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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar Aug 2017

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Primary tumors are often heterogeneous, composed of therapy-sensitive and emerging therapy-resistant cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of therapy-sensitive tumors in heterogeneous tumor microenvironments results in apoptosis of therapy-resistant tumors. In this study, we identify a prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) amino-terminal fragment (PAF) that is released by diverse therapy-sensitive cancer cells following therapy-induced caspase cleavage of the tumor suppressor Par-4 protein. PAF caused apoptosis in cancer cells resistant to therapy and inhibited tumor growth. A VASA segment of Par-4 mediated its binding and degradation by the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo45, resulting in loss of Par-4 proapoptotic function. Conversely, PAF, which contains this VASA ...


Paracrine Regulation Of Melanocyte Genomic Stability: A Focus On Nucleotide Excision Repair, Stuart Gordon Jarrett, Katharine Marie Carter, John August D'Orazio May 2017

Paracrine Regulation Of Melanocyte Genomic Stability: A Focus On Nucleotide Excision Repair, Stuart Gordon Jarrett, Katharine Marie Carter, John August D'Orazio

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

UV radiation is a major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma by causing DNA damage and mutations. Resistance to UV damage is largely determined by the capacity of melanocytes to respond to UV injury by repairing mutagenic photolesions. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the major mechanism by which cells correct UV photodamage. This multistep process involves the basic steps of damage recognition, isolation, localized strand unwinding, assembly of a repair complex, excision of the damage‐containing strand 3′ and 5′ to the photolesion, synthesis of a sequence‐appropriate replacement strand, and finally ligation to restore continuity ...


Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair Mar 2017

Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we show how ascorbic acid kills cancer cells and sensitizes prostate cancer to radiation therapy while also conferring protection upon normal prostate epithelial cells against radiation-induced ...


Crispr-Cas9 Mediated Nox4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation And Invasion In Hela Cells, Naser Jafari, Hyunju Kim, Rackhyun Park, Liqing Li, Minsu Jang, Andrew J. Morris, Junsoo Park, Cai Huang Jan 2017

Crispr-Cas9 Mediated Nox4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation And Invasion In Hela Cells, Naser Jafari, Hyunju Kim, Rackhyun Park, Liqing Li, Minsu Jang, Andrew J. Morris, Junsoo Park, Cai Huang

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Increased expression of NOX4 protein is associated with cancer progression and metastasis but the role of NOX4 in cell proliferation and invasion is not fully understood. We generated NOX4 knockout HeLa cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to explore the cellular functions of NOX4. After transfection of CRISPR-Cas9 construct, we performed T7 endonuclease 1 assays and DNA sequencing to generate and identify insertion and deletion of the NOX4 locus. We confirmed the knockout of NOX4 by Western blotting. NOX4 knockout cell lines showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase of sub-G1 cell population and the decrease of S ...


Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao Oct 2016

Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The proper establishment of epithelial polarity allows cells to sense and respond to signals that arise from the microenvironment in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Atypical PKCs (aPKCs) are implicated as key regulators of epithelial polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of aPKCs remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, plays an important role in regulating epithelial polarity by controlling the phosphorylation of both aPKC isoforms. Altered expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 disrupted polarization of Caco2 cells grown in 3D cell ...


Expression And Function Of Pannexins In The Inner Ear And Hearing, Hong-Bo Zhao May 2016

Expression And Function Of Pannexins In The Inner Ear And Hearing, Hong-Bo Zhao

Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery Faculty Publications

Pannexin (Panx) is a gene family encoding gap junction proteins in vertebrates. So far, three isoforms (Panx1, 2 and 3) have been identified. All of three Panx isoforms express in the cochlea with distinct expression patterns. Panx1 expresses in the cochlea extensively, including the spiral limbus, the organ of Corti, and the cochlear lateral wall, whereas Panx2 and Panx3 restrict to the basal cells of the stria vascularis in the lateral wall and the cochlear bony structure, respectively. However, there is no pannexin expression in auditory sensory hair cells. Recent studies demonstrated that like connexin gap junction gene, Panx1 deficiency ...


