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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Characterization Of Microtubule Organizing Centers In The Genus Protostelium, Including Evolutionary Implications, Ethan Taylor Ozment May 2019

Characterization Of Microtubule Organizing Centers In The Genus Protostelium, Including Evolutionary Implications, Ethan Taylor Ozment

Theses and Dissertations

Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) are cellular regions of microtubule nucleation. The best known MTOCs are those associated with the centrosome, but several non-centrosomal MTOCs are known in eukaryotes, especially in land plants. MTOCs are poorly characterized across the breadth of amoebozoan diversity, but are well-known in certain amoebozoan lineages, including the genus of protosteloid slime molds Protostelium. The structure of the MTOC is known for two non-ciliated species, P. nocturnum and P. mycophaga, as well as P. aurantium, which can reversibly become ciliated under appropriate conditions. P. nocturnum and P. mycophaga have acentriolar centrosomal MTOCs while P. aurantium has a ...


Gamete Nuclear Migration In Animals And Plants, Umma Fatema, Mohammad F. Ali, Zheng Hu, Anthony J. Clark, Tomokazu Kawashima Apr 2019

Gamete Nuclear Migration In Animals And Plants, Umma Fatema, Mohammad F. Ali, Zheng Hu, Anthony J. Clark, Tomokazu Kawashima

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The migration of male and female gamete nuclei to each other in the fertilized egg is a prerequisite for the blending of genetic materials and the initiation of the next generation. Interestingly, many differences have been found in the mechanism of gamete nuclear movement among animals and plants. Female to male gamete nuclear movement in animals and brown algae relies on microtubules. By contrast, in flowering plants, the male gamete nucleus is carried to the female gamete nucleus by the filamentous actin cytoskeleton. As techniques have developed from light, electron, fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy to live-cell time-lapse imaging using ...


Discovering Novel Hearing Loss Genes: Roles For Esrp1 And Gas2 In Inner Ear Development And Auditory Function, Alex Martin Rohacek Jan 2018

Discovering Novel Hearing Loss Genes: Roles For Esrp1 And Gas2 In Inner Ear Development And Auditory Function, Alex Martin Rohacek

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Hearing loss is the most common form of congenital birth defect, affecting an estimated

35 million children worldwide. To date, nearly 100 genes have been identified which

contribute to a deafness phenotype in humans, however, many cases remain in which a

causative mutation has yet to be found. In addition, the exact mechanism by which

hearing loss occurs in the presence of many of these mutations is still not understood.

This is due, in part, to the complex nature of the development and function of the

cochlear duct, the organ of hearing. The cochlea undergoes an intricate morphogenetic

development and ...


4-Nonylphenol Induces Neurodegeneration By Altering Cytoskeleton, Cynthia Carreon Jan 2017

4-Nonylphenol Induces Neurodegeneration By Altering Cytoskeleton, Cynthia Carreon

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

4-nonylphenol (4-NP), an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC), has been shown to affect brain development and may cause neurodegeneration. In the environment, 4-NP arises as a degradation product of alkylphenol polyethoxylates, compounds widely used as nonionic surfactants in commercial production, as well as in herbicides, pesticides, polystyrene plastics, and paints and has been shown to undergo a high level of accumulation in biological tissues. However, the mechanism by which 4-NP exerts its effect is not understood. Recent results from our laboratory indicate that Gβγ, an important component of the G protein-signaling pathway, induces neuronal outgrowth and differentiation by modulating microtubule (MT) assembly ...


Positioning Of Ampa Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture, Marta Esteves Da Silva, Max Adrian, Philipp Schatzle, Joanna Lipka, Takuya Watanabe, Sukhee Cho, Kensuke Futai, Corette J. Wierenga, Lukas C. Kapitein, Casper C. Hoogenraad Nov 2015

Positioning Of Ampa Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture, Marta Esteves Da Silva, Max Adrian, Philipp Schatzle, Joanna Lipka, Takuya Watanabe, Sukhee Cho, Kensuke Futai, Corette J. Wierenga, Lukas C. Kapitein, Casper C. Hoogenraad

Open Access Articles

Lateral diffusion in the membrane and endosomal trafficking both contribute to the addition and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at postsynaptic sites. However, the spatial coordination between these mechanisms has remained unclear, because little is known about the dynamics of AMPAR-containing endosomes. In addition, how the positioning of AMPAR-containing endosomes affects synapse organization and functioning has never been directly explored. Here, we used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPARs are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. By using chemically induced dimerization systems to ...


