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Cytoskeleton

Elizabeth J. Luna

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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna Jan 2010

Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes ...


Mutant Rac1b Expression In Dictyostelium: Effects On Morphology, Growth, Endocytosis, Development, And The Actin Cytoskeleton, S. Palmieri, Thomas Nebl, Robert Pope, D. Seastone, E. Lee, E. Hinchcliffe, Greenfield Sluder, D. Knecht, J. Cardelli, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Mutant Rac1b Expression In Dictyostelium: Effects On Morphology, Growth, Endocytosis, Development, And The Actin Cytoskeleton, S. Palmieri, Thomas Nebl, Robert Pope, D. Seastone, E. Lee, E. Hinchcliffe, Greenfield Sluder, D. Knecht, J. Cardelli, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Rac1 is a small G-protein in the Ras superfamily that has been implicated in the control of cell growth, adhesion, and the actin-based cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of Rac1 during motile processes, we have established Dictyostelium cell lines that conditionally overexpress epitope-tagged Dictyostelium discoideum wild-type Rac1B (DdRac1B) or a mutant DdRac1B protein. Expression of endogenous levels of myc- or GFP-tagged wild-type DdRac1B had minimal effect on cellular morphologies and behaviors. By contrast, expression of a constitutively active mutant (G12-->V or Q61-->L) or a dominant negative mutant (T17-->N) generated amoebae with characteristic cellular defects. The morphological appearance ...


A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. Ii. Integral Proteins Mediate The Binding Of Plasma Membranes To F-Actin Affinity Beads, Elizabeth J. Luna, C. M. Goodloe-Holland, H. M. Ingalls Mar 2008

A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. Ii. Integral Proteins Mediate The Binding Of Plasma Membranes To F-Actin Affinity Beads, Elizabeth J. Luna, C. M. Goodloe-Holland, H. M. Ingalls

Elizabeth J. Luna

In novel, low-speed sedimentation assays, highly purified, sonicated Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membrane fragments bind to F-actin beads (fluorescein-labeled F-actin on antifluorescein IgG-Sephacryl S-1000 beads). Binding was found to be (a) specific, since beads containing bound fluorescein-labeled ovalbumin or beads without bound fluorescein-labeled protein do not bind membranes, (b) saturable at approximately 0.6 microgram of membrane protein per microgram of bead-bound F-actin, (c) rapid with a t1/2 of 4-20 min, and (d) apparently of reasonable affinity since the off rate is too slow to be measured by present techniques. Using low-speed sedimentation assays, we found that sonicated plasma membrane ...


Binding And Assembly Of Actin Filaments By Plasma Membranes From Dictyostelium Discoideum, M. A. Schwartz, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Binding And Assembly Of Actin Filaments By Plasma Membranes From Dictyostelium Discoideum, M. A. Schwartz, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

The binding of native, 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled actin to purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes was measured using a sedimentation assay. Binding was saturable only in the presence of the actin capping protein, gelsolin. In the presence of gelsolin, the amount of actin bound at saturation to three different membrane preparations was 80, 120, and 200 micrograms/mg of membrane protein. The respective concentrations of actin at half-saturation were 8, 12, and 18 micrograms/ml. The binding curves were sigmoidal, indicating positive cooperativity at low actin concentrations. This cooperativity appeared to be due to actin-actin associations during polymerization, since phalloidin converted the curve ...


Direct Binding Of F-Actin To Ponticulin, An Integral Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein, C. Chia, Anne Hitt, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Direct Binding Of F-Actin To Ponticulin, An Integral Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein, C. Chia, Anne Hitt, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

We have developed an 125I-labeled F-actin blot overlay assay for the identification of F-actin-binding proteins after transfer to nitrocellulose from SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Two major F-actin-binding proteins from Dictyostelium discoideum, a cytoplasmic 30 kDa protein and a 17 kDa integral membrane protein, and two minor membrane polypeptides of 19 kDa and 15 kDa were detected by this method. Using F-actin affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography, the 17 kDa polypeptide was identified as ponticulin, a previously described actin-binding glycoprotein from D. discoideum plasma membranes (Wuestehube, L.J., and Luna, E.J., [1987]: J. Cell Biol. 105:1741-1751). The binding of F-actin to ponticulin ...


