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Inflammation

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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Plasma Circulating Extracellular Rnas In Left Ventricular Remodeling Post-Myocardial Infarction, Kirsty M. Danielson, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Saumya Das Jun 2018

Plasma Circulating Extracellular Rnas In Left Ventricular Remodeling Post-Myocardial Infarction, Kirsty M. Danielson, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Saumya Das

Open Access Articles

Despite substantial declines in mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), subsequent left ventricular remodeling (LVRm) remains a significant long-term complication. Extracellular small non-coding RNAs (exRNAs) have been associated with cardiac inflammation and fibrosis and we hypothesized that they are associated with post-MI LVRm phenotypes. RNA sequencing of exRNAs was performed on plasma samples from patients with "beneficial" (decrease LVESVI > /=20%, n=11) and "adverse" (increase LVESVI > /=15%, n=11) LVRm. Selected differentially expressed exRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR (n=331) and analyzed for their association with LVRm determined by cardiac MRI. Principal components of exRNAs were associated with LVRm phenotypes post-MI ...


Rip Kinase 1-Dependent Endothelial Necroptosis Underlies Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Matija Zelic, Justine E. Roderick, Joanne A. O'Donnell, Jesse Lehman, Sung Eun Lim, Harish P. Janardhan, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Manolis Pasparakis, Michelle A. Kelliher May 2018

Rip Kinase 1-Dependent Endothelial Necroptosis Underlies Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Matija Zelic, Justine E. Roderick, Joanne A. O'Donnell, Jesse Lehman, Sung Eun Lim, Harish P. Janardhan, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Manolis Pasparakis, Michelle A. Kelliher

Open Access Articles

Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) has important kinase-dependent and kinase-independent scaffolding functions that activate or prevent apoptosis or necroptosis in a cell context-dependent manner. The kinase activity of RIPK1 mediates hypothermia and lethality in a mouse model of TNF-induced shock, reflecting the hyperinflammatory state of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), where the proinflammatory "cytokine storm" has long been viewed as detrimental. Here, we demonstrate that cytokine and chemokine levels did not predict survival and, importantly, that kinase-inactive Ripk1D138N/D138N hematopoietic cells afforded little protection from TNF- or TNF/zVAD-induced shock in reconstituted mice. Unexpectedly, RIPK1 kinase-inactive mice transplanted with ...


5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox)-5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (Flap)-Nanodisc Complex: A Model For The 5-Lox-Flap Interaction, Erin Elizabeth Schexnaydre Mar 2018

5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lox)-5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (Flap)-Nanodisc Complex: A Model For The 5-Lox-Flap Interaction, Erin Elizabeth Schexnaydre

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators of the inflammatory response that play important roles in diseases such as asthma and atherosclerosis. Leukotriene A4 (LTA4) is synthesized from arachidonic acid (AA) by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with the help of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), a trimeric nuclear transmembrane protein. Exactly how 5-LOX and FLAP interact is not well understood, however FLAP is essential for the production of leukotrienes in vivo. I used nanodiscs (NDs), engineered membrane systems, as a tool to study the 5-LOX-FLAP interaction. FLAP was incorporated into NDs with a phospholipid composition to mimic of the nuclear membrane. Structural features were ...


Hypoxic Influences On Myeloid Cells During Inflammation And Inflammation-Associated Cancer, Nan Lin Jan 2018

Hypoxic Influences On Myeloid Cells During Inflammation And Inflammation-Associated Cancer, Nan Lin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of many acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, and exerts significant influence on their progression. Macrophages and neutrophils are major cellular components of innate immunity and contribute not only to O2 deprivation at the site of inflammation, but also alter many of their functions in response to hypoxia to either facilitate or suppress inflammation. Hypoxia stabilizes HIF-αs in macrophages and neutrophils, and these O2-sensitive transcription factors are key regulators of inflammatory responses in myeloid cells. This body of work investigates the role of myeloid HIF-αs in the settings of several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

First ...


