with similar interests. We must become the good ...


Review Of Hottentotta Described By A. A. Birula, With Descriptions Of Two New Species And Comments On Birula’S Collection (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen A. Yağmur, Victor Fet Jun 2019

Review Of Hottentotta Described By A. A. Birula, With Descriptions Of Two New Species And Comments On Birula’S Collection (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Ersen A. Yağmur, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

The types of Hottentotta species described by A. A. Birula and deposited in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia are revised. The types of H. buchariensis (Birula, 1897), H. niloticus (Birula, 1928), H. penjabensis (Birula, 1897) stat. nov. and H. schach (Birula, 1905) are fully illustrated with color photographs of morphology. Their taxonomic position is discussed. Lectotypes are designated for H. niloticus and H. schach. We confirm synonymy of Buthus (Hottentotta) minax niloticus Birula, 1928 (Sudan) with Buthus minax L. Koch, 1875, syn. n. Two new species, Hottentotta juliae sp. n. from Iran (Fars Province) and ...


Macroevolution Of Arboreality In Salamanders, Erica K. Baken, Dean C. Adams Jun 2019

Macroevolution Of Arboreality In Salamanders, Erica K. Baken, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

Evolutionary theory predicts that selection in distinct microhabitats generates correlations between morphological and ecological traits, and may increase both phenotypic and taxonomic diversity. However, some microhabitats exert unique selective pressures that act as a restraining force on macroevolutionary patterns of diversification. In this study, we use phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the evolutionary outcomes of inhabiting the arboreal microhabitat in salamanders. We find that arboreality has independently evolved at least five times in Caudata and has arisen primarily from terrestrial ancestors. However, the rate of transition from arboreality back to terrestriality is 24 times higher than the converse. This suggests ...


Belowground Bud Bank Of Bromus Inermis In Response To Mowing Frequency Over Two Growing Seasons, Denise Olson, Lan Xu, Arvid Boe, N. H. Troelstrup Jr. Jun 2019

Belowground Bud Bank Of Bromus Inermis In Response To Mowing Frequency Over Two Growing Seasons, Denise Olson, Lan Xu, Arvid Boe, N. H. Troelstrup Jr.

Arvid Boe

Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a Eurasian C3 perennial grass. It was introduced to North America in 1884 to control soil erosion and for pasture improvement, but has been outcompeting the native grasses of the northern Great Plains, decreasing diversity and altering habitats. Control of smooth bromegrass is a key to improve degraded native dominated grasslands. However, current practices have minimal or only short term effects due to extensive rhizome and tiller production by bromegrass. Even though vegetative reproduction via the belowground bud bank is the primary means for its invasiveness and persistence, the effect of management on its bud ...


Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams Jun 2019

Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams

Nicole Valenzuela

Timing of nesting affects fitness of oviparous animals living in seasonal environments, and females may cue on environmental factors for their nesting behavior, but these relationships are understudied in tropical turtles. Here, the timing and synchrony of egg-laying relative to environmental factors were examined in the South American freshwater turtle Podocnemis unifilis on 11 nesting beaches during three nesting seasons. Daily measurements included number of nests laid, rainfall, river level, air temperature, and the phase of the lunar cycle (full moon, last quarter, new moon and first quarter). Results confirmed that P. unifilis nested at night and revealed that females ...


Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams Jun 2019

Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

Timing of nesting affects fitness of oviparous animals living in seasonal environments, and females may cue on environmental factors for their nesting behavior, but these relationships are understudied in tropical turtles. Here, the timing and synchrony of egg-laying relative to environmental factors were examined in the South American freshwater turtle Podocnemis unifilis on 11 nesting beaches during three nesting seasons. Daily measurements included number of nests laid, rainfall, river level, air temperature, and the phase of the lunar cycle (full moon, last quarter, new moon and first quarter). Results confirmed that P. unifilis nested at night and revealed that females ...


