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Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren Sep 2019

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oleocanthal is a phenolic compound found in varying concentrations in extra virgin olive oil. Oleocanthal has been shown to be active physiologically, benefiting several diseased states by conferring anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated its specific and selective toxicity toward cancer cells; however, the mechanism leading to cancer cell death is still disputed. The current study demonstrates that oleocanthal induced damage to cancer cells’ lysosomes leading to cellular toxicity in vitro. Non-cancer cells were significantly less affected. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization following oleocanthal treatment in various cell lines was assayed via three complementary methods. Additionally, we ...


Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Jun 2019

Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible cellular process, characterized by changes in gene expression and activation of proteins, favoring the trans-differentiation of the epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype. This process increases cell migration and invasion of tumor cells, progression of the cell cycle, and resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy, all of which support tumor progression. One of the signaling pathways involved in tumor progression is the MAPK pathway. Within this family, the ERK subfamily of proteins is known for its contributions to EMT. The ERK subfamily is divided into typical (ERK 1/2/5), and atypical (ERK 3/4 ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli May 2019

The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli

Student Honors Theses By Year

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia in adults and while it has a high remission rate, relapse with therapy resistance is common, indicating the need for more targeted and effective therapies. It is possible to reprogram AML cells in culture to undergo cell cycle arrest, differentiation into “normal” macrophage-like cells, and apoptosis using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a diacyl glycerol (DAG) mimic. While this is effective in “curing” leukemia in culture, PMA is too toxic to serve as a therapy in AML patients. During these PMA-induced changes, approximately 1250 genes change in expression. The goal ...


Exploring The Effects Of Protein Kinase C-Alpha Gene Knockout On The Proliferation Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Emma J. Kuntz May 2019

Exploring The Effects Of Protein Kinase C-Alpha Gene Knockout On The Proliferation Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Emma J. Kuntz

Honors Program Projects

Signaling molecules have important roles in many cellular functions, but because these pathways are incredibly complex, the exact mechanisms often remain unknown. One signaling molecule, protein kinase C alpha (PKCa), is involved in cell proliferation and is expressed at high levels in many cancers. Interestingly, its activity as a tumor promoter or tumor suppressor varies depending on the cell type for reasons not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of PKCa in cell proliferation in order to better understand its function as a signaling molecule. To asses this, a knockout line was generated using CRISPR-Cas9 and ...


Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost May 2019

Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost

Honors Program Projects

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is a very common mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud May 2019

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost Apr 2019

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


Role Of The Nuclear Receptor Pparγ In Clear Cell Renal And Bladder Urotheial Carcinoma, Danielle Sanchez Jan 2019

Role Of The Nuclear Receptor Pparγ In Clear Cell Renal And Bladder Urotheial Carcinoma, Danielle Sanchez

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has a well-characterized role in the developmental process of adipogenesis and transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism. However, its expression patterns and functions in various cancer subtypes are less understood. My studies investigate the role of PPARγ in two distinct cancers of the urinary tract: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). In ccRCC, I hypothesized that PPARγ activity contributes to the aberrant lipid accumulation phenotype characteristic of this disease, thereby promoting tumor progression. Through ChIP-seq, I demonstrated that PPARγ and its heterodimeric DNA binding partner retinoid X receptor ...


Development And Characterization Of An Immunologically Humanized And Cancer Xenograft Model In Pigs With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (Scid), Adeline Nicole Boettcher Jan 2019

Development And Characterization Of An Immunologically Humanized And Cancer Xenograft Model In Pigs With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (Scid), Adeline Nicole Boettcher

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Swine with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are an emerging large animal model for biomedical research. There have been several SCID pig models described since our first discovery of naturally occurring SCID with mutations in Artemis (DCLRE1C) in 2012. SCID animals are particularly useful in biomedical research due to their lack of T, B, and sometimes NK cells. Absence of the adaptive immune system allows for human cell and tissue xenotransplantation into these SCID animals. The works described within this thesis are categorized under four main goals: (1) further characterization of the immune system of Art-/- SCID pigs, (2) development of ...


