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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

University Scholar Projects

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

Honors Scholar Theses

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost May 2019

Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost

Honors Program Projects

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is a very common mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research ...


Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi Apr 2019

Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...


Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers Mar 2019

Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Purpose

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal and aggressive subtype of breast cancer. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy regulator that suppresses tumor growth, and 1-(3-chloro-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (FND-4b) is a novel AMPK activator that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer. The purpose of this project was to test the effects of FND-4b on AMPK activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on TNBC.

Materials and methods

(i) Estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (ER+BC; MCF-7, and T-47D), TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1806), and ...


Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe Jan 2019

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Knowledge And Breast Cancer In Texas, Ejike Roland Egwuekwe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions ...


Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera Nov 2018

Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera

Publications and Research

The potent antimalarial drug pyronaridine (PND) was tested for its potential as an anticancer drug. After exposing cancerous (17) and non-cancerous (2) cells to PND for 72 hr, PND was found to exhibit consistent and potent cytotoxic activity at low micromolar (μM) concentrations that ranged from 1.6 μM to 9.4 μM. Moreover, PND exerted a significant selective cytotoxicity index (SCI) on five out of seven breast cancer cell lines tested, with favorable values of 2.5 to 4.4, as compared with the non-cancerous breast MCF-10A cell line. By using the same comparison, PND exhibited a significant SCI ...


Identification Of A Novel Invasion-Promoting Region In Insulin Receptor Substrate 2, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jenny Janusis, Sha Zhu, Samuel S. Chen, Leslie M. Shaw Jun 2018

Identification Of A Novel Invasion-Promoting Region In Insulin Receptor Substrate 2, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jenny Janusis, Sha Zhu, Samuel S. Chen, Leslie M. Shaw

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Although the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins IRS1 and IRS2 share considerable homology and activate common signaling pathways, their contributions to breast cancer are distinct. IRS1 has been implicated in the proliferation and survival of breast tumor cells. In contrast, IRS2 facilitates glycolysis, invasion, and metastasis. To determine the mechanistic basis for IRS2-dependent functions, we investigated unique structural features of IRS2 that are required for invasion. Our studies revealed that the ability of IRS2 to promote invasion is dependent upon upstream insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R)/insulin receptor (IR) activation and the recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K ...


Cell Clustering Mediated By The Adhesion Protein Pvrl4 Is Necessary For Alpha6beta4 Integrin-Promoted Ferroptosis Resistance In Matrix-Detached Cells, Caitlin W. Brown, John J. Amante, Arthur M. Mercurio Jun 2018

Cell Clustering Mediated By The Adhesion Protein Pvrl4 Is Necessary For Alpha6beta4 Integrin-Promoted Ferroptosis Resistance In Matrix-Detached Cells, Caitlin W. Brown, John J. Amante, Arthur M. Mercurio

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of programmed cell death characterized by the accumulation of lipid-targeting reactive oxygen species that kill cells by damaging their plasma membrane. The lipid-repair enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) protects against this oxidative damage and enables cells to resist ferroptosis. Recent work has revealed that matrix-detached carcinoma cells can be susceptible to ferroptosis and that they can evade this fate through the signaling properties of the alpha6beta4 integrin, which sustains GPX4 expression. Although these findings on ferroptosis are provocative, they differ from those in previous studies indicating that matrix-detached cells are prone to apoptosis, via a ...


Imp3 Stabilization Of Wnt5b Mrna Facilitates Taz Activation In Breast Cancer, Sanjoy Samanta, Santosh Guru, Ameer L. Elaimy, John J. Amante, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Arthur M. Mercurio May 2018

Imp3 Stabilization Of Wnt5b Mrna Facilitates Taz Activation In Breast Cancer, Sanjoy Samanta, Santosh Guru, Ameer L. Elaimy, John J. Amante, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Arthur M. Mercurio

Open Access Articles

Insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein associated with many aggressive cancers and implicated in the function of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). The mechanisms involved, however, are poorly understood. We observed that IMP3 facilitates the activation of TAZ, a transcriptional co-activator of Hippo signaling that is necessary for the function of breast CSCs. The mechanism by which IMP3 activates TAZ involves both mRNA stability and transcriptional regulation. IMP3 stabilizes the mRNA of an alternative WNT ligand (WNT5B) indirectly by repressing miR145-5p, which targets WNT5B, resulting in TAZ activation by alternative WNT signaling. IMP3 also facilitates ...


