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Articles 1 - 30 of 79

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington Sep 2018

Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes convert histone arginine residues into citrulline to modulate chromatin organization and gene expression. Although PADs are expressed in anterior pituitary gland cells, their functional role and expression in pituitary adenomas is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first examined normal human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas and found that PAD2, PAD4 and citrullinated histones are highest in prolactinomas and somatoprolactinomas. In the somatoprolactinoma-derived GH3 cell line, PADs citrullinate histone H3, which is attenuated by a pan-PAD inhibitor. RNA-sequencing and ChIP studies show that the expression of microRNAs let-7c-2, miR-23b and miR-29c is suppressed by histone ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar Aug 2017

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Primary tumors are often heterogeneous, composed of therapy-sensitive and emerging therapy-resistant cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of therapy-sensitive tumors in heterogeneous tumor microenvironments results in apoptosis of therapy-resistant tumors. In this study, we identify a prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) amino-terminal fragment (PAF) that is released by diverse therapy-sensitive cancer cells following therapy-induced caspase cleavage of the tumor suppressor Par-4 protein. PAF caused apoptosis in cancer cells resistant to therapy and inhibited tumor growth. A VASA segment of Par-4 mediated its binding and degradation by the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo45, resulting in loss of Par-4 proapoptotic function. Conversely, PAF, which contains this VASA ...


The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg Jun 2017

The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg

Jenny Ekberg

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS. There are two key types of PNS glia: olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which populate the olfactory ...


Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair Mar 2017

Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we show how ascorbic acid kills cancer cells and sensitizes prostate cancer to radiation therapy while also conferring protection upon normal prostate epithelial cells against radiation-induced ...


Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao Oct 2016

Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The proper establishment of epithelial polarity allows cells to sense and respond to signals that arise from the microenvironment in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Atypical PKCs (aPKCs) are implicated as key regulators of epithelial polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of aPKCs remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, plays an important role in regulating epithelial polarity by controlling the phosphorylation of both aPKC isoforms. Altered expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 disrupted polarization of Caco2 cells grown in 3D cell ...


Expression And Function Of Pannexins In The Inner Ear And Hearing, Hong-Bo Zhao May 2016

Expression And Function Of Pannexins In The Inner Ear And Hearing, Hong-Bo Zhao

Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery Faculty Publications

Pannexin (Panx) is a gene family encoding gap junction proteins in vertebrates. So far, three isoforms (Panx1, 2 and 3) have been identified. All of three Panx isoforms express in the cochlea with distinct expression patterns. Panx1 expresses in the cochlea extensively, including the spiral limbus, the organ of Corti, and the cochlear lateral wall, whereas Panx2 and Panx3 restrict to the basal cells of the stria vascularis in the lateral wall and the cochlear bony structure, respectively. However, there is no pannexin expression in auditory sensory hair cells. Recent studies demonstrated that like connexin gap junction gene, Panx1 deficiency ...


Ampa-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery In Premature Rabbits With Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Preeti Dohare, Muhammad T. Zia, Ehsan Ahmed, Asad Ahmed, Vivek Yadala, Praveen Ballabh Mar 2016

Ampa-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery In Premature Rabbits With Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Preeti Dohare, Muhammad T. Zia, Ehsan Ahmed, Asad Ahmed, Vivek Yadala, Praveen Ballabh

NYMC Faculty Publications

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants leads to cerebral inflammation, reduced myelination of the white matter, and neurological deficits. No therapeutic strategy exists against the IVH-induced white matter injury. AMPA-kainate receptor induced excitotoxicity contributes to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) damage and hypomyelination in both neonatal and adult models of brain injury. Here, we hypothesized that IVH damages white matter via AMPA receptor activation, and that AMPA-kainate receptor inhibition suppresses inflammation and restores OPC maturation, myelination, and neurologic recovery in preterm newborns with IVH. We tested these hypotheses in a rabbit model of glycerol-induced IVH and evaluated the expression of AMPA ...


P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio Mar 2016

P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTENpc−/− transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases ...