An Overview Of American Ginseng Through The Lens Of Healing, Conservation And Trade, Margaret Wulfsberg May 2019

An Overview Of American Ginseng Through The Lens Of Healing, Conservation And Trade, Margaret Wulfsberg

Lawrence University Honors Projects

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is an herbaceous plant found in the eastern United States and Canada. Due to the high demand for ginseng roots on the Chinese market, it has been harvested at unsustainable rates. If this continues, overharvest along with other environmental factors will lead it to become extinct in the wild. American ginseng became popular due to its similarities with Asian ginseng, (Panax ginseng), a related plant that has been used in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years. Since there is so little Asian ginseng left in the wild, American ginseng now helps satisfy the demand for wild ...


Ecological Art: Art With A Purpose, Aaron M. Ellison, David Buckley Borden May 2019

Ecological Art: Art With A Purpose, Aaron M. Ellison, David Buckley Borden

The Goose

Ecological art is purposeful and often prescriptive: the actions and directions intended by the artists for activists to undertake often are clearly represented. Yet, ecological art has been no more successful than, for example, targeted scientific research, deposits on returnable bottles, or land-protection campaigns at slowing global warming, reducing the amount of waste we generate every day, or halting the ongoing sixth mass extinction in the history of the Earth. Here, we consider the idea that prescriptive ecological art provides insufficient mental space for creative reflection about future scenarios of, and responses to, environmental change. We ask whether, by presenting ...


Fire History Of A Georgia Montane Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris) Community, Nathan Klaus May 2019

Fire History Of A Georgia Montane Longleaf Pine (Pinus Palustris) Community, Nathan Klaus

Georgia Journal of Science

Montane longleaf pine forests, woodlands, and savannas are endangered, fire-dependent ecosystems of the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, Appalachian, and Cumberland Plateau physiographic provinces of Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina. Compared to other longleaf pine ecosystems, e.g., longleaf pine-wiregrass, little has been published about montane longleaf pine ecosystems. Understanding the historic fire regimes that once maintained montane longleaf pine ecosystems is an important first step toward achieving restoration and conservation goals for this ecosystem. I used two approaches to investigate historic fire regimes: 1) a dendrochronological study of fire scars on Sprewell Bluff Natural Area and 2) calculations of the ...


Enlarged Hind Wings Of The Neotropical Butterfly Pierella Helvina (Nymphalidae) Enhance Gliding Flight Performance In Ground Effect., Marc Stylman May 2019

Enlarged Hind Wings Of The Neotropical Butterfly Pierella Helvina (Nymphalidae) Enhance Gliding Flight Performance In Ground Effect., Marc Stylman

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Flight is a vital component of butterfly natural history, and flight-associated morphology is thought to be under strong selection for the performance of critical behaviors such as patrolling, courtship and oviposition. However, while different behaviors require different proportions of flapping versus gliding flight, few studies actually quantify butterfly flight behavior. Moreover, as butterfly flight is anteromotoric, no prior study has measured the role of hind wing allometry in flight. Using high-speed videography, this study compares the flight of two species of Haeterini (Nymphalidae) that regularly employ gliding flight. We also employ stereo videography and experimental hind wing area reduction to ...


Review Of Grosphus Simon, 1880, With Description Of Teruelius Gen. N., A New Buthid Genus From Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík May 2019

Review Of Grosphus Simon, 1880, With Description Of Teruelius Gen. N., A New Buthid Genus From Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

We review the taxonomy of the Madagascar endemic buthid genus Grosphus Simon, 1880. We split the genus and describe Teruelius gen. n. on the basis of nine morphological characters, six of them new for Grosphus: positions of trichobothria d2 on pedipalp femur and Eb3 on chela manus, number of pectine teeth, shape of female basal pectinal tooth, form of hemispermatophore capsule posterior lobe, spiracle shape, metasoma I ventromedian carination, telotarsal setation and UV fluorescence. We discuss functional and taxonomic aspects of these characters, and propose that Teruelius gen. n. is monophyletic, while Grosphus (sensu stricto) is paraphyletic. Some ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xx. Barbaracurus Feti Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Ali Abdi Hurre May 2019

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xx. Barbaracurus Feti Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský, Ali Abdi Hurre

Euscorpius

Barbaracurus feti sp. n. from Somaliland is described and compared with other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Barbaracurus, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. In addition to morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of B. feti sp. n. (2n=23). Included is a key for Barbaracurus. Babycurus borellii Rossi, 2019 is synonymized with Barbaracurus yemenensis Kovařík et al., 2018 syn. n. as a junior synonym because the description dated in February 2018 ...