Decreasing Cb1 Receptor Signaling In Kupffer Cells Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Mice, Tony Jourdan, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J. Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P. Czech, George Kunos Nov 2017

Decreasing Cb1 Receptor Signaling In Kupffer Cells Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Mice, Tony Jourdan, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J. Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P. Czech, George Kunos

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, and increased activity of hepatic CB1R has been shown to promote both processes. However, lipid accumulation in liver can be experimentally dissociated from insulin resistance under certain conditions, suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Obesity is also associated with pro-inflammatory changes which, in turn, can promote insulin resistance. Kupffer cells (KCs), the liver's resident macrophages, are the major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver, such as TNF-alpha, which has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling in multiple cell types ...


The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg Jun 2017

The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg

Jenny Ekberg

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS. There are two key types of PNS glia: olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which populate the olfactory ...


Map4k4 Impairs Energy Metabolism In Endothelial Cells And Promotes Insulin Resistance In Obesity, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Marina T. Distefano, Laura V. Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C. Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P. Czech Jun 2017

Map4k4 Impairs Energy Metabolism In Endothelial Cells And Promotes Insulin Resistance In Obesity, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Marina T. Distefano, Laura V. Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C. Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P. Czech

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that inducible EC Map4k4 deletion in adult mice ameliorates metabolic dysfunction in obesity despite the development of chylous ascites and a concomitant striking increase in adipose tissue lymphocyte ...


Macrophages Are Necessary For Epimorphic Regeneration In African Spiny Mice, Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R. Gawriluk, John C. Gensel, Ashley W. Seifert May 2017

Macrophages Are Necessary For Epimorphic Regeneration In African Spiny Mice, Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R. Gawriluk, John C. Gensel, Ashley W. Seifert

Biology Faculty Publications

How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration (Acomys cahirinus) and scarring (Mus musculus), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for ...


Distinct Kinase-Independent Role Of Ripk3 In Cd11c+ Mononuclear Phagocytes In Cytokine-Induced Tissue Repair, Kenta Moriwaki, Sakthi Balaji, John Bertin, Peter J. Gough, Francis Ka-Ming Chan Mar 2017

Distinct Kinase-Independent Role Of Ripk3 In Cd11c+ Mononuclear Phagocytes In Cytokine-Induced Tissue Repair, Kenta Moriwaki, Sakthi Balaji, John Bertin, Peter J. Gough, Francis Ka-Ming Chan

Open Access Articles

Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) induces necroptosis, a type of regulated necrosis, through its kinase domain and receptor interacting protein (RIP) homotypic interaction motif (RHIM). In addition, RIPK3 has been shown to regulate NLRP3 inflammasome and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. However, the relative contribution of these signaling pathways to RIPK3-dependent inflammation in distinct immune effectors is unknown. To investigate these questions, we generated RIPK3-GFP reporter mice. We found that colonic CD11c+CD11b+CD14+ mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) expressed the highest level of RIPK3 in the lamina propria. Consequently, deletion of the RIPK3 RHIM in CD11c+ cells alone was sufficient ...


The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson Jan 2017

The Role Of Inflammasomes In Asbestos-Induced Mesothelial To Fibroblastic Transition, Joyce K. Thompson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a fatal disease with a low median survival between 8 to 12 months after diagnosis. MM has a long latency period (10-60 years), is causally related to asbestos exposure, and is refractory to all available modes of therapy. Despite the causal association between asbestos exposure and MM however, the mechanisms by which asbestos induces this deadly disease remain unclear. Chronic inflammation due to the presence of asbestos fibers is believed to play an important role in all aspects of MM pathogenesis, from development to progression and resistance. Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote dysregulated wound ...


Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam Jan 2017

Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: The vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) possess the ability to differentiate into a synthetic phenotype in response to stress. This phenotypic modulation may be accompanied by inflammatory or osteogenic response in chronic stress. The synthetic state is characterized by low levels of contractile markers unlike the differentiated state.

