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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey Apr 2019

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback Jan 2019

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


The Nf-Kappab Factor Relish Regulates Atg1 Expression And Controls Autophagy, Anubhab Nandy, Lin Lin, Panagiotis D. Velentzas, Louisa P. Wu, Eric H. Baehrecke, Neal S. Silverman Nov 2018

The Nf-Kappab Factor Relish Regulates Atg1 Expression And Controls Autophagy, Anubhab Nandy, Lin Lin, Panagiotis D. Velentzas, Louisa P. Wu, Eric H. Baehrecke, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

Macroautophagy and cell death both contribute to innate immunity, but little is known about how these processes integrate. Drosophila larval salivary glands require autophagy for developmentally programmed cell death, and innate immune signaling factors increase in these dying cells. Here, we show that the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) factor Relish, a component of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, is required for salivary gland degradation. Surprisingly, of the classic Imd pathway components, only Relish and the PGRP receptors were involved in salivary gland degradation. Significantly, Relish controls salivary gland degradation by regulating autophagy but not caspases. In addition, expression of either ...


Understanding Nuage-Mitochondrial Coupling In Drosophila Pirna Biogenesis, Tianfang Ge Aug 2018

Understanding Nuage-Mitochondrial Coupling In Drosophila Pirna Biogenesis, Tianfang Ge

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In the Drosophilaovary, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) suppress transposon expression, ensuring female fertility. PIWI proteins Aub and Ago3, loaded with ping-pong piRNAs and reside in perinuclear nuage granules, engage in reciprocal transposon transcript cleavage termed the ping-pong cycle. The other PIWI protein Piwi, loaded with phased piRNAs and resides in the nucleus, silences transposon transcriptionally. Ping-pong piRNAs are made through the ping-pong amplification loop by Aub and Ago3, whereas phased piRNAs are made through consecutive endonucleolytic cleavages that spread in 5′-to-3′ direction, presumably by Zucchini (Zuc), an endonuclease resides on the surface of mitochondria. The ping-pong and phasing biogenesis ...


Investigating The Role Of The Rough Deal Protein In Spindle Assembly Complex Signaling, Ryan P. Mihealsick Aug 2018

Investigating The Role Of The Rough Deal Protein In Spindle Assembly Complex Signaling, Ryan P. Mihealsick

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Evolutionary Conservation Of Midline Repulsion By Robo Family Receptors In Flies And Mice, Allison Loy May 2018

Evolutionary Conservation Of Midline Repulsion By Robo Family Receptors In Flies And Mice, Allison Loy

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the nervous system develops in animal embryos, neuronal axons are guided to their synaptic targets by extra cellular cues that signal through axon guidance receptors expressed on the surface of the axon. In animals with bilateral symmetry, one of the important decisions made by nearly every axon in the embryonic nervous system is whether to stay on its own side of the body, or to cross the midline and connect to cells on the opposite side. The Roundabout (Robo) family is an evolutionarily conserved group of axon guidance receptors that regulate midline crossing in a wide range of animal ...


Jak/Stat Signaling Regulates Gametogenesis And Age-Related Reproductive Maintenance, Michelle Suzanne Giedt Jan 2018

Jak/Stat Signaling Regulates Gametogenesis And Age-Related Reproductive Maintenance, Michelle Suzanne Giedt

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Cell signaling is central to integration of internal and external cues that regulate development and homeostasis. Most development is thought of as pre-adult, but limited developmental processes occur in adults. Gametogenesis incorporates elements of both these facets, with a distinct developmental plan for gamete synthesis which is regulated by integration of homeostatic inputs such as nutrient status, and environmental cues. Signaling pathways integrate and transduce information from these cues to evoke a response. A decline in homeostasis and subsequent cues occurs over time, in the case of reproductive tissues leading to a progressive loss of fertility. The Janus Kinase and ...


Impact Of Ros Presence On Oncogenic Ras Activity, Chris Andersen Jan 2018

Impact Of Ros Presence On Oncogenic Ras Activity, Chris Andersen

Summer Research

Previous research has suggested a connection between oncogenic Ras and the cell’s levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The underlying cellular mechanism is not well understood. To investigate this connection, we applied the UAS-GAL4 system in Drosophila melanogaster flies to control the expression of Ras and Keap1, a key redox regulator.2 We expected the activity of Ras to vary with its redox environment and thus impact protein activity downstream of Ras signaling cascades. In monitoring three proteins downstream of Ras—Dcp-1, Akt, and MAPK—we aimed to determine which pathways were impacted by ROS modulation.


Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach Jan 2018

Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Polyamines are a class of essential nutrients involved in many basic cellular processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Without polyamines, cell growth is delayed or halted. Cancerous cells require an abundance of polyamines through a combination of synthesis and transport from the extracellular environment. An FDA-approved drug, D,L-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), blocks polyamine synthesis but is ineffective at inhibiting cell growth due to polyamine transport. Thus, there is a need to develop drugs that inhibit polyamine transport to use in combination with DFMO. Surprisingly, little is known about the polyamine transport system in humans and other eukaryotes. Understanding ...


Sophisticated Lessons From Simple Organisms: Appreciating The Value Of Curiosity-Driven Research, Robert J. Duronio, Patrick H. O'Farrell, Greenfield Sluder, Tin Tin Su Dec 2017

Sophisticated Lessons From Simple Organisms: Appreciating The Value Of Curiosity-Driven Research, Robert J. Duronio, Patrick H. O'Farrell, Greenfield Sluder, Tin Tin Su

Radiology Publications and Presentations

For hundreds of years, biologists have studied accessible organisms such as garden peas, sea urchins collected at low tide, newt eggs, and flies circling rotten fruit. These organisms help us to understand the world around us, attracting and inspiring each new generation of biologists with the promise of mystery and discovery. Time and time again, what we learn from such simple organisms has emphasized our common biological origins by proving to be applicable to more complex organisms, including humans. Yet, biologists are increasingly being tasked with developing applications from the known, rather than being allowed to follow a path to ...


Single-Molecule Fish In Drosophila Muscle Reveals Location Dependent Mrna Composition Of Megarnps, Akiko Noma, Carlas Smith, Maximiliaan Huisman, Robert M. Martin, Melissa J. Moore, David Grünwald Jun 2017

Single-Molecule Fish In Drosophila Muscle Reveals Location Dependent Mrna Composition Of Megarnps, Akiko Noma, Carlas Smith, Maximiliaan Huisman, Robert M. Martin, Melissa J. Moore, David Grünwald

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Single-molecule fluorescence in-situ hybridization (smFISH) provides direct access to the spatial relationship between nucleic acids and specific subcellular locations. The ability to precisely localize a messenger RNA can reveal key information about its regulation. Although smFISH is well established in cell culture or thin sections, methods for its accurate application to tissues are lacking. The utility of smFISH in thick tissue sections must overcome several challenges, including probe penetration of fixed tissue, accessibility of target mRNAs for probe hybridization, high fluorescent background, spherical aberration along the optical axis, and image segmentation of organelles. Here we describe how we overcame these ...


Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor Jun 2017

Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over time, genetic differences can accumulate between populations that are geographically separated. This genetic divergence can lead to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that reduce gene flow between the populations and, upon secondary contact, result in distinct species. The process of speciation is, thus, what accounts for the multitude of species that contribute to the rich biodiversity on Earth. Interspecies hybrid sterility is a postzygotic isolating mechanism that affects the development of hybrids, rendering them sterile. A notable trend, known as Haldane's Rule, describes that heterogametic individual (e.g. males in Drosophila) are more susceptible to sterility than ...


Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin Jun 2017

Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Autophagy is a conserved process that cells use to degrade their own cytoplasmic components by delivery to lysosomes. Autophagy ensures intracellular quality control and is associated with diseases such as cancer and immune disorders. The process of autophagy is controlled by core autophagy (Atg) genes that are conserved from yeast to mammal. Most Atg proteins and their regulators were identified through pioneering studies of the single cell yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and little is known about factors that systematically coordinate autophagy within the tissues of multicellular animals. The goal of this thesis is to identify new autophagy regulators and provide a ...


Sumo Regulates The Activity Of Smoothened And Costal-2 In Drosophila Hedgehog Signaling, Jie Zhang, Yajuan Liu, Kai Jiang, Jianhang Jia Feb 2017

Sumo Regulates The Activity Of Smoothened And Costal-2 In Drosophila Hedgehog Signaling, Jie Zhang, Yajuan Liu, Kai Jiang, Jianhang Jia

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

In Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, the GPCR-family protein Smoothened (Smo) acts as a signal transducer that is regulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitination, which ultimately change the cell surface accumulation of Smo. However, it is not clear whether Smo is regulated by other post-translational modifications, such as sumoylation. Here, we demonstrate that knockdown of the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway components Ubc9 (a SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2), PIAS (a SUMO-protein ligase E3), and Smt3 (the SUMO isoform in Drosophila) by RNAi prevents Smo accumulation and alters Smo activity in the wing. We further show that Hh-induced-sumoylation stabilizes Smo, whereas desumoylation by Ulp1 destabilizes ...


Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang Dec 2016

Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain. PD is also the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the second most common movement disorder. PD patients exhibit the cardinal symptoms, including tremor of the extremities, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability, after 70-80% of DA neurons degenerate. It is, therefore, imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the selective degeneration of DA neurons. Although increasing numbers of PD genes have been identified, why these largely widely expressed genes ...


Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung Apr 2016

Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung

Open Access Dissertations

In neurons, normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are essential for preserving compartmentalized cellular function. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson’s disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal. However, it is not clear how Parkin plays a role in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, and whether the mature neurons possess a compartmentalized Parkin-dependent mitochondrial life cycle. Using the live Drosophila nervous system, here, I investigate the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics; organelle distribution, morphology and removal. Parkin deficient animals displayed less number of axonal mitochondria without disturbing organelle motility behaviors, morphology and metabolic ...


Apontic Regulates Somatic Stem Cell Numbers In Drosophila Testes, Amanda J. Monahan, Michelle Starz-Gaiano Mar 2016

Apontic Regulates Somatic Stem Cell Numbers In Drosophila Testes, Amanda J. Monahan, Michelle Starz-Gaiano

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Microenvironments called niches maintain resident stem cell populations by balancing self-renewal with differentiation, but the genetic regulation of this process is unclear. The niche of the Drosophila testis is well-characterized and genetically tractable, making it ideal for investigating the molecular regulation of stem cell biology. The JAK/STAT pathway, activated by signals from a niche component called the hub, maintains both germline and somatic stem cells.

RESULTS: This study investigated the molecular regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in the stem cells of the Drosophila testis. We determined that the transcriptional regulator Apontic (Apt) acts in the somatic (cyst ...


Endocytic Regulation Of Notch Signaling In Drosophila Melanogaster Neural Progenitor Cells, Seth Andrew Johnson Jan 2016

Endocytic Regulation Of Notch Signaling In Drosophila Melanogaster Neural Progenitor Cells, Seth Andrew Johnson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Notch signaling is a ubiquitously used signaling pathway that is highly conserved and used throughout metazoan development. Understanding the regulation of Notch signaling is becoming increasingly important in determining the mechanism and treatment for the myriad of human Notch-related diseases. In Drosophila. melanogaster, the development of external sensory organs provides a context in which Notch can be manipulated and phenotypes can be easily interpreted. Here, we expand upon the growing field of Notch regulation through endocytic trafficking by examining the role of Numb and Sara endosomes. Numb is a potent Notch inhibitor whose function is conserved in higher organisms, but ...


Bunched And Madm Function Downstream Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex To Regulate The Growth Of Intestinal Stem Cells In Drosophila, Yingchao Nie, Qi Li, Alla Amcheslavsky, Juan Carlos Duhart, Alexey Veraksa, Hugo Stocker, Laurel A. Raftery, Y. Tony Ip Dec 2015

Bunched And Madm Function Downstream Of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex To Regulate The Growth Of Intestinal Stem Cells In Drosophila, Yingchao Nie, Qi Li, Alla Amcheslavsky, Juan Carlos Duhart, Alexey Veraksa, Hugo Stocker, Laurel A. Raftery, Y. Tony Ip

Open Access Articles

The Drosophila adult midgut contains intestinal stem cells that support homeostasis and repair. We show here that the leucine zipper protein Bunched and the adaptor protein Madm are novel regulators of intestinal stem cells. MARCM mutant clonal analysis and cell type specific RNAi revealed that Bunched and Madm were required within intestinal stem cells for proliferation. Transgenic expression of a tagged Bunched showed a cytoplasmic localization in midgut precursors, and the addition of a nuclear localization signal to Bunched reduced its function to cooperate with Madm to increase intestinal stem cell proliferation. Furthermore, the elevated cell growth and 4EBP phosphorylation ...


Analysis Of Mitochondrial Turnover In Neuromuscular Junctions Of Parkin Mutants, Kenny Nguyen, Hyun Sung, Peter J. Hollenbeck Aug 2015

Analysis Of Mitochondrial Turnover In Neuromuscular Junctions Of Parkin Mutants, Kenny Nguyen, Hyun Sung, Peter J. Hollenbeck

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The accumulation of dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria in neurons has been linked to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. It has been proposed that proteins PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial quality control by selectively targeting depolarized mitochondria for autophagic degradation, a process known as mitophagy. Though previously analyzed in the cell bodies and axons of neurons, the role of the PINK1/Parkin pathway in the synapse is unclear, and it is not known whether mitochondrial turnover occurs in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). To study this, intact Drosophila nervous systems were analyzed in vivo by performing ...