Imp3 Stabilization Of Wnt5b Mrna Facilitates Taz Activation In Breast Cancer, Sanjoy Samanta, Santosh Guru, Ameer L. Elaimy, John J. Amante, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Arthur M. Mercurio May 2018

Imp3 Stabilization Of Wnt5b Mrna Facilitates Taz Activation In Breast Cancer, Sanjoy Samanta, Santosh Guru, Ameer L. Elaimy, John J. Amante, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Arthur M. Mercurio

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein associated with many aggressive cancers and implicated in the function of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). The mechanisms involved, however, are poorly understood. We observed that IMP3 facilitates the activation of TAZ, a transcriptional co-activator of Hippo signaling that is necessary for the function of breast CSCs. The mechanism by which IMP3 activates TAZ involves both mRNA stability and transcriptional regulation. IMP3 stabilizes the mRNA of an alternative WNT ligand (WNT5B) indirectly by repressing miR145-5p, which targets WNT5B, resulting in TAZ activation by alternative WNT signaling. IMP3 also facilitates ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


The Brg1 Atpase Of Human Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes As A Driver Of Cancer, Qiong Wu, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Anthony N. Imbalzano Jun 2017

The Brg1 Atpase Of Human Swi/Snf Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes As A Driver Of Cancer, Qiong Wu, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Mammalian SWI/SNF enzymes are ATP-dependent remodelers of chromatin structure. These multisubunit enzymes are heterogeneous in composition; there are two catalytic ATPase subunits, BRM and BRG1, that are mutually exclusive, and additional subunits are incorporated in a combinatorial manner. Recent findings indicate that approximately 20% of human cancers contain mutations in SWI/SNF enzyme subunits, leading to the conclusion that the enzyme subunits are critical tumor suppressors. However, overexpression of specific subunits without apparent mutation is emerging as an alternative mechanism by which cellular transformation may occur. Here we highlight recent evidence linking elevated expression of the BRG1 ATPase to ...


Differential Involvement Of The Microtubule Cytoskeleton In Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Signaling To Akt Determines The Response To Microtubule Disruption In Breast Carcinoma Cells, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jennifer L. Clark, Andrew J. Piper, Jenny Janusis, Leslie M. Shaw May 2017

Differential Involvement Of The Microtubule Cytoskeleton In Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Signaling To Akt Determines The Response To Microtubule Disruption In Breast Carcinoma Cells, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jennifer L. Clark, Andrew J. Piper, Jenny Janusis, Leslie M. Shaw

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins serve as essential signaling intermediates for the activation of PI3K by both the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its close family member, the insulin receptor (IR). Although IRS-1 and IRS-2 share significant homology, they regulate distinct cellular responses downstream of these receptors and play divergent roles in breast cancer. To investigate the mechanism by which signaling through IRS-1 and IRS-2 results in differential outcomes, we assessed the involvement of the microtubule cytoskeleton in IRS-dependent signaling. Treatment with drugs that either stabilize or disrupt microtubules reveal that an intact microtubule cytoskeleton contributes to ...


The Role Of Ehd2 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis And Progression, Timothy A. Bielecki May 2017

The Role Of Ehd2 In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumorigenesis And Progression, Timothy A. Bielecki

Theses & Dissertations

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprises 10%-15% of all breast cancer cases, yet is clinically challenging due to lack of targeted therapies which leads to higher mortality. Molecular subtyping has identified the most aggressive subclasses of breast cancer to be enriched in components of caveolae. While caveolae have been linked to many biological processes, their precise role in TNBC is still poorly understood. EHD2, a member of the C-terminal EPS15-Homology Domain-containing (EHD) protein family, has emerged as a new regulator of caveolae dynamics and is essential to maintain a stable membrane pool of caveolae. Studies in model cells demonstrate that ...


Rna-Sequencing Reveals Direct Targets Of Tumor Suppressor Mir-203 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Alexander P. Boardman, Victoria E. Pedanou, Tessa M. Simone, Michael R. Green May 2017

Rna-Sequencing Reveals Direct Targets Of Tumor Suppressor Mir-203 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Alexander P. Boardman, Victoria E. Pedanou, Tessa M. Simone, Michael R. Green

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Since a significant portion of cases present with or progress to metastatic disease, furthering our understanding of metastasis is critical to develop better treatments. Epithelial cells maintain contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) predominantly via integrin engagement, a process required for tissue integrity and barrier function. In non-transformed cells, loss of ECM adhesion promotes a specialized form of programmed cell death, anoikis. In order for efficient metastasis to occur, breast tumor cells must evade anoikis. miR-203, known to be down-regulated in several cancers, was found by our ...


Runx1 And Breast Cancer, Jose Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Leslie M. Shaw Apr 2017

Runx1 And Breast Cancer, Jose Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Leslie M. Shaw

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

News on: Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by Hong et al. Oncotarget. 2017; 8:17610-27. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15381.