A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz Aug 2015

A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction ...


Reduced Tubulin Polyglutamylation Suppresses Flagellar Shortness In Chlamydomonas, Tomohiro Kubo, Masafumi Hirono, Takumi Aikawa, Ritsu Kamiya, George B. Witman Aug 2015

Reduced Tubulin Polyglutamylation Suppresses Flagellar Shortness In Chlamydomonas, Tomohiro Kubo, Masafumi Hirono, Takumi Aikawa, Ritsu Kamiya, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

Ciliary length control is an incompletely understood process essential for normal ciliary function. The flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants lacking multiple axonemal dyneins are shorter than normal; previously it was shown that this shortness can be suppressed by the mutation suppressor of shortness 1 (ssh1) via an unknown mechanism. To elucidate this mechanism, we carried out genetic analysis of ssh1 and found that it is a new allele of TPG2 (hereafter tpg2-3), which encodes FAP234 functioning in tubulin polyglutamylation in the axoneme. Similar to the polyglutamylation-deficient mutants tpg1 and tpg2-1, tpg2-3 axonemal tubulin has a greatly reduced level of long polyglutamate ...


Drc3 Connects The N-Drc To Dynein G To Regulate Flagellar Waveform, Junya Awata, Kangkang Song, Jianfeng Lin, Stephen M. King, Michael J. Sanderson, Daniela Nicastro, George B. Witman Aug 2015

Drc3 Connects The N-Drc To Dynein G To Regulate Flagellar Waveform, Junya Awata, Kangkang Song, Jianfeng Lin, Stephen M. King, Michael J. Sanderson, Daniela Nicastro, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), which is a major hub for the control of flagellar motility, contains at least 11 different subunits. A major challenge is to determine the location and function of each of these subunits within the N-DRC. We characterized a Chlamydomonas mutant defective in the N-DRC subunit DRC3. Of the known N-DRC subunits, the drc3 mutant is missing only DRC3. Like other N-DRC mutants, the drc3 mutant has a defect in flagellar motility. However, in contrast to other mutations affecting the N-DRC, drc3 does not suppress flagellar paralysis caused by loss of radial spokes. Cryo-electron tomography revealed ...


Direct Force Probe Reveals The Mechanics Of Nuclear Homeostasis In The Mammalian Cell, Srujana Neelam, T J. Chancellor, Yuan Li, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Kyle J. Roux, Richard B. Dickinson, Tanmay P. Lele May 2015

Direct Force Probe Reveals The Mechanics Of Nuclear Homeostasis In The Mammalian Cell, Srujana Neelam, T J. Chancellor, Yuan Li, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Kyle J. Roux, Richard B. Dickinson, Tanmay P. Lele

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

How cells maintain nuclear shape and position against various intracellular and extracellular forces is not well understood, although defects in nuclear mechanical homeostasis are associated with a variety of human diseases. We estimated the force required to displace and deform the nucleus in adherent living cells with a technique to locally pull the nuclear surface. A minimum pulling force of a few nanonewtons--far greater than typical intracellular motor forces--was required to significantly displace and deform the nucleus. Upon force removal, the original shape and position were restored quickly within a few seconds. This stiff, elastic response required the presence of ...


Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

All molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm occurs via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) within the nuclear envelope. In this study we analyzed the interactions of the nuclear transport receptors kapalpha2, kapbeta1, kapbeta1DeltaN44, and kapbeta2, and the model transport substrate, BSA-NLS, with NPCs to determine binding sites and kinetics using single-molecule microscopy in living cells. Recombinant transport receptors and BSA-NLS were fluorescently labeled by AlexaFluor 488, and microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells expressing POM121-GFP as a nuclear pore marker. After bleaching the dominant GFP fluorescence the interactions of the microinjected molecules could be studied using video microscopy ...


