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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston Apr 2019

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston

Thinking Matters Symposium

To prevent abnormal development caused by expressing both X chromosomes, female mammals inactivate one of their X chromosomes using an epigenetic process called dosage compensation. This literature review examines how X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs during the formation and development of an embryo. This condensation of DNA is marked by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, and the arrival of structural proteins resulting in extraordinarily stable heterochromatin. X-inactivation is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation center (Xic) that contains the Xist gene and its antisense gene, Tsix. On one X chromosome, Xist RNA is expressed and coats the center of the ...


Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch Feb 2019

Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch

Open Access Articles

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang Dec 2017

Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang

Capstones

As science has progressed, scientists have realized that evidence goes beyond the realms of physical sight. Whether it is too small or difficult to find, scientists have developed different ways to get around this problem. We see this in cancer genomics and in extrasolar planetary research. Scientists use what they know and what they measure to validate their work.

https://lucy-huang-9tge.squarespace.com/


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson May 2017

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

David Grünwald

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson Aug 2016

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


Principles Of Biology, Robert Bear, David Rintoul, Bruce Snyder, Martha Smith-Caldas, Christopher Herren, Eva Horne Jan 2016

Principles Of Biology, Robert Bear, David Rintoul, Bruce Snyder, Martha Smith-Caldas, Christopher Herren, Eva Horne

Open Access Textbooks

This textbook is designed specifically for Kansas State's Biology 198 Class. The course is taught using the studio approach and based on active learning. The studio manual contains all of the learning objectives for each class period and is the record of all student activities. Hence, this textbook is more of a reference tool while the studio manual is the learning tool.

The textbook was originally published and is also available to download at http://cnx.org/contents/db89c8f8-a27c-4685-ad2a-19d11a2a7e2e@24.1.It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license.


Tno1 & Vps45: Snare-Associated Proteins Required For Plant Growth, Rahul Roy Jan 2016

Tno1 & Vps45: Snare-Associated Proteins Required For Plant Growth, Rahul Roy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellular trafficking of cargo vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for multiple processes such as cell expansion, stress responses and hormonal transport in plants. Activity of membrane proteins known as SNAREs drives membrane fusion events. Associated proteins such as tethering factors and Sec1/Munc18 proteins aid the fidelity and efficiency of these fusion events by interacting with SNAREs. The TGN-localized SYP41/SYP61/VTI12 SNARE complex is required for vacuolar and secretory cargo trafficking.

TNO1, a putative tethering factor, associates with SYP41 and is required for TGN membrane fusion dynamics and proper SYP61 localization. My dissertation research discovered a ...


Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jul 2015

Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Dendritic growth in fungi and neurons requires that multiple axes of polarity are established and maintained within the same cytoplasm. We have discovered that transcripts encoding key polarity factors including a formin, Bni1, and a polarisome scaffold, Spa2, are nonrandomly clustered in the cytosol to initiate and maintain sites of polarized growth in the fungus Ashbya gossypii. This asymmetric distribution requires the mRNAs to interact with a polyQ-containing protein, Whi3, and a Pumilio protein with a low-complexity sequence, Puf2. Cells lacking Whi3 or Puf2 had severe defects in establishing new sites of polarity and failed to localize Bni1 protein. Interaction ...


Tctex1d2 Mutations Underlie Jeune Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy With Impaired Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport, Miriam Schmidts, Yuqing Hou, Hannah M. Mitchison, George B. Witman Jun 2015

Tctex1d2 Mutations Underlie Jeune Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy With Impaired Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport, Miriam Schmidts, Yuqing Hou, Hannah M. Mitchison, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes Jan 2015

High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project was developed to identify novel methods for high-throughput culturing and screening of C. elegans to investigate age-related metabolic changes and to survey the proteomic and metabolomic factors associated with age-related changes. To accomplish these goals we developed a novel way to grow C. elegans in liquid culture in 96-well microplates for several weeks without suffering significant fluid loss due to evaporation and without needing to shake or unseal the plates for aeration. We also developed methods for assaying the total volume of live C. elegans in microplate cultures using a fluorescence microplate reader and for performing RNAi experiments ...


