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Zebrafish

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Critical Role Of Vmp1 In Lipoprotein Secretion, Hideaki Morishita, Yan G. Zhao, Norito Tamura, Taki Nishimura, Yuki Kanda, Yuriko Sakamaki, Mitsuyo Okazaki, Dongfang Li, Noboru Mizushima Sep 2019

A Critical Role Of Vmp1 In Lipoprotein Secretion, Hideaki Morishita, Yan G. Zhao, Norito Tamura, Taki Nishimura, Yuki Kanda, Yuriko Sakamaki, Mitsuyo Okazaki, Dongfang Li, Noboru Mizushima

Open Access Articles

Lipoproteins are lipid-protein complexes that are primarily generated and secreted from the intestine, liver, and visceral endoderm and delivered to peripheral tissues. Lipoproteins, which are assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, are released into the ER lumen for secretion, but its mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the release of lipoproteins from the ER membrane requires VMP1, an ER transmembrane protein essential for autophagy and certain types of secretion. Loss of vmp1, but not other autophagy-related genes, in zebrafish causes lipoprotein accumulation in the intestine and liver. Vmp1 deficiency in mice also leads to lipid accumulation in ...


Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom Jun 2018

Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom

Open Access Articles

TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN ...


The Role Of Molecular Motors In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Melissa D. Priest Jan 2018

The Role Of Molecular Motors In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Melissa D. Priest

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Following injury, axons of the peripheral nervous system have retained the capacity for regeneration. While it is well established that injury signals require molecular motors for their transport from the injury site to the nucleus, whether kinesin and dynein motors play additional roles in peripheral nerve regeneration is not well understood. Here we use genetic mutants of motor proteins in a zebrafish peripheral nerve regeneration model to visualize and define in vivo roles for kinesin and dynein. We find that both kinesin-1 and dynein are required for zebrafish peripheral nerve regeneration. While loss of kinesin-1 reduced the overall robustness of ...


Partial Craniofacial Cartilage Rescue In Ace/Fgf8 Mutants From Compensatory Signaling From The Ventricle Of Danio Rerio, Douglas A. Calenda Ii Oct 2017

Partial Craniofacial Cartilage Rescue In Ace/Fgf8 Mutants From Compensatory Signaling From The Ventricle Of Danio Rerio, Douglas A. Calenda Ii

Masters Theses

Examples of asymmetric organs are found throughout the animal kingdom. Whether it is superficial like the fiddler crab’s claw or within an organism like our visceral organs, asymmetries have repeatedly evolved in nature. However, the genetic and developmental origins for asymmetric organ development remain unclear, especially for superficially paired structures. Within zebrafish, a striking example of asymmetry occurs within the ace/fgf8 mutant. The pharyngeal cartilages of these mutants develop asymmetrically 35% of the time, with more cartilages developing on the left or right side of the head, but the origins of this asymmetry are unknown. A significant proportion ...


Systems Biology Derived Mechanism Of Bmp Gradient Formation, Joseph M. Zinski Jan 2017

Systems Biology Derived Mechanism Of Bmp Gradient Formation, Joseph M. Zinski

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A morphogen gradient of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling patterns the dorsoventral (DV) axis of all vertebrates. This gradient is established by the extracellular interaction of the asymmetric expression of the BMP ligand and its extracellular regulators. Though the basic agonism and antagonism of BMP by these regulators has been established over the last two decades, the mechanism by which they come together to form a robust BMP signaling gradient remains poorly understood. The prevailing view in vertebrates for BMP gradient formation is through a counter gradient of BMP antagonists, often along with ligand shuttling to generate peak signaling levels ...


Characterization Of Stem Cell Turnover In A Living Epithelial Bilayer, Elizabeth Sumner May 2016

Characterization Of Stem Cell Turnover In A Living Epithelial Bilayer, Elizabeth Sumner

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Homeostatic maintenance of epithelia requires the renewal and replacement of old or dying cells while sustaining a functional barrier. Imbalance between cell production and elimination are hypothesized to underlie many pathological conditions. However, our knowledge of cell turnover within living tissues remains largely restricted to static images due to the limited ability to study epithelia in their native context. Here we report that clearance of damaged basal stem cells promotes compensatory proliferation of neighboring stem cells to maintain overall population numbers in a bilayered epithelium. Time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy experiments reveal that dying cells are rapidly cleared as nearby ...


