Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Mitochondria

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter May 2019

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity Is Caused By Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Michael G. Tauro Feb 2019

Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity Is Caused By Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Michael G. Tauro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting roughly 1% of the population over the age of sixty years. Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) is a protein implicated in both familial and idiopathic forms of PD, yet despite the wealth of data implicating aSyn as a causative agent in PD, the mechanisms underlying its toxicity remain mostly unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major hallmark of PD, yet there is only limited evidence linking aSyn toxicity to mitochondrial dysfunction. My study establishes a novel aSyn model in respiring yeast cells, which allows me to explore how aSyn affects mitochondrial homeostasis ...


Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward Jan 2019

Expression Of Alternative Oxidase In The Copepod T. Californicus When Exposed To Environmental Stressors, Carly Tward

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In addition to the typical electron transport system in animal mitochondria responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, some species possess an alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway, which causes electrons to bypass proton pumping complexes. Although AOX appears to be energetically wasteful, studies have revealed its wide taxonomic distribution, and indicate it plays a role in environmental stress tolerance. AOX discovery in animals is recent, and further research into its expression, regulation, and physiological role has been impeded by the lack of an experimental model organism. DNA database searches using bioinformatics revealed an AOX sequence present in the arthropod Tigriopus californicus. Multiple sequence alignments ...


Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera Nov 2018

Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera

Publications and Research

The potent antimalarial drug pyronaridine (PND) was tested for its potential as an anticancer drug. After exposing cancerous (17) and non-cancerous (2) cells to PND for 72 hr, PND was found to exhibit consistent and potent cytotoxic activity at low micromolar (μM) concentrations that ranged from 1.6 μM to 9.4 μM. Moreover, PND exerted a significant selective cytotoxicity index (SCI) on five out of seven breast cancer cell lines tested, with favorable values of 2.5 to 4.4, as compared with the non-cancerous breast MCF-10A cell line. By using the same comparison, PND exhibited a significant SCI ...


Understanding Nuage-Mitochondrial Coupling In Drosophila Pirna Biogenesis, Tianfang Ge Aug 2018

Understanding Nuage-Mitochondrial Coupling In Drosophila Pirna Biogenesis, Tianfang Ge

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In the Drosophilaovary, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) suppress transposon expression, ensuring female fertility. PIWI proteins Aub and Ago3, loaded with ping-pong piRNAs and reside in perinuclear nuage granules, engage in reciprocal transposon transcript cleavage termed the ping-pong cycle. The other PIWI protein Piwi, loaded with phased piRNAs and resides in the nucleus, silences transposon transcriptionally. Ping-pong piRNAs are made through the ping-pong amplification loop by Aub and Ago3, whereas phased piRNAs are made through consecutive endonucleolytic cleavages that spread in 5′-to-3′ direction, presumably by Zucchini (Zuc), an endonuclease resides on the surface of mitochondria. The ping-pong and phasing biogenesis ...


Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee May 2018

Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Oxidative metabolism is required to produce adequate energy to sustain human life. A primary example of deteriorating oxidative capacity is seen in the cardiac musculature during chronic heart failure. This suggests that by improving oxidative potential, chronic heart disease could be mitigated and one approach to accomplish this may be through targeting the mt-mRNA translation system. Purpose: This investigation’s purpose was to characterize disruptions in mt-mRNA translation machinery in multiple forms of cardiomyopathy and to determine if mitochondrial mRNA translation initiation factor (mtIF2) is necessary to maintain oxidative capacity in cardiomyocytes. Methods Using a combination of animal and cell ...


Disc1 Modulates Neuronal Stress Responses By Gate-Keeping Er-Mitochondria Ca(2+) Transfer Through The Mam, Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park Dec 2017

Disc1 Modulates Neuronal Stress Responses By Gate-Keeping Er-Mitochondria Ca(2+) Transfer Through The Mam, Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park

Open Access Articles

A wide range of Ca(2+)-mediated functions are enabled by the dynamic properties of Ca(2+), all of which are dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the function of intracellular organelles and is linked to cognitive and emotional deficits. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 localizes to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). At the MAM, DISC1 interacts with IP3R1 and downregulates its ligand binding, modulating ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer through the MAM. The disrupted regulation of Ca(2+) transfer caused by DISC1 dysfunction leads to abnormal Ca ...