Hypothesis: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes phenotypic modulation in VSMCs leading to apoptosis. Many transcription factors induced by ER stress contribute to the downregulation of Sm22α. Perturbation in cytoskeletal dynamics exacerbates the ER stress response.

Methods: Ex-vivo culture was used to establish importance of Sm22 in ER stress. In vitro analysis ...


Hdac6 Inhibition Prevents Tnf-Α-Induced Caspase 3 Activation In Lung Endothelial Cell And Maintains Cell-Cell Junctions, Jinyan Yu, Mengshi Ma, Zhongsen Ma, Jian Fu Jul 2016

Hdac6 Inhibition Prevents Tnf-Α-Induced Caspase 3 Activation In Lung Endothelial Cell And Maintains Cell-Cell Junctions, Jinyan Yu, Mengshi Ma, Zhongsen Ma, Jian Fu

Center for Research on Environmental Disease Faculty Publications

Pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce caspase activation in endothelial cells, which leads to degradation of cellular proteins, induction of apoptotic signaling, and endothelial cell dysfunction. New therapeutic agents that can inhibit caspase activation may provide protection against inflammatory injury to endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibition on TNF-α induced caspase 3 activation and cell-cell junction dysfunction in lung endothelial cells. We also assessed the protective effects of HDAC6 inhibition against lung inflammatory injury in a mouse model of endotoxemia. We demonstrated that selective HDAC6 inhibition or knockdown of ...


Inflammation Mediated By Jnk In Myeloid Cells Promotes The Development Of Hepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Myoung Souk Han, Tamera Barrett, Michael A. Brehm, Roger J. Davis Apr 2016

Inflammation Mediated By Jnk In Myeloid Cells Promotes The Development Of Hepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Myoung Souk Han, Tamera Barrett, Michael A. Brehm, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is required for the development of hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A role for JNK in liver parenchymal cells has been proposed, but more recent studies have implicated non-parenchymal liver cells as the relevant site of JNK signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that myeloid cells mediate this function of JNK. We show that mice with myeloid cell-specific JNK deficiency exhibit reduced hepatic inflammation and suppression of both hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. These data identify myeloid cells as a site of pro-inflammatory signaling by JNK that can promote liver pathology. Targeting myeloid cells with ...


Better Cognitive Control Of Emotional Information Is Associated With Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Reactivity To Emotional Stress, Grant S. Shields, Shari Young Kuchenbecker, Sarah D. Pressman, Ken D. Sumida, George M. Slavich Jan 2016

Better Cognitive Control Of Emotional Information Is Associated With Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Reactivity To Emotional Stress, Grant S. Shields, Shari Young Kuchenbecker, Sarah D. Pressman, Ken D. Sumida, George M. Slavich

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to stress. To address this issue, we conducted a laboratory-based experimental study in which we randomly assigned healthy young-adult females to either an acute emotional stress (emotionally evocative video) or no-stress (control video) condition. Salivary levels of ...


Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae Dec 2015

Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent findings of brown adipocytes and brown-like or beige adipocytes, capable of dissipating energy as heat, in adult humans have promised new hope for obesity treatment and prevention. Understanding of the regulation of brown and beige adipocytes will provide novel strategies to reach the goal. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are responsible for inflammation in adipose tissue, which leads to adipose dysfunction and obesity associated chronic diseases. It has been shown that PRR activation induces inflammation, leading to insulin resistance in white adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the roles of PRR activation in brown adipocytes and brown adipose tissue ...


Aspirin Triggered Resolution Phase Interaction Product D1: A Novel Treatment For Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury, Ruan Rollin Cox, Jr. Jul 2015

Aspirin Triggered Resolution Phase Interaction Product D1: A Novel Treatment For Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury, Ruan Rollin Cox, Jr.