Prostaglandin Signaling Temporally Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling During Drosophila Oogenesis, Andrew James Spracklen Jul 2014

Prostaglandin Signaling Temporally Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling During Drosophila Oogenesis, Andrew James Spracklen

Theses and Dissertations

Prostaglandins (PGs) are small, lipid signaling molecules produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. PG signaling regulates many processes including pain, inflammation, fertility, cardiovascular function and disease, and cancer. One mechanism by which PG signaling exerts its function is by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton; however, the exact mechanisms remain largely undefined.

Drosophila oogenesis provides an ideal system to determine how PG signaling regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Drosophila follicles, or eggs, pass through 14 well- characterized, morphologically defined stages of development. Each developing follicle is comprised of 16 interconnected germline-derived cells (15 nurse cells and 1 oocyte) that are ...


Plant Cytoskeleton: Della Connects Gibberellins To Microtubules, Ram Dixit Jun 2013

Plant Cytoskeleton: Della Connects Gibberellins To Microtubules, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

A new study reveals that DELLA proteins directly interact with the prefoldin complex, thus regulating tubulin subunit availability in a gibberellin-dependent manner. This finding provides a mechanistic link between the growth-promoting plant hormone gibberellin and cortical microtubule organization.


Characterizing The Role Of Cortactin In Actin Pedestal Assembly By Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Ehec), Sarah E. Grout May 2013

Characterizing The Role Of Cortactin In Actin Pedestal Assembly By Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Ehec), Sarah E. Grout

Honors Scholar Theses

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne cause of bloody diarrhea and renal failure. During colonization of the intestine, EHEC injects the transmembrane receptor protein Tir and the cytoplasmic effector protein EspFU into host cells to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton into adhesion “pedestals.” EspFU has been shown to bind and activate the actin nucleation factor N-WASP to drive actin polymerization into pedestals. However, EspFU can still assemble pedestals in cells lacking N-WASP, suggesting that this effector protein is able to also trigger N-WASP-independent pathways of actin polymerization during infection. Cortactin is an atypical nucleation factor that localizes to pedestals ...


Subcellular Analysis Of The Disulfide Proteome In P66shc Expressing Nerve Cells, Tyler Cann Jan 2013

Subcellular Analysis Of The Disulfide Proteome In P66shc Expressing Nerve Cells, Tyler Cann

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The longevity associated protein p66Shc has been suggested to regulate organismal lifespan through initiation of apoptotic pathways. Following stress-induced translocation into the mitochondria, p66Shc promotes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and triggers poorly defined downstream signaling events that lead to decreased cell viability. Protein disulfide bonding has recently emerged as aROSdependent post-translational modification that regulates protein function and signaling processes. Using the mouse hippocampal HT-22 cell line, I sought to determine the changes in the disulfide proteome associated with p66Shc mediatedROSproduction. Through Redox 2D-SDSPAGEanalysis of mitochondrial and cytosolic extracts, redox sensitive proteins altered by p66Shc mediatedROSformation were identified. Of ...


Internalization Of F-Actin Monomers Into 3t3 Fibroblasts Via Thermal Inkjet Printing For Investigation Of Cytoskeleton Incorporation And Mechanics, Stephen Shuford May 2012

Internalization Of F-Actin Monomers Into 3t3 Fibroblasts Via Thermal Inkjet Printing For Investigation Of Cytoskeleton Incorporation And Mechanics, Stephen Shuford

All Theses

ABSTRACT
We will review the conversion of a standard thermal inkjet printer into a bioprinting system and the effects of printing F-actin monomers with cells. The use of any printing system along with biological material or for biological or medical use has been termed bioprinting. Bioprinting has been used in vascular grafts, scaffold design, gene transfection, micro patterning and many other applications and is very diverse. Specifically we will look at the internalization of F-actin monomers into 3T3 fibroblasts as a result of cell membrane disruption from thermal inkjet printing. If the actin monomers were internalized and then incorporated into ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Migration Inhibition By Synthetic Triterpenoids, Ciric Chi Wing To Apr 2012

Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Migration Inhibition By Synthetic Triterpenoids, Ciric Chi Wing To

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cell migration is an important mediator of cancer metastasis and invasion, which is responsible for 90% of cancer-related premature deaths in Canada. Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of promising anti-cancer compounds that have shown considerable efficacy in targeting various cellular functions including apoptosis, growth, inflammation and cytoprotection in both cell culture and animal tumor models. However, their effect on cell migration, an important event in metastasis, remains poorly understood. This thesis focuses on deciphering the molecular mechanisms whereby the synthetic triterpenoids affect cell migration. I observed that the imidazolide and methyl ester derivatives of the synthetic triterpenoid, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic ...