Mitochondrial Stress Restores The Heat Shock Response And Prevents Proteostasis Collapse During Aging, Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M. Brielmann, Mario F. Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M. Haynes, Richard I. Morimoto Nov 2017

Mitochondrial Stress Restores The Heat Shock Response And Prevents Proteostasis Collapse During Aging, Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M. Brielmann, Mario F. Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M. Haynes, Richard I. Morimoto

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the programmed repression of the heat shock response (HSR) accompanies the transition to reproductive maturity, leaving cells vulnerable to environmental stress and protein aggregation with age. To identify the factors driving this event, we performed an unbiased genetic screen for suppressors of stress resistance and identified the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) as a central regulator of the age-related decline of the HSR and cytosolic proteostasis. Mild downregulation of ETC activity, either by genetic modulation or exposure to mitochondria-targeted xenobiotics, maintained the HSR in adulthood by increasing HSF-1 binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment at HSF-1 target ...


The Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response: Signaling From The Powerhouse, Mohammed A. Qureshi, Cole M. Haynes, Mark W. Pellegrino Aug 2017

The Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response: Signaling From The Powerhouse, Mohammed A. Qureshi, Cole M. Haynes, Mark W. Pellegrino

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Mitochondria are multifaceted and indispensable organelles required for cell performance. Accordingly, dysfunction to mitochondria can result in cellular decline and possibly the onset of disease. Cells use a variety of means to recover mitochondria and restore homeostasis, including the activation of retrograde pathways such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). In this Minireview, we will discuss how cells adapt to mitochondrial stress through UPRmt regulation. Furthermore, we will explore the current repertoire of biological functions that are associated with this essential stress-response pathway.


Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Thermogenic Gene Program, Minwoo Nam Jan 2017

Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Thermogenic Gene Program, Minwoo Nam

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat. Emerging evidence has suggested that the actions of mitochondria extend beyond this conventional biochemical role. In mouse BAT and cultured brown adipocytes, impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1, a key thermogenic gene, implying a mitochondrial retrograde signaling. However, few have investigated this association in the context of mitochondria-nucleus communication.

Using mice with adipose-specific ablation of LRPPRC, a regulator of respiratory capacity, we show that respiration-dependent retrograde signaling from mitochondria to nucleus contributes to transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming of BAT. Impaired respiratory ...


The Prohibitin Protein Complex Promotes Mitochondrial Stabilization And Cell Survival In Hematologic Malignancies, Elisa Robles Escajeda Jan 2017

The Prohibitin Protein Complex Promotes Mitochondrial Stabilization And Cell Survival In Hematologic Malignancies, Elisa Robles Escajeda

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation is coordinated with high precision in healthy humans and is vital to maintaining a normal immune system. Imbalance of these events can result in the development of autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies and hematopoietic malignancies. These pathologies, specifically leukemia and lymphoma have a high incidence of relapse and mortality due to limited treatment options. Therefore, there is a critical need to characterize the signal transduction pathways and understand molecular hallmarks that mediate T cell activation in order to develop new strategies for diagnosis and treatments of these diseases.

Prohibitins (PHB1 and PHB2) have been proposed to play important ...


Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung Apr 2016

Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung

Open Access Dissertations

In neurons, normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are essential for preserving compartmentalized cellular function. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson’s disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal. However, it is not clear how Parkin plays a role in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, and whether the mature neurons possess a compartmentalized Parkin-dependent mitochondrial life cycle. Using the live Drosophila nervous system, here, I investigate the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics; organelle distribution, morphology and removal. Parkin deficient animals displayed less number of axonal mitochondria without disturbing organelle motility behaviors, morphology and metabolic ...


Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Background: miRNAs can regulate cellular survival in various cancer cell types. Recent evidence implicates the formation of lipid droplets as a hallmark event during apoptotic cell death response. It is presently unknown whether MIR494, located at 14q32 which is deleted in renal cancers, reduces cell survival in renal cancer cells and if this process is accompanied by changes in the number of lipid droplets.

Methods: 769-P renal carcinoma cells were utilized for this study. Control or MIR494 mimic was expressed in these cells following which cell viability (via crystal violet) and apoptotic cell numbers (via Annexin V/PI staining) were ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


Role Of Interleukin-6 In Cd4 And Cd8 T Cell Effector Functions, Rui Yang Jan 2016

Role Of Interleukin-6 In Cd4 And Cd8 T Cell Effector Functions, Rui Yang

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

IL-6 is an inflammatory cytokine that contributes to the pathogenesis of many immunological diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, allergic asthma, as well as the protection against infections caused by various pathogens. These are linked to its role in regulating CD4 T cell differentiation and effector function.

Most of these functions are dependent on the IL-6-mediated signaling through the transcription factor Stat3. In this thesis, we identify a novel molecular mechanism by which IL-6 regulates CD4 T cell effector function. We show that IL-6-dependent signal raises the levels of mitochondrial Ca2+ late during activation of CD4 T ...


Bidirectional Interactions Between Mitochondrial Function And Cell Mechanics, Judith Kandel Jan 2016

Bidirectional Interactions Between Mitochondrial Function And Cell Mechanics, Judith Kandel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Energetic and structural maintenance are both critical to cellular homeostasis, and clinical disease is often characterized by alterations in both of these realms. While the manifestation of pathology in each of these fields has been extensively studied, little research has been done to characterize basic, direct interactions between mitochondrial function and cell mechanics. The experiments described in this dissertation endeavored to address that gap, first by investigating the cytoskeletal and mechanical effects of mitochondrial dysfunction and then by considering the mitochondrial consequences of cytoarchitectural breakdown.

Mechanical integrity of the cell following mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated through multiple experimental platforms, including ...


A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz Aug 2015

A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction ...


Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee May 2015

Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional modification is becoming a well-established mechanism for controlling mRNA translation. microRNAs -1, -133, and -206 are under the control of skeletal muscle promoters and affect muscle plasticity and metabolic health. A detailed review on the generation and processing of miRNAs with a view to skeletal muscle brings up intriguing connections in the transcriptional connections between multiple miRNAs. Additionally, exciting new research has defined a role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle mitochondria showing an additional, direct link to metabolic function. Multiple investigations in models of exercise, aging, hypertrophy, and injury have shown how these interventions can affect miRNA ...


Iron Alters Cell Survival In A Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway In Ovarian Cancer Cells., Edward Haller Jan 2015

Iron Alters Cell Survival In A Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway In Ovarian Cancer Cells., Edward Haller

Edward Haller

ABSTRACT The role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear. We previously reported that iron reduces cell survival in a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner in ovarian cells; however, the underlying downstream pathway leading to reduced survival was unclear. Although levels of intracellular iron, ferritin/CD71 protein and reactive oxygen species did not correlate with iron-induced cell survival changes, we identified mitochondrial damage (via TEM) and reduced expression of outer mitochondrial membrane proteins (translocase of outer membrane: TOM20 and TOM70) in cell lines sensitive to iron. Interestingly, Ru360 (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter) reversed ...


Study Of Sub-Cellular Structures Upon Low-Glucose Starvation In S. Pombe, Minghua Liu Jan 2015

Study Of Sub-Cellular Structures Upon Low-Glucose Starvation In S. Pombe, Minghua Liu

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Many cells and organisms react to depletion of nutrients with an energy saving program. Here we studied Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe; fission yeast) cells and how they respond to nutrient starvation by entering a quiescent state that is characterized by a substantial viscosity increase of the cytoplasm, which we term "cytoplasmic freezing". Recently we found evidence that the transition in viscosity of the cell cytoplasm could be reliably reproduced by starving S. pombe cells of glucose. Also, there is evidence that septins, a GTP binding protein family, might be involved in generating and maintaining the frozen cytoplasmic state. Here I ...