Trpm7 Function In Zebrafish Dopaminergic Neurons, Amanda R. Decker Dec 2015

Trpm7 Function In Zebrafish Dopaminergic Neurons, Amanda R. Decker

Theses and Dissertations

TRPM7 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-like 7) is an ion channel necessary for the proper development of many cell types. Insight into the precise role of the channel in different cells has been hampered by the lethality of knocking out the gene in model organisms such as the mouse. Here I examine a zebrafish that has a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding Trpm7. First, I show that trpm7 is important for the function of developing dopaminergic neurons in the zebrafish. Second, I examine the interaction between trpm7 and the related gene vmat2 in order to develop a cellular mechanism of ...


Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper Dec 2015

Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

We have now examined the erythroid phenotype in this zebrafish strain carrying a ZFN genomic knockout of piezo1. Genotyping was performed as previously described. In contrast to the anemic phenotype observed in zebrafish subjected to morpholino knockdown of piezo, the genomic ZFN knockout of piezo1 did not segregate either with anemia in the 3-dpf embryo or with dysmorphic erythrocyte morphology in the adult fish.


Insights Into Melanocyte Regeneration And Melanoma Initiation Using The Zebrafish Model System: A Dissertation, Sharanya Iyengar Oct 2015

Insights Into Melanocyte Regeneration And Melanoma Initiation Using The Zebrafish Model System: A Dissertation, Sharanya Iyengar

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During regeneration, cells must coordinate proliferation and differentiation to rebuild tissues that are lost. Understanding how source cells execute the regeneration process has been a longstanding goal in regenerative biology with implications in wound healing and cell replacement therapies. Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells in the skin of vertebrates that can be lost during hair graying, injury and disease-related depigmentation. Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer that develops from melanocytes, and it is hypothesized that melanoma cells have properties that are similar to melanocyte stem cells.

To gain insight into melanocyte regeneration we set out to identify the source of regeneration ...


Role Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii And Calcium In Zebrafish Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis, Srishti Upasana Sahu May 2015

Role Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii And Calcium In Zebrafish Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis, Srishti Upasana Sahu

Theses and Dissertations

Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that play a role in cellular morphogenesis is critical to our understanding of brain development and function. The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is one of the first folds in the vertebrate embryonic brain and is highly conserved across species. We used the zebrafish MHB as a model for determining the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cell shape changes. Cellular morphogenesis is tightly regulated by signaling pathways that rearrange the cytoskeleton and produce mechanical forces that enable changes in cell and tissue morphology. The generation of force within a cell often depends on motor proteins, particularly non-muscle myosins ...


Modeling Pediatric Brain And Central Nervous System Cancer In Zebrafish, Staci Lyn Solin Jan 2015

Modeling Pediatric Brain And Central Nervous System Cancer In Zebrafish, Staci Lyn Solin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children (Ostrom QT et al., 2015). Low-grade brain and CNS tumors that require minimal surgical resection due to their location in critical regions are associated with long-term morbidity throughout the life of the child (Armstrong GT et al., 2011). Children diagnosed with high-grade, aggressive brain and CNS tumors generally have a poor outcome and suffer significant deficits in neurological and neuroendocrine function as a result of intensive therapy (Fangusaro J et al., 2012). Effective, targeted therapeutics for the treatment of pediatric brain and CNS cancer ...


Zebrafish As A Model For Determining The Mechanisms Causing Deafness In Myh9-Related Disease, Luke David Spychalla Aug 2014

Zebrafish As A Model For Determining The Mechanisms Causing Deafness In Myh9-Related Disease, Luke David Spychalla

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 1 in 500 infants are diagnosed with hearing loss, and about half of these cases can be traced to genetic defects. Several hundred genes have been implicated in deafness, including MYH9, which codes for the conventional motor protein non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). Mutations in MYH9 lead to syndromic MYH9-related diseases, which include deafness as a variable symptom, as well as non-syndromic autosomal deafness DFNA17. Despite its identification as a deafness gene, the functions of MYH9 in ear development and hearing remain unknown. To study this role, we will use zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish offer significant advantages including established ...


Use Of Zebrafish To Test Candidate Genes And Mutations Associated With Structural Birth Defects, Primarily In Cleft Lip And Palate, Tiffany Lynn Smith May 2014

Use Of Zebrafish To Test Candidate Genes And Mutations Associated With Structural Birth Defects, Primarily In Cleft Lip And Palate, Tiffany Lynn Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is a group of congenital birth defect caused by the failure of the lip and/or palate to properly fuse during facial development. This defect occurs in approximately 1:700 live births and is the most second most common developmental defect. Twin studies and evaluation of family history reveals that risk for CL/P is influenced by genetics. However, to date less than half of the heritable risk for CL/P has been ascribed to specific genes.