Computer Simulation And Mathematical Models Of The Noncentrosomal Plant Cortical Microtubule Cytoskeleton, Ezgi Can Eren, Natarajan Gautam, Ram Dixit Mar 2012

Computer Simulation And Mathematical Models Of The Noncentrosomal Plant Cortical Microtubule Cytoskeleton, Ezgi Can Eren, Natarajan Gautam, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

There is rising interest in modeling the noncentrosomal cortical microtubule cytoskeleton of plant cells, particularly its organization into ordered arrays and the mechanisms that facilitate this organization. In this review, we discuss quantitative models of this highly complex and dynamic structure both at a cellular and molecular level. We report differences in methodologies and assumptions of different models as well as their controversial results. Our review provides insights for future studies to resolve these controversies, in addition to underlining the common results between various models. We also highlight the need to compare the results from simulation and mathematical models with ...


Lytic Granule Convergence To The Microtubule Organizing Center In Natural Killer Cells, Ashley Mentlik James Jan 2012

Lytic Granule Convergence To The Microtubule Organizing Center In Natural Killer Cells, Ashley Mentlik James

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that participate in host defense by secreting the contents of specialized secretory organelles termed lytic granules onto virally infected or tumorigenic cells in order to terminate them. Lysis of these target cells is a highly regulated, stepwise process beginning with actin rearrangement into an immunological synapse (IS) at the contact site between NK cell and target cell, followed by microtubule organizing center (MTOC) polarization towards the target cell, and culminating in the release of lytic granule contents through the actin network at the IS. The NK cell is capable ...


The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle Dec 2011

The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Intercellular adhesions are essential for compartmentalization and integrity of tissues in an organism, cell-cell communication, and morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins play a vital role in establishing and maintaining cell-cell adhesion. However, the procedure by which cells establish adherens junctions remains largely unclear.

We investigated the dynamics of cell-cell junction formation and the corresponding architecture of the underlying cytoskeleton in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that the initial interaction between cells is mediated by protruding lamellipodia. Upon their retraction, cells maintain contact through thin bridges formed by filopodia-like protrusions connected by VE-cadherin-rich junctions.

Bridges ...


Septin Filaments Exhibit A Dynamic, Paired Organization That Is Conserved From Yeast To Mammals, Bradley S. Demay, Xiaobo Bai, Louisa Howard, Patricia Occhipinti, Rebecca A. Meseroll, Elias T. Spiliotis, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S. Gladfelter May 2011

Septin Filaments Exhibit A Dynamic, Paired Organization That Is Conserved From Yeast To Mammals, Bradley S. Demay, Xiaobo Bai, Louisa Howard, Patricia Occhipinti, Rebecca A. Meseroll, Elias T. Spiliotis, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The septins are conserved, GTP-binding proteins important for cytokinesis, membrane compartmentalization, and exocytosis. However, it is unknown how septins are arranged within higher-order structures in cells. To determine the organization of septins in live cells, we developed a polarized fluorescence microscopy system to monitor the orientation of GFP dipole moments with high spatial and temporal resolution. When GFP was fused to septins, the arrangement of GFP dipoles reflected the underlying septin organization. We demonstrated in a filamentous fungus, a budding yeast, and a mammalian epithelial cell line that septin proteins were organized in an identical highly ordered fashion. Fluorescence anisotropy ...


Biochemical Basis Of Human Disease-Causing Actin Mutations, Sarah Elizabeth Bergeron May 2011

Biochemical Basis Of Human Disease-Causing Actin Mutations, Sarah Elizabeth Bergeron

Theses and Dissertations

Actin isoform specific mutations have been identified as causes for various human diseases. These include twelve missense mutations in γ-nonmuscle actin leading to early onset autosomal dominate nonsyndromic hearing loss and twenty two missense mutations in α-smooth muscle actin leading to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). The molecular mechanisms leading to these human pathologies are mainly unknown, principally due to the inability to isolate pure mutant γ-nonmuscle actin and α-smooth muscle actin in quantities required for biochemical analysis. To begin to address these problems, I have individually expressed the human nonmuscle actin isoforms, β– and γ– nonmuscle actin, in ...