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Acute Lung injury (ALI) and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are respiratory maladies that present immense clinical challenges. ALI affects 200,000 individuals annually and features a 40% mortality rate. ALI can be initiated by both pathogenic and sterile insults originating locally in the lungs or systemically. While immense research has been poured into this disease in an effort to find a therapeutic strategy, the heterogeneously diffuse nature of the disease has not yielded a cure for the disease. Death from this disease is strongly attributed to reduced gas exchange from a severely compromised alveolar-capillary barrier. The ...


The Gut-Liver Axis Regulates Pulmonary Inflammation After Intoxication And Burn Injury, Michael M. Chen Jan 2015

The Gut-Liver Axis Regulates Pulmonary Inflammation After Intoxication And Burn Injury, Michael M. Chen

Dissertations

The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its high association with traumatic injury warrant further investigation into the mechanisms underlying the worsened clinical outcomes associated with this combined injury. Existing literature suggests the liver is at the center of the postburn systemic response with crosstalk between the intestinal microbiome and the liver playing an important role after injury. There is a paucity in the literature, however, regarding the role of the gut-liver axis in the common clinical scenario of burns preceded by alcohol intoxication. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated intoxication potentiates postburn hepatic damage and IL-6 production in a ...


The Role Of Alveolar Macrophages In Pulmonary Inflammation After Intoxication And Burn Injury, Jill Ann Shults Jan 2015

The Role Of Alveolar Macrophages In Pulmonary Inflammation After Intoxication And Burn Injury, Jill Ann Shults

Dissertations

A positive blood alcohol concentration is detected in nearly half of burn patients admitted to the emergency room. The combined insult of being intoxicated at the time of burn injury results in more clinical complications, in comparison to non-intoxicated burn patients. Severe burn, with or without inhalation injury, is a common predisposing factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Exacerbated pulmonary inflammation and a net result of insufficient gas exchange underlie the large percentage of burn fatalities due to pulmonary complications. Previous studies in our laboratory indicate a drastic elevation in pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model ...


Soy Isoflavones Mediate Radioprotection Of Normal Lung Tissue By Modulating The Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Response, Lisa Marie Abernathy Jan 2015

Soy Isoflavones Mediate Radioprotection Of Normal Lung Tissue By Modulating The Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Response, Lisa Marie Abernathy

Wayne State University Dissertations

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is caused by an early inflammatory process triggered by damage to lung parenchyma, epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells and stroma. Initially, oxidative injuries after radiation induce altered expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Infiltrating inflammatory cells are stimulated and activated, producing additional mediators, resulting in a cytokine cascade. The expansion and perpetual activation of inflammatory cells, as well as lung parenchyma, lead to clinical pneumonitis. Activated cells produce molecular mediators and growth factors that affect the proliferation and gene expression of lung fibroblasts. This process leads to increased collagen synthesis and deposition, eventually leading to the development of ...


Manipulation Of The Innate Immune Response And Evasion Of Macrophage Host Defense Mechanisms By Francisella Tularensis, Matthew Eugene Long Dec 2014

Manipulation Of The Innate Immune Response And Evasion Of Macrophage Host Defense Mechanisms By Francisella Tularensis, Matthew Eugene Long

Theses and Dissertations

Tularemia is a potentially fatally illness caused by the facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Virulent strains of F. tularensis can cause a fatal disease after inhalation of a few as ten organisms. Due to the highly pathogenic features of Francisella, it has been designated as a Tier 1 select agent, meaning that its possession and handling is highly restricted. Macrophages are phagocytes that play a central role in the innate immune response to infection that can be used by certain pathogens, including Francisella, as a niche for bacterial replication and dissemination during infection. After infection of macrophages Francisella escapes ...