Polycystin-2 (Pkd2), Eccentric (Xnta), And Meckelin (Mks3) In The Ciliated Model Organism Paramecium Tetraurelia, Megan Smith Valentine Jan 2015

Polycystin-2 (Pkd2), Eccentric (Xnta), And Meckelin (Mks3) In The Ciliated Model Organism Paramecium Tetraurelia, Megan Smith Valentine

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Paramecium tetraurelia is a ciliated single cell used as a model organism for the study of ciliopathies. Ciliopathies are mammalian diseases involving the dysfunction of cilia, including cilia maintenance, construction, and signaling. P. tetraurelia and its cilia provides an excellent non-canonical system for the investigation and elucidation of proteins important for the structure, maintenance and function of cilia and ciliary beating. We utilize features of this cell such as its 1000's of cilia and highly organized and patterned cell surface to observe changes in swimming behavior or disruptions in the ordered cell surface which are not feasible in mammalian ...


Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess Jan 2014

Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a remarkable organ system that is required for almost all animal life. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle can alter its functional and molecular characteristics in response to pathologic and physiologic stimuli. Additionally, adult muscle retains the ability to regenerate following injury, activating progenitor cells much like the process of muscle formation during embryonic development. Much work has been done to characterize the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, and this knowledge has been invaluable in treatment of muscle wasting diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Further expanding the complexity of gene expression changes is the discovery ...


P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy Aug 2013

P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Myocardial infarction, an irreversible cardiac tissue damage, involves progressive loss of cardiomyocytes due to p53-mediated apoptosis. Oxygenation is known to promote cardiac survival through activation of NOS3 gene. We hypothesized a dual role for p53, which, depending on oxygenation, can elicit apoptotic death signals or NOS3-mediated survival signals in the infarct heart. p53 exhibited a differential DNA-binding, namely, BAX-p53RE in the infarct heart or NOS3-p53RE in the oxygenated heart, which was regulated by oxygen-induced, post- translational modification of p53. In the infarct heart, p53 was heavily acetylated at Lys118 residue, which was exclusively reversed in the oxygenated heart, apparently regulated ...


Use Of Image Cytometry For Quantification Of Pathogenic Fungi In Association With Host Cells, Charlotte A. Berkes, Leo Li-Ying Chan, Alisha Wilkinson, Benjamin Paradis Jun 2013

Use Of Image Cytometry For Quantification Of Pathogenic Fungi In Association With Host Cells, Charlotte A. Berkes, Leo Li-Ying Chan, Alisha Wilkinson, Benjamin Paradis

Biology Faculty Publications

Studies of the cellular pathogenesis mechanisms of pathogenic yeasts such as Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans commonly employ infection of mammalian hosts or host cells (i.e. macrophages) followed by yeast quantification using colony forming unit analysis or flow cytometry. While colony forming unit enumeration has been the most commonly used method in the field, this technique has disadvantages and limitations, including slow growth of some fungal species on solid media and low and/or variable plating efficiencies, which is of particular concern when comparing growth of wild-type and mutant strains. Flow cytometry can provide rapid quantitative information ...


Examining The Functional Role Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Valenzuela Jan 2013

Examining The Functional Role Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Valenzuela

Summer Research

The Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) family of proteins control cell growth, motility and proliferation. They have been shown to elevate the levels of these functions, leading to an increase in cancer metastasis (“malignancy”), when they are overexpressed. The goal of this experiment is to knockout PRL gene expression to examine the general function of PRL proteins. Drosophila melanogaster have only one copy of the PRL gene (dPRL-1), as opposed to humans and other mammals, which have 3. Thus, using P-element imprecise excision to create mutant strains either fully lacking or with decreased function of the dPRL-1 protein, I propose ...