Frazzled And Abelson Interact To Regulate The Actin Cytoskeleton In Drosophila, Bridget Elsa Varughese Jan 2011

Frazzled And Abelson Interact To Regulate The Actin Cytoskeleton In Drosophila, Bridget Elsa Varughese

Wayne State University Dissertations

Guidance receptors such as Frazzled affect cell shape and motility by directly or indirectly modulating the cytoskeleton. Fra is particularly needed for the formation of the posterior commissures in a developing Drosophila embryo. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Abelson Kinase (Abl) enhances the loss of commissures observed in fra mutant. Abl physically interacts with Frazzled to help guide commissural axons across the midline. Furthermore, the loss of commissural axons is only seen when the actin dynamics are perturbed. Abl is also known to regulate actin-dependent processes underlying formation of filopodia, microspikes and membrane ruffles. So, we established a Drosophila S2 cell ...


Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna Jan 2010

Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes ...


Mutant Rac1b Expression In Dictyostelium: Effects On Morphology, Growth, Endocytosis, Development, And The Actin Cytoskeleton, S. Palmieri, Thomas Nebl, Robert Pope, D. Seastone, E. Lee, E. Hinchcliffe, Greenfield Sluder, D. Knecht, J. Cardelli, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Mutant Rac1b Expression In Dictyostelium: Effects On Morphology, Growth, Endocytosis, Development, And The Actin Cytoskeleton, S. Palmieri, Thomas Nebl, Robert Pope, D. Seastone, E. Lee, E. Hinchcliffe, Greenfield Sluder, D. Knecht, J. Cardelli, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Rac1 is a small G-protein in the Ras superfamily that has been implicated in the control of cell growth, adhesion, and the actin-based cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of Rac1 during motile processes, we have established Dictyostelium cell lines that conditionally overexpress epitope-tagged Dictyostelium discoideum wild-type Rac1B (DdRac1B) or a mutant DdRac1B protein. Expression of endogenous levels of myc- or GFP-tagged wild-type DdRac1B had minimal effect on cellular morphologies and behaviors. By contrast, expression of a constitutively active mutant (G12-->V or Q61-->L) or a dominant negative mutant (T17-->N) generated amoebae with characteristic cellular defects. The morphological appearance ...


A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. Ii. Integral Proteins Mediate The Binding Of Plasma Membranes To F-Actin Affinity Beads, Elizabeth J. Luna, C. M. Goodloe-Holland, H. M. Ingalls Mar 2008

A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. Ii. Integral Proteins Mediate The Binding Of Plasma Membranes To F-Actin Affinity Beads, Elizabeth J. Luna, C. M. Goodloe-Holland, H. M. Ingalls

Elizabeth J. Luna

In novel, low-speed sedimentation assays, highly purified, sonicated Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membrane fragments bind to F-actin beads (fluorescein-labeled F-actin on antifluorescein IgG-Sephacryl S-1000 beads). Binding was found to be (a) specific, since beads containing bound fluorescein-labeled ovalbumin or beads without bound fluorescein-labeled protein do not bind membranes, (b) saturable at approximately 0.6 microgram of membrane protein per microgram of bead-bound F-actin, (c) rapid with a t1/2 of 4-20 min, and (d) apparently of reasonable affinity since the off rate is too slow to be measured by present techniques. Using low-speed sedimentation assays, we found that sonicated plasma membrane ...


Binding And Assembly Of Actin Filaments By Plasma Membranes From Dictyostelium Discoideum, M. A. Schwartz, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Binding And Assembly Of Actin Filaments By Plasma Membranes From Dictyostelium Discoideum, M. A. Schwartz, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

The binding of native, 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled actin to purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes was measured using a sedimentation assay. Binding was saturable only in the presence of the actin capping protein, gelsolin. In the presence of gelsolin, the amount of actin bound at saturation to three different membrane preparations was 80, 120, and 200 micrograms/mg of membrane protein. The respective concentrations of actin at half-saturation were 8, 12, and 18 micrograms/ml. The binding curves were sigmoidal, indicating positive cooperativity at low actin concentrations. This cooperativity appeared to be due to actin-actin associations during polymerization, since phalloidin converted the curve ...