Characterization Of Iron Response In Gynecological Cell Lines, Kyle A. Bauckman Mar 2014

Characterization Of Iron Response In Gynecological Cell Lines, Kyle A. Bauckman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian carcinoma afflicts over 22,000 women each year with a 5 year survival rate of only 18% for stage IV patients [23]. Current treatment options are limited due to high rates of drug resistance and recurrence. Further, the identity of "precursor lesions" which give rise to various subclasses of epithelial ovarian cancer has been evasive. This is due to discovery of the cancer at already an advanced stage. Interestingly, endometriosis a benign but invasive gynecological disease has been described as a "precursor lesion" in the development of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer. Endometriotic cyst development involves the accumulation of ...


Degradation Of The Oncoprotein Mdmx In Neurodegenerative States: Evidence For A Pro-Survival Role Of Mdmx In Neurons, Daniel James Colacurcio Jan 2014

Degradation Of The Oncoprotein Mdmx In Neurodegenerative States: Evidence For A Pro-Survival Role Of Mdmx In Neurons, Daniel James Colacurcio

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer Disease (AD) and HIV–associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) represent a tremendous burden to healthcare and a devastating impact on society. A common feature of neurodegenerative diseases is progressive dysfunction and death of neurons in key regions of the brain. Observations of dysregulated cell cycle proteins in the brains of patients, along with research in animal models and cultured cells, suggest that aberrant functions of cell cycle proteins contribute to neuronal death and progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

The p53 tumor suppressor is a key component in cell cycle signaling and cell death. p53 maintains multiple functions ...


Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2014

Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

Animals selected for residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as a model to elucidate molecular explanations for differences in growth efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the protein profile and posttranslational modifications of mitochondria from skeletal muscle and liver relate to feed efficiency gains in pigs divergently selected for RFI. Mitochondria were isolated from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and the liver from pigs (n = 9 each for the high and low RFI line; BW = 95.8 kg). Mitochondria protein profile differences were determined using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis. Proteins were ...


Taking Shape : Regulating Mitochondria Morphology Through Alternative Splicing And Phosphorylation Of Fission Factor Proteins, Theodore James Wilson May 2013

Taking Shape : Regulating Mitochondria Morphology Through Alternative Splicing And Phosphorylation Of Fission Factor Proteins, Theodore James Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are important cellular organelles whose functions include generation of ATP, sequestration and release of pro-apoptotic molecules and calcium buffering. Mitochondria function is tightly linked to organelle morphology, which exits in a dynamic spectrum between a highly interconnected/fused mitochondria network to a punctate/fragmented scattering of individual mitochondrion. A family of large GTPase enzymes modulates this spectrum, with fusion catalyzed through the actions of mitofusin 1 and 2 (Mfn1/2) on the outer mitochondria membrane (OMM) and optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) causing fusion of the inner mitochondria membrane (IMM). On the other end of the spectrum, fragmentation is catalyzed ...


Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway: Effects Of Calcium On Murine Cytochrome C Release In Brain And Liver Mitochondria, Dane M. Edwards Apr 2013

Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway: Effects Of Calcium On Murine Cytochrome C Release In Brain And Liver Mitochondria, Dane M. Edwards

Senior Honors Theses

A cell may use one of three main apoptotic pathways leading to programmed cell death: the extrinsic pathway, the perforin/granzyme pathway and the intrinsic pathway. The most pertinent to this discussion is the intrinsic pathway, which utilizes the mitochondria as an essential intermediary. Mitochondria’s primary function in relation to this pathway is the subsequent release of pro-apoptotic factors including cytochrome c, which activate a caspase cascade leading to the death of the cell. Cytochrome c is released partly due to an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. Two methods of the release of cytochrome c have been proposed. The ...