Regulation Of Canonical And Non-Canonical Hippo Pathway Components In Mitosis And Cancer, Seth Stauffer Dec 2018

Regulation Of Canonical And Non-Canonical Hippo Pathway Components In Mitosis And Cancer, Seth Stauffer

Theses & Dissertations

The Hippo pathway is conserved regulator of organ size through control of proliferation, apoptosis, and stem-cell self-renewal. In addition to this important function, many of the canonical signaling members have also been shown to be regulated during mitosis. Importantly, Hippo pathway components are frequently dysregulated in cancers and have attracted attention as possible targets for improved cancer therapeutics. Further exploration of Hippo-YAP (yes-associated protein) signaling has revealed new regulators and effectors outside the canonical signaling network and has revealed a larger non-canonical network of signaling proteins in which canonical Hippo pathway components crosstalk with important cellular homeostasis and apoptosis signaling ...


Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley Nov 2018

Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley

Bioelectrics Publications

Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Transcriptome sequencing is increasingly revealing that equally rich compliments of ion channels exist in both excitable and non-excitable tissue. In this review, we discuss a range of critical ...


Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry Oct 2018

Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Tumor heterogeneity observed between patients has made it challenging to develop universal or broadly effective cancer therapies. Therefore, an ever-growing movement within cancer research aims to tailor cancer therapies to individual patients or specific tumor subtypes. Tumor stratification is generally dictated by the genomic mutation status of the tumor cells themselves. Importantly, non-genetic influences – such as interactions between tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment – have largely been ignored. Therefore, in an effort to increase treatment predictability and efficacy, we investigated how tumor-stroma interactions contribute to drug sensitivity and drug resistance.

I designed a high throughput co-culture screening ...


“Do We Know Jack” About Jak? A Closer Look At Jak/Stat Signaling Pathway, Emira Bousoik, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi Jul 2018

“Do We Know Jack” About Jak? A Closer Look At Jak/Stat Signaling Pathway, Emira Bousoik, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) family of proteins have been identified as crucial proteins in signal transduction initiated by a wide range of membrane receptors. Among the proteins in this family JAK2 has been associated with important downstream proteins, including signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which in turn regulate the expression of a variety of proteins involved in induction or prevention of apoptosis. Therefore, the JAK/STAT signaling axis plays a major role in the proliferation and survival of different cancer cells, and may even be involved in resistance mechanisms against molecularly targeted drugs. Despite extensive research focused on ...


Integrated Regulation Of Class Ii Human Endogenous Retroviruses In A Breast Cancer Cell Line, Yingguang Liu, Tam D. Nguyen Jul 2018

Integrated Regulation Of Class Ii Human Endogenous Retroviruses In A Breast Cancer Cell Line, Yingguang Liu, Tam D. Nguyen

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are still regarded as foreign invaders by most biologists. Because of structural and positional homology of ERVs in human and ape genomes, they have been considered molecular evidences of common ancestry. Using a breast cancer cell line, we analyzed the regulatory features of a group of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV-K), and found that they contain multiple sequence motifs subjecting them to regulation by sex hormones, a stem cell-specific transcription factor (OCT4), and DNA methylation. Mutation of the OCT4 motif abrogates their response to sex hormones, while methylation of a progesterone-response element enhances receptor-binding. We also found that ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Inactivation Of Myeloma Cancer Cells By Helium And Argon Plasma Jets: The Effect Comparison And The Key Reactive Species, Zeyu Chen, Qingjie Cui, Chen Chen, Dehui Xu, Dingxin Liu, H. L. Chen, Michael G. Kong Feb 2018

Inactivation Of Myeloma Cancer Cells By Helium And Argon Plasma Jets: The Effect Comparison And The Key Reactive Species, Zeyu Chen, Qingjie Cui, Chen Chen, Dehui Xu, Dingxin Liu, H. L. Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

In plasma cancer therapy, the inactivation of cancer cells under plasma treatment is closely related to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) induced by plasmas. Quantitative study on the plasma-induced RONS that related to cancer cells apoptosis is critical for advancing the research of plasma cancer therapy. In this paper, the effects of several reactive species on the inactivation of LP-1 myeloma cancer cells are comparatively studied with variable working gas composition, surrounding gas composition, and discharge power. The results show that helium plasma jet has a higher cell inactivation efficiency than argon plasma jet under the same discharge ...


The Role Of Mdm2 In Dna Damage Signaling, Stanley Tam Jan 2018

The Role Of Mdm2 In Dna Damage Signaling, Stanley Tam

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The overexpression of the oncogene MDM2 is common in a variety of human cancers. MDM2 overexpression is known to increase genome instability in cells by delaying DNA double strand break repair and γH2AX levels. This study explores the knockdown of MDM2 and how it may affect DNA damage signaling.