Dual Roles For An Intracellular Calcium-Signaling Pathway In Regulating Synaptic Homeostasis And Neuronal Excitability, Douglas J Brusich Jul 2015

Dual Roles For An Intracellular Calcium-Signaling Pathway In Regulating Synaptic Homeostasis And Neuronal Excitability, Douglas J Brusich

Theses and Dissertations

Neurons are specialized cells that communicate via electrical and chemical signaling. It is well-known that homeostatic mechanisms exist to potentiate neuronal output when activity falls. Likewise, while neurons rely on excitable states to function, these same excitable states must be kept in check for stable function. However, the identity of molecular factors and pathways regulating these pathways remain elusive.

Chapter 2 of this thesis reports the findings from an RNA interference- and electrophysiology-based screen to identify factors necessary for the long-term maintenance of homeostatic synaptic potentiation. Data is reported to resolve a long-standing question as to the role of presynaptic ...


Novel Regulation And Function Of The Actin Bundling Protein Fascin, Christopher Michael Groen May 2015

Novel Regulation And Function Of The Actin Bundling Protein Fascin, Christopher Michael Groen

Theses and Dissertations

The parallel actin filament bundling protein Fascin is a critical protein in both disease and development. Overexpression of Fascin is linked to increased aggressiveness in a number of cancer types, including breast and colon carcinomas. Importantly, Fascin is not normally expressed in adult epithelial cells from which many of these cancers arise. Therefore, Fascin is increasingly cited as both a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in many types of cancer. Fascin is most commonly associated with the formation of filopodia and invadapodia (parallel actin filament bundle structures) to drive migration and invasion. However, Fascin activity and regulation remain poorly understood ...


Rab8 Directs Tubulation And Furrow Ingression During Epithelial Formation In Drosophila Melanogaster, Lauren Mackenzie Mavor Jan 2015

Rab8 Directs Tubulation And Furrow Ingression During Epithelial Formation In Drosophila Melanogaster, Lauren Mackenzie Mavor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the most fundamental changes in cell morphology is the formation of a plasma membrane furrow. The Drosophila embryo undergoes several cycles of rapid furrow ingression during early development, which culminates in the formation of an epithelial sheet. Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for intracellular trafficking pathways in furrow ingression; however, the pathways that link compartmental behaviors with cortical furrow ingression events have remained unclear. This research shows that Rab8, a small GTPase associated with late exocytic trafficking events, demonstrates striking dynamic behaviors in vivo; transitioning from punctate structures to a stable association with the cortex during furrow ...


Characterization Of Histidine Decarboxylase In Drosophila Using An Internal Flag Epitope, Maxwell Mianecki Dec 2014

Characterization Of Histidine Decarboxylase In Drosophila Using An Internal Flag Epitope, Maxwell Mianecki

Masters Theses

Histamine is a neurotransmitter in arthropods and is responsible for synaptic transmission in vision, mechanosensation, temperature sensing and sleep cycle in Drosophila. Histamine is synthesized by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC). While histamine is detectable within tissues using current immunofluorescent labeling techniques, immunological approaches have not been successful for HDC itself, with both direct antibodies and terminal epitope tags determined to be ineffective. In order to avoid loss of the epitope tag through putative N-­‐ and C-­‐terminal proteolytic cleavage, known to occur for HDC in other organisms, an internal epitope tag that does not disrupt enzyme function was utilized ...


Astrocyte-Specific Regulation Of Hmecp2 Expression In Drosophila, David Hess-Homeier, Chia-Yu Fan, Tarun Gupta, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Sarah J. Certel Oct 2014

Astrocyte-Specific Regulation Of Hmecp2 Expression In Drosophila, David Hess-Homeier, Chia-Yu Fan, Tarun Gupta, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Sarah J. Certel

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Alterations in the expression of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) either by mutations or gene duplication leads to a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett Syndrome and MeCP2 duplication disorder. Common features of Rett Syndrome (RTT), MeCP2 duplication disorder, and neuropsychiatric disorders indicate that even moderate changes in MeCP2 protein levels result in functional and structural cell abnormalities. In this study, we investigated two areas of MeCP2 pathophysiology using Drosophila as a model system: the effects of MeCP2 glial gain-of-function activity on circuits controlling sleep behavior, and the cell-type specific regulation of MeCP2 expression. In this study, we first examined ...