Screening For Melanoma Modifiers Using A Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model, Sharanya Iyengar, Yariv Houvras, Craig J. Ceol Nov 2012

Screening For Melanoma Modifiers Using A Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model, Sharanya Iyengar, Yariv Houvras, Craig J. Ceol

GSBS Student Publications

Genomic studies of human cancers have yielded a wealth of information about genes that are altered in tumors. A challenge arising from these studies is that many genes are altered, and it can be difficult to distinguish genetic alterations that drove tumorigenesis from that those arose incidentally during transformation. To draw this distinction it is beneficial to have an assay that can quantitatively measure the effect of an altered gene on tumor initiation and other processes that enable tumors to persist and disseminate. Here we present a rapid means to screen large numbers of candidate melanoma modifiers in zebrafish using ...


Condensin Ii Promotes The Formation Of Chromosome Territories By Inducing Axial Compaction Of Polyploid Interphase Chromosomes, Christopher R. R. Bauer, Tom A. Hartl, Giovanni Bosco Aug 2012

Condensin Ii Promotes The Formation Of Chromosome Territories By Inducing Axial Compaction Of Polyploid Interphase Chromosomes, Christopher R. R. Bauer, Tom A. Hartl, Giovanni Bosco

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The eukaryotic nucleus is both spatially and functionally partitioned. This organization contributes to the maintenance, expression, and transmission of genetic information. Though our ability to probe the physical structure of the genome within the nucleus has improved substantially in recent years, relatively little is known about the factors that regulate its organization or the mechanisms through which specific organizational states are achieved. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II induces axial compaction of interphase chromosomes, globally disrupts interchromosomal interactions, and promotes the dispersal of peri-centric heterochromatin. These Condensin II activities compartmentalize the nucleus into discrete chromosome territories and indicate ...


Examining Cleft Lip And Palate As A Lifelong Disease: Genetic Investigation Of Causes And Outcomes, Beth Noelle Davidson May 2012

Examining Cleft Lip And Palate As A Lifelong Disease: Genetic Investigation Of Causes And Outcomes, Beth Noelle Davidson

Theses and Dissertations

Nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NS CL/P) is a common birth defect with estimated birth prevalence of 1/1000 worldwide. NS CL/P etiology may be explained by the action of as few as two or as many as 14 different genes (Schliekelman et al. 2002) as well as several environmental factors (e.g. smoking and folic acid) (Shi et al. 2008; Wehby et al. 2010). Convincing genetic and/or biologic evidence exists for the contribution of many genes: IRF6, 8q24, FGFR2, FOXE1, BMP4, TGFβ3, MSX1, MAFB , PAX7, ABCA4, and VAX1, to NS CL/P (Dixon et al ...


Heterogeneity In Mitochondrial Morphology And Membrane Potential Is Independent Of The Nuclear Division Cycle In Multinucleate Fungal Cells, John P. Gerstenberger, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jan 2012

Heterogeneity In Mitochondrial Morphology And Membrane Potential Is Independent Of The Nuclear Division Cycle In Multinucleate Fungal Cells, John P. Gerstenberger, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm. We hypothesize that the division cycle machinery has a limited zone of influence in the cytoplasm to promote nuclear autonomy. Mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells undergo cell cycle-specific changes in morphology and membrane potential and therefore can serve as a reporter of the cell cycle state of the cytoplasm. To evaluate if the cell cycle state of nuclei in A. gossypii can influ


Single-Cell Profiling Of Developing And Mature Retinal Neurons, Jillian J. Goetz, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi Jan 2012

Single-Cell Profiling Of Developing And Mature Retinal Neurons, Jillian J. Goetz, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Highly specialized, but exceedingly small populations of cells play important roles in many tissues. The identification of cell-type specific markers and gene expression programs for extremely rare cell subsets has been a challenge using standard whole-tissue approaches. Gene expression profiling of individual cells allows for unprecedented access to cell types that comprise only a small percentage of the total tissue1-7. In addition, this technique can be used to examine the gene expression programs that are transiently expressed in small numbers of cells during dynamic developmental transitions8. This issue of cellular diversity arises repeatedly in the central nervous system (CNS) where ...