Ligand-Activated Bmp Signaling Inhibits Cell Differentiation And Death To Promote Melanoma, Arvind Venkatesan, Rajesh Vyas, Alec Gramann, Karen A. Dresser, Sharvari Gujja, Sanchita Bhatnagar, Sagar Chhangawala, Camilla Borges Ferreira Gomes, Hualin Simon Xi, Christine G. Lian, Yariv Houvras, Yvonne J. K. Edwards, April C. Deng, Michael R. Green, Craig J. Ceol Jan 2018

Ligand-Activated Bmp Signaling Inhibits Cell Differentiation And Death To Promote Melanoma, Arvind Venkatesan, Rajesh Vyas, Alec Gramann, Karen A. Dresser, Sharvari Gujja, Sanchita Bhatnagar, Sagar Chhangawala, Camilla Borges Ferreira Gomes, Hualin Simon Xi, Christine G. Lian, Yariv Houvras, Yvonne J. K. Edwards, April C. Deng, Michael R. Green, Craig J. Ceol

Open Access Articles

Oncogenomic studies indicate that copy number variation (CNV) alters genes involved in tumor progression; however, identification of specific driver genes affected by CNV has been difficult, as these rearrangements are often contained in large chromosomal intervals among several bystander genes. Here, we addressed this problem and identified a CNV-targeted oncogene by performing comparative oncogenomics of human and zebrafish melanomas. We determined that the gene encoding growth differentiation factor 6 (GDF6), which is the ligand for the BMP family, is recurrently amplified and transcriptionally upregulated in melanoma. GDF6-induced BMP signaling maintained a trunk neural crest gene signature in melanomas. Additionally, GDF6 ...


Impact Of Ros Presence On Oncogenic Ras Activity, Chris Andersen Jan 2018

Impact Of Ros Presence On Oncogenic Ras Activity, Chris Andersen

Summer Research

Previous research has suggested a connection between oncogenic Ras and the cell’s levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The underlying cellular mechanism is not well understood. To investigate this connection, we applied the UAS-GAL4 system in Drosophila melanogaster flies to control the expression of Ras and Keap1, a key redox regulator.2 We expected the activity of Ras to vary with its redox environment and thus impact protein activity downstream of Ras signaling cascades. In monitoring three proteins downstream of Ras—Dcp-1, Akt, and MAPK—we aimed to determine which pathways were impacted by ROS modulation.


Evaluation And Adaptation Of Live-Cell Interferometry For Applications In Basic, Translational, And Clinical Research, Kevin A. Leslie Jan 2018

Evaluation And Adaptation Of Live-Cell Interferometry For Applications In Basic, Translational, And Clinical Research, Kevin A. Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

Cell mass is an important indicator of cell health and status. A diverse set of techniques have been developed to precisely measure the masses of single cells, with varying degrees of technical complexity and throughput. Here, the development of a non-invasive, label-free optical technique, termed Live-Cell Interferometry (LCI), is described. Several applications are presented, including an evaluation of LCI’s utility for assessing drug response heterogeneity in patient-derived melanoma lines and the measurement of CD3+ T cell kinetics during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The characterization of mast cells during degranulation, the measurement of viral reactivation kinetics in Kaposi’s Sarcoma ...


Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach Jan 2018

Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Polyamines are a class of essential nutrients involved in many basic cellular processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Without polyamines, cell growth is delayed or halted. Cancerous cells require an abundance of polyamines through a combination of synthesis and transport from the extracellular environment. An FDA-approved drug, D,L-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), blocks polyamine synthesis but is ineffective at inhibiting cell growth due to polyamine transport. Thus, there is a need to develop drugs that inhibit polyamine transport to use in combination with DFMO. Surprisingly, little is known about the polyamine transport system in humans and other eukaryotes. Understanding ...


Gynecological Tissue Homeostasis And Tumorigenesis Studies Using Mouse Models, Amy Guimaraes-Young Dec 2017

Gynecological Tissue Homeostasis And Tumorigenesis Studies Using Mouse Models, Amy Guimaraes-Young

Theses and Dissertations

Gynecological cancers present a tremendous disease burden worldwide. Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecological malignancy, is predominantly a disease of deranged glandular function. The mechanisms by which known environmental risk factors influence the mutational profile of endometrial cancer are poorly understood. Non-HPV vulvar cancer, on the other hand, is a very rare gynecological malignancy of vulvar squamous cells with little known about its pathogenesis. Surgical resection of vulvar cancer is associated with high post-surgical morbidity. Pivotal to improving treatment and outcomes for patients with gynecological cancers is an understanding of the molecular drivers unique to each tumor type.