Tlr Sorting By Rab11 Endosomes Maintains Intestinal Epithelial-Microbial Homeostasis, Shiyan Yu, Yingchao Nie, Y. Tony Ip, Nan Gao Sep 2014

Tlr Sorting By Rab11 Endosomes Maintains Intestinal Epithelial-Microbial Homeostasis, Shiyan Yu, Yingchao Nie, Y. Tony Ip, Nan Gao

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Compartmentalization of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulates distinct immune responses to microbes; however, the specific cellular machinery that controls this mechanism has not been fully identified. Here we provide genetic evidences that the recycling endosomal compartment in enterocytes maintains a homeostatic TLR9 intracellular distribution, supporting mucosal tolerance to normal microbiota. Genetic ablation of a recycling endosome resident small GTPase, Rab11a, a gene adjacent to a Crohn's disease risk locus, in mouse IECs and in Drosophila midgut caused epithelial cell-intrinsic cytokine production, inflammatory bowel phenotype, and early mortality. Unlike wild-type controls, germ-free Rab11a-deficient mouse intestines failed ...


Evaluation Of The Contribution Of Multiple Damps And Damp Receptors In Cell Death-Induced Sterile Inflammatory Responses, Hiroshi Kataoka, Hajime Kono, Zubin Patel, Kenneth L. Rock Aug 2014

Evaluation Of The Contribution Of Multiple Damps And Damp Receptors In Cell Death-Induced Sterile Inflammatory Responses, Hiroshi Kataoka, Hajime Kono, Zubin Patel, Kenneth L. Rock

Open Access Articles

When cells die by necrosis in vivo they stimulate an inflammatory response. It is thought that this response is triggered when the injured cells expose proinflammatory molecules, collectively referred to as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by cells or soluble molecules of the innate or adaptive immune system. Several putative DAMPs and/or their receptors have been identified, but whether and how much they participate in responses in vivo is incompletely understood, and they have not previously been compared side-by-side in the same models. This study focuses on evaluating the contribution of multiple mechanisms that have been ...


Neutrophil Priming And Host Inflammation: The Roles Of Nox2 And Toll-Like Receptors, Laura Christine Whitmore May 2014

Neutrophil Priming And Host Inflammation: The Roles Of Nox2 And Toll-Like Receptors, Laura Christine Whitmore

Theses and Dissertations

Neutrophils, essential innate immune cells, recognize danger signals through receptors on their surface. Upon receptor ligation, neutrophils may undergo priming, a process involving limited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and partial degranulation. Priming facilitates neutrophil migration and prepares the cell for an enhanced response to a secondary stimulus, including a spike in ROS generation by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). It is well established that NOX2-derived oxidants are involved in pathogen killing and that off-target effects can cause host tissue damage; however, several lines of recent evidence also support an anti-inflammatory function for NOX2 oxidants. First, patients with chronic granulomatous disease ...


Immature Myeloid Cells Promote Tumor Formation Via Non-Suppressive Mechanism, Myrna Lillian Ortiz Feb 2014

Immature Myeloid Cells Promote Tumor Formation Via Non-Suppressive Mechanism, Myrna Lillian Ortiz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Although there is ample evidence linking chronic inflammation with cancer, the cellular mechanisms involved in early events leading to tumor development remain unclear. Myeloid cells are an intricate part of inflammation. They consist of mature cells represented by macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes and a population of Immature Myeloid Cells (IMC), which in healthy individuals are cells in transition to mature cells. There is a substantial expansion of IMC in cancer and many other pathological conditions which is associated with pathologic activation of these cells. As a result, these cells acquire the ability to suppress immune responses and are ...


Blockade Of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation, Lin Chen, Megan Schrementi, Matthew J. Ranzer, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. Dipietro Jan 2014

Blockade Of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation, Lin Chen, Megan Schrementi, Matthew J. Ranzer, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. Dipietro

Faculty Publications & Research

Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair ...