Axl2 Integrates Polarity Establishment, Maintenance, And Environmental Stress Response In The Filamentous Fungus Ashbya Gossypii, Jonathan F. Anker, Amy S. Gladfelter Oct 2011

Axl2 Integrates Polarity Establishment, Maintenance, And Environmental Stress Response In The Filamentous Fungus Ashbya Gossypii, Jonathan F. Anker, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In budding yeast, new sites of polarity are chosen with each cell cycle and polarization is transient. In filamentous fungi, sites of polarity persist for extended periods of growth and new polarity sites can be established while existing sites are maintained. How the polarity establishment machinery functions in these distinct growth forms found in fungi is still not well understood. We have examined the function of Axl2, a transmembrane bud site selection protein discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. A. gossypii does not divide by budding and instead exhibits persistent highly polarized growth, and multiple axes ...


Roles Of Ras1 Membrane Localization During Candida Albicans Hyphal Growth And Farnesol Response, Amy E. Piispanen, Ophelie Bonnefoi, Sarah Carden, Aurelie Deveau Sep 2011

Roles Of Ras1 Membrane Localization During Candida Albicans Hyphal Growth And Farnesol Response, Amy E. Piispanen, Ophelie Bonnefoi, Sarah Carden, Aurelie Deveau

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Many Ras GTPases localize to membranes via C-terminal farnesylation and palmitoylation, and localization regulates function. In Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen of humans, Ras1 links environmental cues to morphogenesis. Here, we report the localization and membrane dynamics of Ras1, and we characterize the roles of conserved C-terminal cysteine residues, C287 and C288, which are predicted sites of palmitoylation and farnesylation, respectively. GFP-Ras1 is localized uniformly to plasma membranes in both yeast and hyphae, yet Ras1 plasma membrane mobility was reduced in hyphae compared to that in yeast. Ras1-C288S was mislocalized to the cytoplasm and could not support hyphal development. Ras1-C287S ...


Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith Apr 2010

Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For all motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella, beating is regulated by changes in intraciliary calcium concentration. Although the mechanism for calcium regulation is not understood, numerous studies have shown that calmodulin (CaM) is a key axonemal calcium sensor. Using anti-CaM antibodies and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii axonemal extracts, we precipitated a complex that includes four polypeptides and that specifically interacts with CaM in high [Ca2+]. One of the complex members, FAP221, is an orthologue of mammalian Pcdp1 (primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1). Both FAP221 and mammalian Pcdp1 specifically bind CaM in high [Ca2+]. Reduced expression of Pcdp1 complex members in ...


Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole Oct 2009

Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Apq12, a nuclear envelope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein, are defective in assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), possibly because of defects in regulating membrane fluidity. We identified BRR6, which encodes an essential integral membrane protein of the NE-ER, as a dosage suppressor of apq12 Delta. Cells carrying the temperature-sensitive brr6-1 allele have been shown to have defects in nucleoporin localization, mRNA metabolism and nuclear transport. Electron microscopy revealed that brr6-1 cells have gross NE abnormalities and proliferation of the ER. brr6-1 cells were hypersensitive to compounds that affect membrane biophysical properties and ...