E(Y)1/Taf9 Mediates The Transcriptional Output Of Notch Signaling In Drosophila, Gengqiang Xie, Zhongsheng Yu, Dongyu Jia, Renjie Jiao, Wu-Min Deng Jul 2014

E(Y)1/Taf9 Mediates The Transcriptional Output Of Notch Signaling In Drosophila, Gengqiang Xie, Zhongsheng Yu, Dongyu Jia, Renjie Jiao, Wu-Min Deng

Dongyu Jia

Transcriptional activation of Notch signaling targets requires the formation of a ternary complex that involves the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor (NICD), DNA-binding protein Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H), RPBJ in mammals] and coactivator Mastermind (Mam). Here, we report that E(y)1/TAF9, a component of the transcription factor TFIID complex, interacts specifically with the NICD–Su(H)–Mam complex to facilitate the transcriptional output of Notch signaling. We identified E(y)1/TAF9 in a large-scale in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) screen for genes that are involved in a Notch-dependent mitotic-to-endocycle transition in Drosophila follicle cells. Knockdown ...


Prostaglandin Signaling Temporally Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling During Drosophila Oogenesis, Andrew James Spracklen Jul 2014

Prostaglandin Signaling Temporally Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling During Drosophila Oogenesis, Andrew James Spracklen

Theses and Dissertations

Prostaglandins (PGs) are small, lipid signaling molecules produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. PG signaling regulates many processes including pain, inflammation, fertility, cardiovascular function and disease, and cancer. One mechanism by which PG signaling exerts its function is by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton; however, the exact mechanisms remain largely undefined.

Drosophila oogenesis provides an ideal system to determine how PG signaling regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Drosophila follicles, or eggs, pass through 14 well- characterized, morphologically defined stages of development. Each developing follicle is comprised of 16 interconnected germline-derived cells (15 nurse cells and 1 oocyte) that are ...


Gene Expression Profiling Identifies The Zinc-Finger Protein Charlatan As A Regulator Of Intestinal Stem Cells In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Yingchao Nie, Qi Li, Feng He, Leo Tsuda, Michele Markstein, Y. Tony Ip Jul 2014

Gene Expression Profiling Identifies The Zinc-Finger Protein Charlatan As A Regulator Of Intestinal Stem Cells In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Yingchao Nie, Qi Li, Feng He, Leo Tsuda, Michele Markstein, Y. Tony Ip

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adult Drosophila midgut can respond to tissue damage and support repair. We used genetic manipulation to increase the number of ISC-like cells in the adult midgut and performed gene expression profiling to identify potential ISC regulators. A detailed analysis of one of these potential regulators, the zinc-finger protein Charlatan, was carried out. MARCM clonal analysis and RNAi in precursor cells showed that loss of Chn function caused severe ISC division defects, including loss of EdU incorporation, phosphorylated histone 3 staining and expression of the mitotic protein Cdc2. Loss of Charlatan also led to a ...


Signaling Functions Of Beta-Arrestin Kurtz In Drosophila Development, Marla Tipping Jun 2014

Signaling Functions Of Beta-Arrestin Kurtz In Drosophila Development, Marla Tipping

Marla Tipping, Ph.D.

The development of an organism is orchestrated by a small number of signaling pathways. In order to achieve tissue specificity, their activities are controlled by multiple regulatory molecules that fine-tune pathway output and increase the specificity of signaling. To better understand how these pathways function it is imperative that we strive to elucidate all signaling components. Affinity purification followed by Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) has proved itself as a suitable technique in achieving this aim. Analysis of the Notch pathway via this method has identified Drosophila β-arrestin Kurtz (Krz) as a negative modulator of the pathway. I have further studied Krz ...


Regulation Of Chromosome Segregation In Drosophila Meiosis, Zhi Hao Guo Jan 2014

Regulation Of Chromosome Segregation In Drosophila Meiosis, Zhi Hao Guo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sister-chromatid cohesion is maintained by Cohesin complex. Separase releases the cohesion through the cleavage of the kleisin subunit of Cohesin complex. Separase is regulated by its inhibitor, Securin/Pim. These processes are well studied in mitosis but little is known for meiosis. I found that Separase is required for the proper separation of homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids in Drosophila meiosis. Its function is inhibited by Securin/Pim during the process. I showed that the common kleisin subunit, Rad21, is not likely to be the meiotic target of Separase and that Rad21 and another common Cohesin component, SMC3/CAP, does ...