Mammalian Swi/Snf Enzymes And The Epigenetics Of Tumor Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Qiong Wu, Anthony N. Imbalzano Apr 2017

Mammalian Swi/Snf Enzymes And The Epigenetics Of Tumor Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Qiong Wu, Anthony N. Imbalzano

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Tumor cells reprogram their metabolism to survive and grow in a challenging microenvironment. Some of this reprogramming is performed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetics is in turn affected by metabolism; chromatin modifying enzymes are dependent on substrates that are also key metabolic intermediates. We have shown that the chromatin remodeling enzyme Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an epigenetic regulator, is necessary for rapid breast cancer cell proliferation. The mechanism for this requirement is the BRG1-dependent transcription of key lipogenic enzymes and regulators. Reduction in lipid synthesis lowers proliferation rates, which can be restored by palmitate supplementation. This work has established BRG1 as ...


Runx1 Stabilizes The Mammary Epithelial Cell Phenotype And Prevents Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Deli Hong, Terri L. Messier, Coralee E. Tye, Jason Dobson, Andrew J. Fritz, Kenneth R. Sikora, Gillian Browne, Janet L. Stein, Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein Mar 2017

Runx1 Stabilizes The Mammary Epithelial Cell Phenotype And Prevents Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Deli Hong, Terri L. Messier, Coralee E. Tye, Jason Dobson, Andrew J. Fritz, Kenneth R. Sikora, Gillian Browne, Janet L. Stein, Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein

Open Access Articles

Runx1 is a well characterized transcription factor essential for hematopoietic differentiation and Runx1 mutations are the cause of leukemias. Runx1 is highly expressed in normal epithelium of most glands and recently has been associated with solid tumors. Notably, the function of Runx1 in the mammary gland and how it is involved in initiation and progression of breast cancer is still unclear. Here we demonstrate the consequences of Runx1 loss in normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. We first observed that Runx1 is decreased in tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells. We also observed loss of Runx1 expression upon induction ...


Dub3 Inhibition Suppresses Breast Cancer Invasion And Metastasis By Promoting Snail1 Degradation, Yadi Wu, Yu Wang, Yiwei Lin, Yajuan Liu, Yifan Wang, Jianhang Jia, Puja Singh, Young-In Chi, Chi Wang, Chenfang Dong, Wei Li, Min Tao, Dana L. Napier, Qiuying Shi, Jiong Deng, B. Mark Evers, Binhua P. Zhou Feb 2017

Dub3 Inhibition Suppresses Breast Cancer Invasion And Metastasis By Promoting Snail1 Degradation, Yadi Wu, Yu Wang, Yiwei Lin, Yajuan Liu, Yifan Wang, Jianhang Jia, Puja Singh, Young-In Chi, Chi Wang, Chenfang Dong, Wei Li, Min Tao, Dana L. Napier, Qiuying Shi, Jiong Deng, B. Mark Evers, Binhua P. Zhou

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Snail1, a key transcription factor of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), is subjected to ubiquitination and degradation, but the mechanism by which Snail1 is stabilized in tumours remains unclear. We identify Dub3 as a bona fide Snail1 deubiquitinase, which interacts with and stabilizes Snail1. Dub3 is overexpressed in breast cancer; knockdown of Dub3 resulted in Snail1 destabilization, suppressed EMT and decreased tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. These effects are rescued by ectopic Snail1 expression. IL-6 also stabilizes Snail1 by inducing Dub3 expression, the specific inhibitor WP1130 binds to Dub3 and inhibits the Dub3-mediating Snail1 stabilization in vitroand in vivo ...


Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda Jan 2017

Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that affects cell function via proteolytic and non-proteolytic mechanisms such as promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or augmentation of cell migration and viability, respectively. MT1-MMP has been implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade ECM components and to allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) that inhibit substrate catalysis as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by ...


Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith Jan 2017

Mammary Extracellular Matrix Directs Differentiation Of Testicular And Embryonic Stem Cells To Form Functional Mammary Glands In Vivo, Robert D. Bruno, Jodie M. Fleming, Andrea L. George, Corinne A. Boulanger, Pepper Schedin, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo. We found that mECMs isolated from adult mice and rats were sufficient to redirect testicular derived ...


Role Of Cell Type And Genetic Alterations In Driving Breast Cancer Pathogenesis, Divya Bhagirath May 2016

Role Of Cell Type And Genetic Alterations In Driving Breast Cancer Pathogenesis, Divya Bhagirath

Theses & Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second most leading cause of death among women in the United States. Several environmental and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. It is classified into different subtypes based on expression of certain markers as well as that of set of genes that define the disease progression and associated mortality. Identification of various subtypes namely: Luminal-like (Luminal-A, Luminal-B), ErbB2 over-expressing, Basal-like and Claudin low types, showed an association of survival outcomes with that of the corresponding gene expression signatures, thus paving a way for therapeutic intervention. It further emphasizes the importance of nature of ...