To identify new genes involved in CL/P, our colleagues, Dr. Manak and Dr. Murray, screened ...


Cellular Interactions During Motor Nerve Regeneration, Allison F. Rosenberg Jan 2014

Cellular Interactions During Motor Nerve Regeneration, Allison F. Rosenberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Vertebrate peripheral nerves can regenerate, enabling severed axons to reconnect with their original synaptic targets. The interactions between injured nerves with cells in their environment, as well as the functional significance of these interactions, have not been determined in vivo and in real time. Here we provide the first minute-by-minute account of cellular interactions between laser transected motor nerves, macrophages, and Schwann cells in live intact zebrafish using transgenic lines that label each cell type in vivo. We find that axon fragmentation triggers macrophage invasion into the nerve to engulf axonal debris, and that delaying nerve fragmentation in a Wlds ...


Characterization Of Adult Zebrafish Retinal Regeneration Following Two Different Damage Models, Jennifer Lee Thomas Jan 2014

Characterization Of Adult Zebrafish Retinal Regeneration Following Two Different Damage Models, Jennifer Lee Thomas

Wayne State University Dissertations

Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate all of their retinal neurons through Müller glial cells, which respond to retinal damage by re-entering the cell cycle to create clusters of progenitor cells. The progenitors continue to proliferate as they migrate to the site of damage, where they ultimately differentiate into new retinal neurons. In contrast, Müller glia of the mammalian retina respond to injury with reactive gliosis, which if persistent, can lead to loss of Müller cell function and devastating vision loss. Despite this, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mammalian Müller glial cells possess a latent ability to regenerate retinal neurons ...


Understanding The Role Of Semaphorin3d During Zebrafish Fin Regeneration, Dana Desantis May 2013

Understanding The Role Of Semaphorin3d During Zebrafish Fin Regeneration, Dana Desantis

Eckardt Scholars Projects

Connexins are components of gap junctions, which are critical for direct intercellular communication. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is required for bone morphogenesis in mammals. Prior research has indicated that connexin43 (cx43) has two functions during zebrafish (Danio rerio) fin regeneration: it promotes cell proliferation and suppresses joint formation. Semaphorin3d (sema3d) is a gene that functions downstream of cx43 during regeneration, also promoting cell proliferation and suppressing joint formation. Semaphorins generally mediate cellular signal transduction, and may interact with receptors called Neuropilins. Neuropilin2a (Nrp2a) is a putative receptor for Sema3d, but it remains unknown whether Nrp2a is involved in the ...


Evolutionary And Molecular Analysis Of Conserved Vertebrate Immunity To Fungi, Erin Carter May 2013

Evolutionary And Molecular Analysis Of Conserved Vertebrate Immunity To Fungi, Erin Carter

Honors College

The innate immune system is highly conserved amongst all multicellular organisms. Yet a constant battle exists between host cells and pathogens due to the rapid evolution of immune system components. Functional genomics and in silico methods can be employed to elucidate the evolutionary patterns of vertebrate immunity to pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause lethal candidiasis in the immunocompromised. Mammals such as humans and mice possess conserved C-type lectin receptors that recognize the C. albicans cell wall. However, these receptors have not been identified in fish. Here I describe how we identified potential ...


Effects Of Arsenic Responsive P21 On Innate Immunity And Apoptosis In Zebrafish, Gabriel O. Vachon May 2013

Effects Of Arsenic Responsive P21 On Innate Immunity And Apoptosis In Zebrafish, Gabriel O. Vachon

Honors College

Arsenic is a heavy metal that is frequently found in drinking water, especially well-water in the Northeastern United States. Arsenic is thought to be involved with numerous negative health conditions. This project examined the impact of this environmental toxicant, on the zebrafish innate immune system. Specifically, this project characterized the gene encoding for the protein p21. The particular gene is cdkn1a (will be referred to here by its product "p21" both for the protein and gene itself which will be italicized) and had increased expression as a result of arsenic exposure from a previously complete microarray analysis. In attempt to ...