Measurement Of Elastic Modulus Of Collagen Type I Single Fiber, Pavel Dutov, Olga Antipova, Sameer Varma, Joseph P R O Orgel, Jay D Schieber Jan 2016

Measurement Of Elastic Modulus Of Collagen Type I Single Fiber, Pavel Dutov, Olga Antipova, Sameer Varma, Joseph P R O Orgel, Jay D Schieber

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Collagen fibers are the main components of the extra cellular matrix and the primary contributors to the mechanical properties of tissues. Here we report a novel approach to measure the longitudinal component of the elastic moduli of biological fibers under conditions close to those found in vivo and apply it to type I collagen from rat tail tendon. This approach combines optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and exploits Euler-Bernoulli elasticity theory for data analysis. This approach also avoids drying for measurements or visualization, since samples are freshly extracted. Importantly, strains are kept below 0.5%, which appear consistent with the ...


Hyaluronidase And Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides Promote Neurological Recovery After Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Govindaiah Vinukonda, Preeti Dohare, Arslan Arshad, Muhammad T. Zia, Sanjeet Panda, Ritesh Korumilli, Praveen Ballabh Jan 2016

Hyaluronidase And Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides Promote Neurological Recovery After Intraventricular Hemorrhage, Govindaiah Vinukonda, Preeti Dohare, Arslan Arshad, Muhammad T. Zia, Sanjeet Panda, Ritesh Korumilli, Praveen Ballabh

NYMC Faculty Publications

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in premature infants results in inflammation, arrested oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation, and reduced myelination of the white matter. Hyaluronan (HA) inhibits OPC maturation and complexes with the heavy chain (HC) of glycoprotein inter-α-inhibitor to form pathological HA (HC-HA complex), which exacerbates inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IVH would result in accumulation of HA, and that either degradation of HA by hyaluronidase treatment or elimination of HCs from pathological HA by HA oligosaccharide administration would restore OPC maturation, myelination, and neurological function in survivors with IVH. To test these hypotheses, we used the preterm rabbit model of ...


A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz Aug 2015

A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction ...


Fbf Represses The Cip/Kip Cell-Cycle Inhibitor Cki-2 To Promote Self-Renewal Of Germline Stem Cells In C. Elegans, Irene Kalchhauser, Brian Farley, Sandra Pauli, Sean Ryder, Rafal Ciosk May 2015

Fbf Represses The Cip/Kip Cell-Cycle Inhibitor Cki-2 To Promote Self-Renewal Of Germline Stem Cells In C. Elegans, Irene Kalchhauser, Brian Farley, Sandra Pauli, Sean Ryder, Rafal Ciosk

Sean P. Ryder

Although the decision between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation has been linked to cell-cycle modifications, our understanding of cell-cycle regulation in stem cells is very limited. Here, we report that FBF/Pumilio, a conserved RNA-binding protein, promotes self-renewal of germline stem cells by repressing CKI-2(Cip/Kip), a Cyclin E/Cdk2 inhibitor. We have previously shown that repression of CYE-1 (Cyclin E) by another RNA-binding protein, GLD-1/Quaking, promotes germ cell differentiation. Together, these findings suggest that a post-transcriptional regulatory circuit involving FBF and GLD-1 controls the self-renewal versus differentiation decision in the germline by promoting high CYE-1/CDK-2 activity ...


The Nuclear Factor Of Activated T Cells (Nfat) Transcription Factor Nfatp (Nfatc2) Is A Repressor Of Chondrogenesis, Ann M. Ranger, Louis C. Gerstenfeld, Jinxi Wang, Tamiyo Kon, Hyunsu Bae, Ellen M. Gravallese, Melvin J. Glimcher, Laurie H. Glimcher Apr 2015

The Nuclear Factor Of Activated T Cells (Nfat) Transcription Factor Nfatp (Nfatc2) Is A Repressor Of Chondrogenesis, Ann M. Ranger, Louis C. Gerstenfeld, Jinxi Wang, Tamiyo Kon, Hyunsu Bae, Ellen M. Gravallese, Melvin J. Glimcher, Laurie H. Glimcher

Ellen M. Gravallese

Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors regulate gene expression in lymphocytes and control cardiac valve formation. Here, we report that NFATp regulates chondrogenesis in the adult animal. In mice lacking NFATp, resident cells in the extraarticular connective tissues spontaneously differentiate to cartilage. These cartilage cells progressively differentiate and the tissue undergoes endochondral ossification, recapitulating the development of endochondral bone. Proliferation of already existing articular cartilage cells also occurs in some older animals. At both sites, neoplastic changes in the cartilage cells occur. Consistent with these data, NFATp expression is regulated in mesenchymal stem cells induced to differentiate ...