F-Actin And Myosin Ii Binding Domains In Supervillin, Yu Chen, Norio Takizawa, Jessica Crowley, Sang Oh, Cheryl Gatto, Taketoshi Kambara, Osamu Sato, Xiang-Dong Li, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

F-Actin And Myosin Ii Binding Domains In Supervillin, Yu Chen, Norio Takizawa, Jessica Crowley, Sang Oh, Cheryl Gatto, Taketoshi Kambara, Osamu Sato, Xiang-Dong Li, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Detergent-resistant membranes contain signaling and integral membrane proteins that organize cholesterol-rich domains called lipid rafts. A subset of these detergent-resistant membranes (DRM-H) exhibits a higher buoyant density ( approximately 1.16 g/ml) because of association with membrane skeleton proteins, including actin, myosin II, myosin 1G, fodrin, and an actin- and membrane-binding protein called supervillin (Nebl, T., Pestonjamasp, K. N., Leszyk, J. D., Crowley, J. L., Oh, S. W., and Luna, E. J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 43399-43409). To characterize interactions among DRM-H cytoskeletal proteins, we investigated the binding partners of the novel supervillin N terminus, specifically amino acids 1-830 ...


Domain Analysis Of Supervillin, An F-Actin Bundling Plasma Membrane Protein With Functional Nuclear Localization Signals, J. D. Wulfkuhle, I. E. Donina, N. H. Stark, Robert K. Pope, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, M. L. Niswonger, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Domain Analysis Of Supervillin, An F-Actin Bundling Plasma Membrane Protein With Functional Nuclear Localization Signals, J. D. Wulfkuhle, I. E. Donina, N. H. Stark, Robert K. Pope, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, M. L. Niswonger, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

A growing number of actin-associated membrane proteins have been implicated in motile processes, adhesive interactions, and signal transduction to the cell nucleus. We report here that supervillin, an F-actin binding protein originally isolated from bovine neutrophil plasma membranes, contains functional nuclear targeting signals and localizes at or near vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques in COS7-2 and CV1 cells. Overexpression of full-length supervillin in these cells disrupts the integrity of focal adhesion plaques and results in increased levels of F-actin and vinculin. Localization studies of chimeric proteins containing supervillin sequences fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein indicate that: (1) the amino ...


The Integral Membrane Protein, Ponticulin, Acts As A Monomer In Nucleating Actin Assembly, C. P. Chia, A. Shariff, S. A. Savage, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

The Integral Membrane Protein, Ponticulin, Acts As A Monomer In Nucleating Actin Assembly, C. P. Chia, A. Shariff, S. A. Savage, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Ponticulin, an F-actin binding transmembrane glycoprotein in Dictyostelium plasma membranes, was isolated by detergent extraction from cytoskeletons and purified to homogeneity. Ponticulin is an abundant membrane protein, averaging approximately 10(6) copies/cell, with an estimated surface density of approximately 300 per microns2. Ponticulin solubilized in octylglucoside exhibited hydrodynamic properties consistent with a ponticulin monomer in a spherical or slightly ellipsoidal detergent micelle with a total molecular mass of 56 +/- 6 kD. Purified ponticulin nucleated actin polymerization when reconstituted into Dictyostelium lipid vesicles, but not when a number of commercially available lipids and lipid mixtures were substituted for the endogenous ...


Archvillin, A Muscle-Specific Isoform Of Supervillin, Is An Early Expressed Component Of The Costameric Membrane Skeleton, Sang W. Oh, Robert K. Pope, Kelly P. Smith, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Thomas Nebl, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Archvillin, A Muscle-Specific Isoform Of Supervillin, Is An Early Expressed Component Of The Costameric Membrane Skeleton, Sang W. Oh, Robert K. Pope, Kelly P. Smith, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Thomas Nebl, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

The membrane skeleton protein supervillin binds tightly to both F-actin and membranes and can potentiate androgen receptor activity in non-muscle cells. We report that muscle, which constitutes the principal tissue source for supervillin sequences, contains a approximately 250 kDa isoform of supervillin that localizes within nuclei and with dystrophin at costameres, regions of F-actin membrane attachment in skeletal muscle. The gene encoding this protein, 'archvillin' (Latin, archi; Greek, archos; 'principal' or 'chief'), contains an evolutionarily conserved, muscle-specific 5' leader sequence. Archvillin cDNAs also contain four exons that encode approximately 47 kDa of additional muscle-specific protein sequence in the form of ...


Membrane Cytoskeleton: Pip(2) Pulls The Strings, Thomas Nebl, Sang Oh, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Membrane Cytoskeleton: Pip(2) Pulls The Strings, Thomas Nebl, Sang Oh, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

A recent application of optical tweezers has shown that plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) levels control adhesion of the membrane bilayer to the underlying cytoskeleton, by regulated direct binding of PIP(2) to cytoskeletal proteins and/or indirect effects on cytoskeleton structure.