The Long Noncoding Rna Thril Regulates Tnfalpha Expression Through Its Interaction With Hnrnpl, Zhonghan Li, Ti-Chun Chao, Kung-Yen Chang, Nianwei Lin, Veena S. Patil, Chisato Shimizu, Steven R. Head, Jane C. Burns, Tariq M. Rana Jan 2014

The Long Noncoding Rna Thril Regulates Tnfalpha Expression Through Its Interaction With Hnrnpl, Zhonghan Li, Ti-Chun Chao, Kung-Yen Chang, Nianwei Lin, Veena S. Patil, Chisato Shimizu, Steven R. Head, Jane C. Burns, Tariq M. Rana

GSBS Student Publications

Thousands of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian genome, many of which have important roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we used a custom microarray to identify lincRNAs associated with activation of the innate immune response. A panel of 159 lincRNAs was found to be differentially expressed following innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Among them, linc1992 was shown to be expressed in many human tissues and was required for induction of TNFalpha expression. Linc1992 bound specifically to heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL) and formed a functional linc1992-hnRNPL complex that regulated transcription of ...


The Effect Of Lactic Acid On Mast Cell Function, Andrew J. Spence Jan 2014

The Effect Of Lactic Acid On Mast Cell Function, Andrew J. Spence

Theses and Dissertations

This study shows for the first time the effect that L-(+)-lactic acid has on mast cell activation. Lactic acid is a byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis and is associated with inflammatory environments such as wounds, tumors and, asthma. In this study, pre-treatment with lactic acid altered cytokine production by bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Specifically, lactic acid enhanced cytokine secretion following IgE cross-linking, but decreased IL-33 mediated cytokine production. These effects were altered by genetic background, since C57BL/6 mast cells demonstrated the aforementioned result, but lactic acid had no effect on IgE-mediated cytokine production in 129/SvJ mast cells ...


Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Cancer And Inflammation, Jessica Elizabeth Stewart Shay Jan 2014

Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Cancer And Inflammation, Jessica Elizabeth Stewart Shay

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) mediate adaptation to low O2, or hypoxia, are important at every stage of tumor initiation, and impact the progression of a variety of diseases, including colorectal cancer. This body of work investigates the role of hypoxia and HIF-mediated signaling in both tumor cells and macrophages across the natural history of inflammation-induced cancers. First, the effect of HIF inhibition in tumor parenchyma and stroma in extant colitis-associated colon carcinomas (CAC) is investigated using acriflavine (ACF), a naturally occurring compound known to repress HIF transcriptional activity. Pharmacologic HIF inhibition represents a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment and data ...


Role Of Pikfyve In Platelet Lysosomal Homeostasis, Sang Hee Min Jan 2014

Role Of Pikfyve In Platelet Lysosomal Homeostasis, Sang Hee Min

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

PIKfyve is a lipid kinase that is essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2], and for the regulation of membrane dynamics within the endolysosomal system in mammals. Depletion of intracellular pools of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in humans and in mice is associated with neurodegeneration and early lethality. However, the biological role of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in non-neural tissues is not well understood. Platelets are hematopoietic cells that function in a variety of physiological responses. Essential to many of these functions is the activation-dependent release of effectors from distinct storage granules - alpha granules, dense granules ...


The Combination Of Aging And Inflammation Interact To Produce Specific Changes In Bdnf Protein Isoform Expression, Bdnf-Dependent Signaling And Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity, Giuseppe Paolo Cortese Jan 2013

The Combination Of Aging And Inflammation Interact To Produce Specific Changes In Bdnf Protein Isoform Expression, Bdnf-Dependent Signaling And Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity, Giuseppe Paolo Cortese

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The goals of this research were to investigate the combined effects of aging and inflammation on brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) protein biology and BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. For the past two decades neurotrophin research has generated a large body of evidence supporting the role for neurotrophins in facilitating multiple forms of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the effects that both aging and neuroinflammation may impose on these neurotrophin-related pathways.

To carry out the experiments in this study we utilized multiple models: (1) A rodent model of aging and inflammation using young (3-month-old ...