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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Positioning Of Ampa Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture, Marta Esteves Da Silva, Max Adrian, Philipp Schatzle, Joanna Lipka, Takuya Watanabe, Sukhee Cho, Kensuke Futai, Corette J. Wierenga, Lukas C. Kapitein, Casper C. Hoogenraad Nov 2015

Positioning Of Ampa Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture, Marta Esteves Da Silva, Max Adrian, Philipp Schatzle, Joanna Lipka, Takuya Watanabe, Sukhee Cho, Kensuke Futai, Corette J. Wierenga, Lukas C. Kapitein, Casper C. Hoogenraad

Open Access Articles

Lateral diffusion in the membrane and endosomal trafficking both contribute to the addition and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at postsynaptic sites. However, the spatial coordination between these mechanisms has remained unclear, because little is known about the dynamics of AMPAR-containing endosomes. In addition, how the positioning of AMPAR-containing endosomes affects synapse organization and functioning has never been directly explored. Here, we used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPARs are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. By using chemically induced dimerization systems to ...


Reduced Tubulin Polyglutamylation Suppresses Flagellar Shortness In Chlamydomonas, Tomohiro Kubo, Masafumi Hirono, Takumi Aikawa, Ritsu Kamiya, George B. Witman Aug 2015

Reduced Tubulin Polyglutamylation Suppresses Flagellar Shortness In Chlamydomonas, Tomohiro Kubo, Masafumi Hirono, Takumi Aikawa, Ritsu Kamiya, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

Ciliary length control is an incompletely understood process essential for normal ciliary function. The flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants lacking multiple axonemal dyneins are shorter than normal; previously it was shown that this shortness can be suppressed by the mutation suppressor of shortness 1 (ssh1) via an unknown mechanism. To elucidate this mechanism, we carried out genetic analysis of ssh1 and found that it is a new allele of TPG2 (hereafter tpg2-3), which encodes FAP234 functioning in tubulin polyglutamylation in the axoneme. Similar to the polyglutamylation-deficient mutants tpg1 and tpg2-1, tpg2-3 axonemal tubulin has a greatly reduced level of long polyglutamate ...


Drc3 Connects The N-Drc To Dynein G To Regulate Flagellar Waveform, Junya Awata, Kangkang Song, Jianfeng Lin, Stephen M. King, Michael J. Sanderson, Daniela Nicastro, George B. Witman Aug 2015

Drc3 Connects The N-Drc To Dynein G To Regulate Flagellar Waveform, Junya Awata, Kangkang Song, Jianfeng Lin, Stephen M. King, Michael J. Sanderson, Daniela Nicastro, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), which is a major hub for the control of flagellar motility, contains at least 11 different subunits. A major challenge is to determine the location and function of each of these subunits within the N-DRC. We characterized a Chlamydomonas mutant defective in the N-DRC subunit DRC3. Of the known N-DRC subunits, the drc3 mutant is missing only DRC3. Like other N-DRC mutants, the drc3 mutant has a defect in flagellar motility. However, in contrast to other mutations affecting the N-DRC, drc3 does not suppress flagellar paralysis caused by loss of radial spokes. Cryo-electron tomography revealed ...


Direct Force Probe Reveals The Mechanics Of Nuclear Homeostasis In The Mammalian Cell, Srujana Neelam, T J. Chancellor, Yuan Li, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Kyle J. Roux, Richard B. Dickinson, Tanmay P. Lele May 2015

Direct Force Probe Reveals The Mechanics Of Nuclear Homeostasis In The Mammalian Cell, Srujana Neelam, T J. Chancellor, Yuan Li, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Kyle J. Roux, Richard B. Dickinson, Tanmay P. Lele

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

How cells maintain nuclear shape and position against various intracellular and extracellular forces is not well understood, although defects in nuclear mechanical homeostasis are associated with a variety of human diseases. We estimated the force required to displace and deform the nucleus in adherent living cells with a technique to locally pull the nuclear surface. A minimum pulling force of a few nanonewtons--far greater than typical intracellular motor forces--was required to significantly displace and deform the nucleus. Upon force removal, the original shape and position were restored quickly within a few seconds. This stiff, elastic response required the presence of ...