Direct Binding Of F-Actin To Ponticulin, An Integral Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein, C. Chia, Anne Hitt, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Direct Binding Of F-Actin To Ponticulin, An Integral Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein, C. Chia, Anne Hitt, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

We have developed an 125I-labeled F-actin blot overlay assay for the identification of F-actin-binding proteins after transfer to nitrocellulose from SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Two major F-actin-binding proteins from Dictyostelium discoideum, a cytoplasmic 30 kDa protein and a 17 kDa integral membrane protein, and two minor membrane polypeptides of 19 kDa and 15 kDa were detected by this method. Using F-actin affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography, the 17 kDa polypeptide was identified as ponticulin, a previously described actin-binding glycoprotein from D. discoideum plasma membranes (Wuestehube, L.J., and Luna, E.J., [1987]: J. Cell Biol. 105:1741-1751). The binding of F-actin to ponticulin ...


F-Actin And Myosin Ii Binding Domains In Supervillin, Yu Chen, Norio Takizawa, Jessica Crowley, Sang Oh, Cheryl Gatto, Taketoshi Kambara, Osamu Sato, Xiang-Dong Li, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

F-Actin And Myosin Ii Binding Domains In Supervillin, Yu Chen, Norio Takizawa, Jessica Crowley, Sang Oh, Cheryl Gatto, Taketoshi Kambara, Osamu Sato, Xiang-Dong Li, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Detergent-resistant membranes contain signaling and integral membrane proteins that organize cholesterol-rich domains called lipid rafts. A subset of these detergent-resistant membranes (DRM-H) exhibits a higher buoyant density ( approximately 1.16 g/ml) because of association with membrane skeleton proteins, including actin, myosin II, myosin 1G, fodrin, and an actin- and membrane-binding protein called supervillin (Nebl, T., Pestonjamasp, K. N., Leszyk, J. D., Crowley, J. L., Oh, S. W., and Luna, E. J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 43399-43409). To characterize interactions among DRM-H cytoskeletal proteins, we investigated the binding partners of the novel supervillin N terminus, specifically amino acids 1-830 ...


Domain Analysis Of Supervillin, An F-Actin Bundling Plasma Membrane Protein With Functional Nuclear Localization Signals, J. D. Wulfkuhle, I. E. Donina, N. H. Stark, Robert K. Pope, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, M. L. Niswonger, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Domain Analysis Of Supervillin, An F-Actin Bundling Plasma Membrane Protein With Functional Nuclear Localization Signals, J. D. Wulfkuhle, I. E. Donina, N. H. Stark, Robert K. Pope, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, M. L. Niswonger, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

A growing number of actin-associated membrane proteins have been implicated in motile processes, adhesive interactions, and signal transduction to the cell nucleus. We report here that supervillin, an F-actin binding protein originally isolated from bovine neutrophil plasma membranes, contains functional nuclear targeting signals and localizes at or near vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques in COS7-2 and CV1 cells. Overexpression of full-length supervillin in these cells disrupts the integrity of focal adhesion plaques and results in increased levels of F-actin and vinculin. Localization studies of chimeric proteins containing supervillin sequences fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein indicate that: (1) the amino ...


The Integral Membrane Protein, Ponticulin, Acts As A Monomer In Nucleating Actin Assembly, C. P. Chia, A. Shariff, S. A. Savage, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

The Integral Membrane Protein, Ponticulin, Acts As A Monomer In Nucleating Actin Assembly, C. P. Chia, A. Shariff, S. A. Savage, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Ponticulin, an F-actin binding transmembrane glycoprotein in Dictyostelium plasma membranes, was isolated by detergent extraction from cytoskeletons and purified to homogeneity. Ponticulin is an abundant membrane protein, averaging approximately 10(6) copies/cell, with an estimated surface density of approximately 300 per microns2. Ponticulin solubilized in octylglucoside exhibited hydrodynamic properties consistent with a ponticulin monomer in a spherical or slightly ellipsoidal detergent micelle with a total molecular mass of 56 +/- 6 kD. Purified ponticulin nucleated actin polymerization when reconstituted into Dictyostelium lipid vesicles, but not when a number of commercially available lipids and lipid mixtures were substituted for the endogenous ...