More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens May 2019

More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens

Lori A. Biederman

Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically and geographically, spanning five orders of magnitude. Site‐level foliar sodium increased most strongly with site aridity and soil sodium; nutrient addition weakened the relationship ...


Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen May 2019

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku May 2019

Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier May 2019

Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter May 2019

Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter

MSU Graduate Theses

Dulosis is a type of social parasitism in which a parasitic ant has become dependent on captured workers (hosts) of a closely related species. Dulosis can be either facultative or obligate depending on the degree of dependence on host workers. As parasites become more specialized over evolutionary time, their domestic abilities degenerate until they become unable to survive without the host. However, the ‘lost’ behaviors may display some degree of recovery when host workers are unavailable to do the tasks. The Formica sanguinea group consists of 12 species of parasitic ants, which are all traditionally considered to be facultative parasites ...


Response To Conspecific Alarm Cues By Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma Maculatum) Larvae, Katlyn M. Gardner May 2019

Response To Conspecific Alarm Cues By Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma Maculatum) Larvae, Katlyn M. Gardner

MSU Graduate Theses

Detection of predators early in a predation sequence may allow prey to increase their probability of survival by taking evasive action. For aquatic species in ephemeral ponds visibility is often limited, so predation risk assessment via chemical cues can be useful. Most mole salamanders of the genus Ambystoma breed in vernal ponds, and larvae suffer high mortality rates due in part to high levels of predation. I tested whether larvae can assess predation risk by detecting chemicals (alarm cues) released from the skin of damaged conspecifics, and, if so, what factors influence the response to this alarm cue. Field-caught spotted ...


Vertical Connectivity Influences Secondary Production, Community Diversity, And Resilience In An Ozark Stream, Nathan C. Dorff May 2019

Vertical Connectivity Influences Secondary Production, Community Diversity, And Resilience In An Ozark Stream, Nathan C. Dorff

MSU Graduate Theses

The hyporheic zone, a key component of stream vertical connectivity, supports stream function (e.g., nutrient regeneration) and provides habitat for aquatic biota. The Ozark Highlands ecoregion contains gravel-bed streams that have extensive hyporheic zones and that are subject to recurrent flash floods. I sampled Leuctra tenuis(Pictet) nymphs from the hyporheic habitat (30-45 cm below the streambed) in a gravel-bed reach and an intermittent tributary of an Ozark stream from early instar to adult emergence. Concurrently, I sampled benthic insects in two reaches of the same stream that differed primarily in amount of hyporheic habitat (bedrock vs. gravel) and ...


Territorial Behavior Of The Ozark Zigzag Salamander, Plethodon Angusticlavius, Altered By Mode Of Predator Cue And Sex Of Intruder, Sarah E. Heimbach May 2019

Territorial Behavior Of The Ozark Zigzag Salamander, Plethodon Angusticlavius, Altered By Mode Of Predator Cue And Sex Of Intruder, Sarah E. Heimbach

MSU Graduate Theses

Territorial defense in many species must be balanced with trade-offs in activities such as reproduction and predator avoidance. Adjusting behavior based on current assessments of predation risk and the cost of maintaining or gaining a territory is one way that individuals can balance trade-offs to maximize fitness. I conducted two experiments to determine how Ozark zigzag salamanders, Plethodon angusticlavius, adjust their territorial behavior-based predation risk. First, I tested whether male and female territorial intruders changed their competitive behavior according to whether predation risk is assessed via unimodal (chemical) or multimodal (chemical + physical) cues. Females and males responded differently to unimodal ...


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information May 2019

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


Table Of Contents May 2019

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.