Screening For Melanoma Modifiers Using A Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model, Sharanya Iyengar, Yariv Houvras, Craig J. Ceol Nov 2012

Screening For Melanoma Modifiers Using A Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model, Sharanya Iyengar, Yariv Houvras, Craig J. Ceol

GSBS Student Publications

Genomic studies of human cancers have yielded a wealth of information about genes that are altered in tumors. A challenge arising from these studies is that many genes are altered, and it can be difficult to distinguish genetic alterations that drove tumorigenesis from that those arose incidentally during transformation. To draw this distinction it is beneficial to have an assay that can quantitatively measure the effect of an altered gene on tumor initiation and other processes that enable tumors to persist and disseminate. Here we present a rapid means to screen large numbers of candidate melanoma modifiers in zebrafish using ...


Identification And Functional Characterization Of The Zebrafish Gene Quetschkommode (Que), Timo Friedrich Sep 2012

Identification And Functional Characterization Of The Zebrafish Gene Quetschkommode (Que), Timo Friedrich

Open Access Dissertations

Locomotion in vertebrates depends on proper formation and maintenance of neuronal networks in the hind-brain and spinal cord. Malformation or loss of factors required for proper maintenance of these networks can lead to severe neurodegenerative diseases limiting or preventing locomotion. A powerful tool to investigate the genetic and cellular requirements for development and/or maintenance of these networks is a collection of zebrafish mutants with defects in motility. The zebrafish mutant quetschkommode (que) harbors a previously unknown gene defect leading to abnormal locomotor behavior. Here I show that the que mutants display a seizure-like behavior starting around four days post ...


Ultra-Structural Identification Of The Interstitial Cells Of Cajal In The Zebrafish Danio Rerio, Evan R. Ball, Miho M. Matsuda, Louis Dye, Victoria Hoffmann, Patricia M. Zerfas, Eva Szarek, Adam Rich, Ajay Chitnis, Constantine A. Stratakis Jan 2012

Ultra-Structural Identification Of The Interstitial Cells Of Cajal In The Zebrafish Danio Rerio, Evan R. Ball, Miho M. Matsuda, Louis Dye, Victoria Hoffmann, Patricia M. Zerfas, Eva Szarek, Adam Rich, Ajay Chitnis, Constantine A. Stratakis

Biology Faculty Publications

The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mediators of gastrointestinal motility due to their role as pacemakers in the GI tract. In addition to their function, ICCs are also structurally distinct cells most easily identified by their ultra-structural features and expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT. ICCs have been described in mammals, rodents, birds, reptiles and amphibians ; there are no reports at the ultra-structural level of ICC’s within the GI tract of an organism from the teleost lineage. This report describes the presence of cells in the muscularis of the zebrafish intestine with similar features to ICCs ...


Expression Of Bik, A Pro-Apoptotic Protein, In Developing Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Oocytes, Maggie Klee Jan 2011

Expression Of Bik, A Pro-Apoptotic Protein, In Developing Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Oocytes, Maggie Klee

Summer Research

I addressed the role of cell death (apoptosis) within the process of egg cell development in zebrafish, in vitro. Current data on the role of apoptosis in oocyte maturation of zebrafish are conflicting, and little is known about apoptosis regulation at the individual stages of oocyte development.

The importance of apoptosis will be determined by recording the relative expression of Bik, a key protein involved in the apoptosis pathway, between zebrafish oocytes that have been induced to mature and those that are left alone. Relative expression of Bik will be measured by Western blot. I expect that Bik expression, and ...


Moesin1 And Ve-Cadherin Are Required In Endothelial Cells During In Vivo Tubulogenesis, Ying Wang, Mark S. Kaiser, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Karl J. Clark, Shannon A. Wadman, Sharon E. Roberg-Perez, Stephen C. Ekker, Perry B. Hackett, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey J. Essner Jan 2010

Moesin1 And Ve-Cadherin Are Required In Endothelial Cells During In Vivo Tubulogenesis, Ying Wang, Mark S. Kaiser, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Karl J. Clark, Shannon A. Wadman, Sharon E. Roberg-Perez, Stephen C. Ekker, Perry B. Hackett, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey J. Essner

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Endothelial tubulogenesis is a crucial step in the formation of functional blood vessels during angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Here, we use in vivo imaging of living zebrafish embryos expressing fluorescent fusion proteins of β-Actin, α-Catenin, and the ERM family member Moesin1 (Moesin a), to define a novel cord hollowing process that occurs during the initial stages of tubulogenesis in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in the embryo. We show that the primary lumen elongates along cell junctions between at least two endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis. Moesin1-EGFP is enriched around structures that resemble intracellular vacuoles, which fuse with the luminal membrane during expansion ...