Trim24 Orchestrates Metabolic Reprogramming And Emt In Breast Cancer, Kaushik Thakkar May 2016

Trim24 Orchestrates Metabolic Reprogramming And Emt In Breast Cancer, Kaushik Thakkar

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In this dissertation, I report the oncogenic functions of an epigenetic regulator Tripartite Motif Protein 24 (TRIM24) coupled with metabolic reprogramming and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer. TRIM24 was first established by our laboratory as a previously unknown negative regulator of p53 via its RING domain, as a co-regulator of nuclear receptors and a PHD/Bromodomain reader of specific histone modifications. TRIM24 expression correlates with poor prognosis of breast cancer, but the mechanisms of TRIM24-mediated oncogenesis are unknown. In the first part of my thesis, I found that TRIM24 is aberrantly expressed in early stages of breast cancer ...


Targeting The Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Brg1 Increases The Efficacy Of Chemotherapy Drugs In Breast Cancer Cells, Qiong Wu, Soni Sharma, Hang Cui, Scott E. Leblanc, Hong Zhang, Rohini Muthuswami, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Anthony N. Imbalzano Mar 2016

Targeting The Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Brg1 Increases The Efficacy Of Chemotherapy Drugs In Breast Cancer Cells, Qiong Wu, Soni Sharma, Hang Cui, Scott E. Leblanc, Hong Zhang, Rohini Muthuswami, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

Brahma related gene product 1 (BRG1) is an ATPase that drives the catalytic activity of a subset of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes. BRG1 is overexpressed in most human breast cancer tumors without evidence of mutation and is required for breast cancer cell proliferation. We demonstrate that knockdown of BRG1 sensitized triple negative breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat breast cancer. An inhibitor of the BRG1 bromodomain had no effect on breast cancer cell viability, but an inhibitory molecule that targets the BRG1 ATPase activity recapitulated the increased drug efficacy observed in the presence of ...


Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han Mar 2016

Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan Dec 2015

The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan

Theses & Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ErbB2 (Her2) is overexpressed in 20 -30% of invasive breast cancers and this overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and shorter overall as well as disease-free survival. Aberrant expression of ErbB2 through gene amplification, transcriptional deregulation and/or altered endocytic trafficking results in overexpression of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane and biases ErbB2 from primarily ligand-driven hetero-dimerization under normal expression conditions to increased ligand-independent homo-dimer and hetero-dimer formation and consequent activation. C-terminus of HSC70-Inteeracting protein (CHIP)/STIP1-homologous U-Box containing protein 1 (STUB1) is an HSP90/HSC70 interacting negative co-chaperone known to promote ubiquitination ...


The Transcription Factor Activator Protein Family Of Genes In Mammary Gland Development And Breast Cancer Progression, Jung Park May 2015

The Transcription Factor Activator Protein Family Of Genes In Mammary Gland Development And Breast Cancer Progression, Jung Park

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is currently the second most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Breast cancer itself is subdivided into at least four subtypes, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and basal-like, based on genomewide molecular expression patterns. Luminal A is the most common form and typically characterized by high levels of estrogen receptor (ER). HER2-enriched cancers usually, but not always, harbor amplified copies of the HER2 oncogene. Luminal B cancers share characteristics with the luminal A and HER2-enriched subtypes. Finally, basal-like cancers are more oftentimes defined by their lack ...


Proteasome Inhibition As A Potential Anti-Breast Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms Of Action And Resistance-Reversing Strategies, Rahul Rajesinh Deshmukh Jan 2015

Proteasome Inhibition As A Potential Anti-Breast Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms Of Action And Resistance-Reversing Strategies, Rahul Rajesinh Deshmukh

Wayne State University Dissertations

AMPK activation and Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) inhibition have gained great attention as therapeutic strategies for the treatment of certain types of cancers. While AMPK serves as a master regulator of cellular metabolism, UPS regulates protein homeostasis. Although the crosstalk between them is suggested, the relationship between these two important pathways is not very clear. We observed that proteasome inhibition leads to AMPK activation in human breast cancer cells. We report that a variety of proteasome inhibitors activate AMPK in all of the tested cancer cell lines. Our data using Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)-deficient cancer cells suggests that proteasome ...


Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi Dec 2014

Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) is one of the members of the Sirtuin family and functions as a longevity assurance gene by promoting genomic stability. It also regulates various cancer-associated pathways and was recently established as a bonafide tumor suppressor in colon cancer. This suggests that SIRT6 is an attractive target for pharmacological activation in cancer treatment, and hence, identification of potential regulators of SIRT6 would be an important and critical contribution towards cancer treatment. Here, we show that AKT1 phosphorylates SIRT6 at Ser338 and induces MDM2-SIRT6 interaction, priming SIRT6 for degradation via the MDM2-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Blocking SIRT6 Ser338 phosphorylation ...