Ampa-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery In Premature Rabbits With Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Preeti Dohare, Muhammad T. Zia, Ehsan Ahmed, Asad Ahmed, Vivek Yadala, Praveen Ballabh Mar 2016

Ampa-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery In Premature Rabbits With Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Preeti Dohare, Muhammad T. Zia, Ehsan Ahmed, Asad Ahmed, Vivek Yadala, Praveen Ballabh

NYMC Faculty Publications

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants leads to cerebral inflammation, reduced myelination of the white matter, and neurological deficits. No therapeutic strategy exists against the IVH-induced white matter injury. AMPA-kainate receptor induced excitotoxicity contributes to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) damage and hypomyelination in both neonatal and adult models of brain injury. Here, we hypothesized that IVH damages white matter via AMPA receptor activation, and that AMPA-kainate receptor inhibition suppresses inflammation and restores OPC maturation, myelination, and neurologic recovery in preterm newborns with IVH. We tested these hypotheses in a rabbit model of glycerol-induced IVH and evaluated the expression of AMPA ...


P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio Mar 2016

P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTENpc−/− transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases ...


Hyaluronidase And Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides Promote Neurological Recovery After Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Govindaiah Vinukonda, Preeti Dohare, Arslan Arshad, Muhammad T. Zia, Sanjeet Panda, Ritesh Korumilli, Praveen Ballabh Jan 2016

Hyaluronidase And Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides Promote Neurological Recovery After Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Govindaiah Vinukonda, Preeti Dohare, Arslan Arshad, Muhammad T. Zia, Sanjeet Panda, Ritesh Korumilli, Praveen Ballabh

NYMC Faculty Publications

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in premature infants results in inflammation, arrested oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation, and reduced myelination of the white matter. Hyaluronan (HA) inhibits OPC maturation and complexes with the heavy chain (HC) of glycoprotein inter-α-inhibitor to form pathological HA (HC-HA complex), which exacerbates inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IVH would result in accumulation of HA, and that either degradation of HA by hyaluronidase treatment or elimination of HCs from pathological HA by HA oligosaccharide administration would restore OPC maturation, myelination, and neurological function in survivors with IVH. To test these hypotheses, we used the preterm rabbit model of ...


Phlpp Negatively Regulates Cell Motility Through Inhibition Of Akt Activity And Integrin Expression In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Alena J. Smith, Yang-An Wen, Payton D. Stevens, Jingpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Tianyan Gao Jan 2016

Phlpp Negatively Regulates Cell Motility Through Inhibition Of Akt Activity And Integrin Expression In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Alena J. Smith, Yang-An Wen, Payton D. Stevens, Jingpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is currently the fourth leading cause for cancer-related mortality. Malignant progression of pancreatic cancer depends not only on rapid proliferation of tumor cells but also on increased cell motility. In this study, we showed that increased PHLPP expression significantly reduced the rate of migration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells whereas knockdown of PHLPP had the opposite effect. In addition, cell motility at the individual cell level was negatively regulated by PHLPP as determined using time-lapse imaging. Interestingly, the expression of β1 and β4 integrin proteins were decreased in PHLPP overexpressing cells and increased in PHLPP knockdown cells ...


Temporal Trends In Serum Concentrations Of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, And Pcbs Among Adult Women Living In Chapaevsk, Russia: A Longitudinal Study From 2000 To 2009, Olivier Humblet, Oleg Sergeyev, Larisa Altshul, Susan A. Korrick, Paige L. Williams, Claude Emond, Linda S. Birnbaum, Jane S. Burns, Mary M. Lee, Boris Revich, Andrey Shelepchikov, Denis Feshin, Russ Hauser Sep 2014

Temporal Trends In Serum Concentrations Of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, And Pcbs Among Adult Women Living In Chapaevsk, Russia: A Longitudinal Study From 2000 To 2009, Olivier Humblet, Oleg Sergeyev, Larisa Altshul, Susan A. Korrick, Paige L. Williams, Claude Emond, Linda S. Birnbaum, Jane S. Burns, Mary M. Lee, Boris Revich, Andrey Shelepchikov, Denis Feshin, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

BACKGROUND: The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs) among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity.

METHODS: Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009), and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ) decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid), and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid). Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women ...


Infant Formula, Autoimmune Triggers, And Type 1 Diabetes, David Harlan, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Infant Formula, Autoimmune Triggers, And Type 1 Diabetes, David Harlan, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.