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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Discovering Novel Hearing Loss Genes: Roles For Esrp1 And Gas2 In Inner Ear Development And Auditory Function, Alex Martin Rohacek Jan 2018

Discovering Novel Hearing Loss Genes: Roles For Esrp1 And Gas2 In Inner Ear Development And Auditory Function, Alex Martin Rohacek

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Hearing loss is the most common form of congenital birth defect, affecting an estimated

35 million children worldwide. To date, nearly 100 genes have been identified which

contribute to a deafness phenotype in humans, however, many cases remain in which a

causative mutation has yet to be found. In addition, the exact mechanism by which

hearing loss occurs in the presence of many of these mutations is still not understood.

This is due, in part, to the complex nature of the development and function of the

cochlear duct, the organ of hearing. The cochlea undergoes an intricate morphogenetic

development and ...


Lytic Granule Convergence To The Microtubule Organizing Center In Natural Killer Cells, Ashley Mentlik James Jan 2012

Lytic Granule Convergence To The Microtubule Organizing Center In Natural Killer Cells, Ashley Mentlik James

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that participate in host defense by secreting the contents of specialized secretory organelles termed lytic granules onto virally infected or tumorigenic cells in order to terminate them. Lysis of these target cells is a highly regulated, stepwise process beginning with actin rearrangement into an immunological synapse (IS) at the contact site between NK cell and target cell, followed by microtubule organizing center (MTOC) polarization towards the target cell, and culminating in the release of lytic granule contents through the actin network at the IS. The NK cell is capable ...


The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle Dec 2011

The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Intercellular adhesions are essential for compartmentalization and integrity of tissues in an organism, cell-cell communication, and morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins play a vital role in establishing and maintaining cell-cell adhesion. However, the procedure by which cells establish adherens junctions remains largely unclear.

We investigated the dynamics of cell-cell junction formation and the corresponding architecture of the underlying cytoskeleton in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that the initial interaction between cells is mediated by protruding lamellipodia. Upon their retraction, cells maintain contact through thin bridges formed by filopodia-like protrusions connected by VE-cadherin-rich junctions.

Bridges ...