Improvements To The Forensic Analysis Of Mitochondrial Dna Typing, Elizabeth Montano May 2012

Improvements To The Forensic Analysis Of Mitochondrial Dna Typing, Elizabeth Montano

Honors Scholar Theses

Sequence analysis of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an effective and reliable tool for the genetic characterization of forensic samples. The nature of the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome), its high copy number and small size (~17kb) makes it more resistant to degradation and more stable than nuclear DNA. For this reason mitochondrial DNA is often the only feasible option for the forensic analysis of environmentally compromised samples. Currently the forensic analysis of the mtgenome is restricted to the hypervariable regions, also known as the Displacement loop (d-loop). Previous studies, confirmed in the Strausbaugh lab, have demonstrated an increased variability in the ...


Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones Apr 2012

Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cryopreserved allograft heart valves represent the best solution for a patient with a failing heart valve. However, the constituent cells become apoptotic and within months of transplant the heart valve becomes acellular and the recipient's cells do not repopulate the allograft (3, 51). A strategy to prevent this situation would be to minimize or prevent apoptosis from occurring by strategically altering steps during heart valve processing. Recently it has been demonstrated that: 1) Heat shock protein 70 is a negative modulator of the apoptotic cascade; 2) Cells in culture exposed to hypothermic conditions produce heat shock protein 70 upon ...


Heterogeneity In Mitochondrial Morphology And Membrane Potential Is Independent Of The Nuclear Division Cycle In Multinucleate Fungal Cells, John P. Gerstenberger, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jan 2012

Heterogeneity In Mitochondrial Morphology And Membrane Potential Is Independent Of The Nuclear Division Cycle In Multinucleate Fungal Cells, John P. Gerstenberger, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm. We hypothesize that the division cycle machinery has a limited zone of influence in the cytoplasm to promote nuclear autonomy. Mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells undergo cell cycle-specific changes in morphology and membrane potential and therefore can serve as a reporter of the cell cycle state of the cytoplasm. To evaluate if the cell cycle state of nuclei in A. gossypii can influ


Paternal Mitochondria Elimination And Cell Death Regulation In C. Elegans, Qinghua Zhou Jan 2012

Paternal Mitochondria Elimination And Cell Death Regulation In C. Elegans, Qinghua Zhou

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The nematode C. elegans is a model organism for various biomedical studies due to its genetic simplicity and conservation with humans. As C. elegans is uniquely amenable to cellular, molecular genetic, and biochemical analyses, many basic biological processes are investigated by experimentally manipulating and observing worms. My thesis describes how I used C. elegans models to advance our understanding of paternal mitochondria elimination and cell death regulation.

Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles that carry their own genome (mtDNA). In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondria and mtDNA is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional ...


Higher Il-6 And Il6:Igf Ratio In Patients With Barth Syndrome, Lori D. Wilson, Sadeeka Al-Majid, Cyril Rakovski, Christina D. Schwindt Jan 2012

Higher Il-6 And Il6:Igf Ratio In Patients With Barth Syndrome, Lori D. Wilson, Sadeeka Al-Majid, Cyril Rakovski, Christina D. Schwindt

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Barth Syndrome (BTHS) is a serious X-linked genetic disorder associated with mutations in the tafazzin gene (TAZ, also called G4.5). The multi-system disorder is primarily characterized by the following pathologies: cardiac and skeletal myopathies, neutropenia, growth delay, and exercise intolerance. Although growth anomalies have been widely reported in BTHS, there is a paucity of research on the role of inflammation and the potential link to alterations in growth factors levels in BTHS patients.

Methods: Plasma from 36 subjects, 22 patients with Barth Syndrome (0.5 - 24 yrs) and 14 healthy control males (8 - 21 yrs) was analyzed for ...