Different Requirements Of The Swi/Snf Complex For Robust Nucleosome Displacement At Promoters Of Heat Shock Factor And Msn2- And Msn4-Regulated Heat Shock Genes, Tamara Y. Erkina, P. A. Tschetter, Alexander M. Erkine Jan 2008

Different Requirements Of The Swi/Snf Complex For Robust Nucleosome Displacement At Promoters Of Heat Shock Factor And Msn2- And Msn4-Regulated Heat Shock Genes, Tamara Y. Erkina, P. A. Tschetter, Alexander M. Erkine

Scholarship and Professional Work – COPHS

The stress response in yeast cells is regulated by at least two classes of transcription activators—HSF and Msn2/4, which differentially affect promoter chromatin remodeling. We demonstrate that the deletion of SNF2, an ATPase activity-containing subunit of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, eliminates histone displacement, RNA polymerase II recruitment, and heat shock factor (HSF) binding at the HSP12 promoter while delaying these processes at the HSP82 and SSA4 promoters. Out of the three promoters, the double deletion of MSN2 and MSN4 eliminates both chromatin remodeling and HSF binding only at the HSP12 promoter, suggesting that Msn2/4 activators ...


Functional Characterization Of Arabidopsis Sorting Nexin Atsnx2b, Nguyen Phan Jan 2008

Functional Characterization Of Arabidopsis Sorting Nexin Atsnx2b, Nguyen Phan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sorting nexins are conserved proteins that function in vesicular trafficking and are defined by the presence of a phox (PX) domain. Here we present the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana sorting nexin AtSNX2b. The ubiquitously-expressed sorting nexin is a peripherally-associated membrane protein whose PX domain binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in vitro. AtSNX2b localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), prevacuolar compartment and endosomes. Overexpression of GFP-tagged AtSNX2b produces enlarged GFP-labeled compartments that can be also labeled by the endocytic tracer FM4-64, while untagged AtSNX2b overexpression generates compartments which are not as large. Endocytic trafficking of FM4-64 is arrested in cells overexpressing AtSNX2b ...


Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Of The Cyclic Amp-Dependent Signaling Pathway During Morphogenic Transitions Of Candida Albicans, Yong-Sun Bahn, Matthew Molenda, Janet F. Staab, Courtney A. Lyman, Laura J. Gordon, Paula Sundstrom Dec 2007

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Of The Cyclic Amp-Dependent Signaling Pathway During Morphogenic Transitions Of Candida Albicans, Yong-Sun Bahn, Matthew Molenda, Janet F. Staab, Courtney A. Lyman, Laura J. Gordon, Paula Sundstrom

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes systemic candidiasis as well as superficial mucosal candidiasis. In response to the host environment, C. albicans transitions between yeast and hyphal forms. In particular, hyphal growth is important in facilitating adhesion and invasion of host tissues, concomitant with the expression of various hypha-specific virulence factors. In previous work, we showed that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in morphogenic transitions and virulence of C. albicans by studying genes encoding adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP1) and high-affinity phosphodiesterase (PDE2) (Y. S. Bahn, J. Staab, and P. Sundstrom, Mol ...


Role Of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics In Activation Of The Cyclic Amp Pathway And Hwp1 Gene Expression In Candida Albicans, Michael J. Wolyniak, Paula Sundstrom Oct 2007

Role Of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics In Activation Of The Cyclic Amp Pathway And Hwp1 Gene Expression In Candida Albicans, Michael J. Wolyniak, Paula Sundstrom

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Changes in gene expression during reversible bud-hypha transitions of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans permit adaptation to environmental conditions that are critical for proliferation in host tissues. Our previous work has shown that the hypha-specific adhesin gene HWP1 is up-regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway. However, little is known about the potential influences of determinants of cell morphology on HWP1 gene expression. We found that blocking hypha formation with cytochalasin A, which destabilizes actin filaments, and with latrunculin A, which sequesters actin monomers, led to a loss of HWP1 gene expression. In contrast, high levels of HWP1 ...


The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole Aug 2007

The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the structure and function of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been the focus of many studies, relatively little is known about NPC biogenesis. In this study, we report that Apq12 is required for efficient NPC biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apq12 is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum. Cells lacking Apq12 are cold sensitive for growth, and a subset of their nucleoporins (Nups), those that are primarily components of the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, mislocalize to the cytoplasm. APQ12 deletion also causes defects in NE morphology. In the absence of ...