To inform ...


Bivalent Epigenetic Control Of Oncofetal Gene Expression In Cancer, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Seth E. Frietze, Jonathan A. Gordon, Jessica L. Heath, Terri Messier, Deli Hong, Joseph R. Boyd, Mingu Kang, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein Nov 2017

Bivalent Epigenetic Control Of Oncofetal Gene Expression In Cancer, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Seth E. Frietze, Jonathan A. Gordon, Jessica L. Heath, Terri Messier, Deli Hong, Joseph R. Boyd, Mingu Kang, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control that include DNA methylation, histone modification, noncoding RNAs, and mitotic gene bookmarking play pivotal roles in stringent gene regulation during lineage commitment and maintenance. Experimental evidence indicates that bivalent chromatin domains, i.e., genome regions that are marked by both H3K4me3 (activating) and H3K27me3 (repressive) histone modifications, are a key property of pluripotent stem cells. Bivalency of developmental genes during the G1 phase of the pluripotent stem cell cycle contributes to cell fate decisions. Recently, some cancer types have been shown to exhibit partial recapitulation of bivalent chromatin modifications that are lost along with pluripotency ...


Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje Nov 2017

Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Moringa oleifera is a tree native to a number of Asian, African, and Central American countries and has been used in traditional medicine for an assortment of medicinal uses for centuries. Due to bioactive compounds within Moringa leaves, it is believed that Moringa leaf extract may possess cancer-selective antiproliferative properties. Previous research has been conducted in regards to this topic, but poor experimental design due to lack of necessary controls limits the legitimacy of anticancer claims. While previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract has the potential to kill cancer cells, the research fails to demonstrate the effects of ...


Lim Protein Ajuba Directly Interacts With Replication Protein A To Prevent Atr Dna Damage Response, Sandy Wan Shan Fowler Sep 2017

Lim Protein Ajuba Directly Interacts With Replication Protein A To Prevent Atr Dna Damage Response, Sandy Wan Shan Fowler

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Integrity of the human genome is essential for viability and proliferation of human cells. Intrinsic (endogenous replication stress) or extrinsic (UV, chemotherapy drugs) agents threaten the stability of the genome by generation of single stranded (ss) DNA or double stranded (ds) DNA breaks. The DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are conserved in evolution and constitute systems that perform the surveillance, signaling, and repair of the damage in the nucleus. Unchecked and accumulation of DNA damage can lead to deleterious effects such as replication fork collapse, chromosome fusion and breakage. The dysregulations of DNA damage response pathways are hallmarks of tumorigenesis ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala Sep 2017

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Apoptosis And Cell Cycle Dysregulation In Human And Murine Cancer Cell Lines, Joseph Skurski Aug 2017

Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Apoptosis And Cell Cycle Dysregulation In Human And Murine Cancer Cell Lines, Joseph Skurski

Theses and Dissertations

Carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process that requires tumor cells to grow rapidly while overcoming growth inhibitory signals and sustained challenges from the host immune response. Mutations within promoter or enhancer regions, along with epigenetic changes, can induce aberrant expression of genes that regulate differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis, all of which enhance potential for cellular transformation. In recent years, our understanding of the biological processes that influence the activation and repression of transcription have evolved to highlight the role of chromatin architecture, and how chromatin remodeling may be utilized for the potential therapeutic benefit of genetic disease. Histone deacetylase ...


Basigin-2 Mediated Activation Of Erk1/2 Signaling In Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Erik R. Peterson Aug 2017

Basigin-2 Mediated Activation Of Erk1/2 Signaling In Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Erik R. Peterson

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant form of human brain cancer. GBM tumor cells overexpress the protein Basigin (Bsg) at the cell surface where it contributes to malignancy via stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in surrounding normal tissues, resulting in the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding tumors, promoting remodeling of the tumor borders, stimulating growth. In work by Belton et al. (2008), human uterine endometrial cells treated with a recombinant form of human basigin possessing the extracellular domain of the Bsg protein (rBsg-ECD) showed activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins, ERK1 ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...