A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dna-Binding Protein For A Class Ii Gene In B Cells Is Distinct From Nf-Kappa B, Ellen M. Gravallese, Mark R. Boothby, Cynthia M. Smas, Laurie H. Glimcher Apr 2015

A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dna-Binding Protein For A Class Ii Gene In B Cells Is Distinct From Nf-Kappa B, Ellen M. Gravallese, Mark R. Boothby, Cynthia M. Smas, Laurie H. Glimcher

Ellen M. Gravallese

Class II (Ia) major histocompatibility complex molecules are cell surface proteins normally expressed by a limited subset of cells of the immune system. These molecules regulate the activation of T cells and are required for the presentation of antigens and the initiation of immune responses. The expression of Ia in B cells is determined by both the developmental stage of the B cell and by certain external stimuli. It has been demonstrated previously that treatment of B cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in increased surface expression of Ia protein. However, we have confirmed that LPS treatment results in a significant ...


A Mutation In The Mouse Chd2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Results In A Complex Renal Phenotype, Concetta Marfella, Nils Henninger, Scott Leblanc, Namrata Krishnan, David Garlick, Lawrence Holzman, Anthony Imbalzano Apr 2015

A Mutation In The Mouse Chd2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Results In A Complex Renal Phenotype, Concetta Marfella, Nils Henninger, Scott Leblanc, Namrata Krishnan, David Garlick, Lawrence Holzman, Anthony Imbalzano

Nils Henninger

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glomerular diseases are the third leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, behind only diabetes and hypertension. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cause of glomerular diseases are still largely unknown. The identification and characterization of new molecules associated with glomerular function should provide new insights into understanding the diverse group of glomerular diseases. The Chd2 protein belongs to a family of enzymes involved in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, suggesting that it likely functions as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression via the modification of chromatin structure. METHODS: In this study, we present a detailed histomorphologic characterization of mice containing ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Pubertal And Adult Leydig Cell Function In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance-Deficient Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Stephen Baker, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Pubertal And Adult Leydig Cell Function In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance-Deficient Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Stephen Baker, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) causes Mullerian duct regression during sexual differentiation and regulates postnatal Leydig cell development. MIS knockout (MIS-KO) mice with targeted deletions of MIS develop Leydig cell hyperplasia, but their circulating androgen concentrations are reportedly unaltered. We compared reproductive hormone profiles, androgen biosynthesis, and the expression of key steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in MIS-KO and wild-type (WT) mice at puberty (36 d) and sexual maturity (60 d). In pubertal animals, basal testosterone and LH concentrations in plasma were lower in MIS-KO than WT mice, whereas human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone concentrations were similar. In adults, basal LH, and both ...


P19ink4d And P18ink4c Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors In The Male Reproductive Axis, Gregory Buchold, Patricia Magyar, Ramamani Arumugam, Mary Lee, Deborah O'Brien Sep 2014

P19ink4d And P18ink4c Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors In The Male Reproductive Axis, Gregory Buchold, Patricia Magyar, Ramamani Arumugam, Mary Lee, Deborah O'Brien

Mary M. Lee

The loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) p18(Ink4c) and p19(Ink4d) leads to male reproductive defects (Franklin et al., 1998. Genes Dev 12: 2899-2911; Zindy et al., 2000. Mol Cell Biol 20: 372-378; Zindy et al., 2001. Mol Cell Biol 21: 3244-3255). In order to assess whether these inhibitors directly or indirectly affect male germ cell differentiation, we examined the expression of p18(Ink4c) and p19(Ink4d) in spermatogenic and supporting cells in the testis and in pituitary gonadotropes. Both p18(Ink4c) and p19(Ink4d) are most abundant in the testis after 18 days of age and are ...


Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

We have isolated a candidate Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) type II receptor complementary DNA from an embryonic rat urogenital ridge library and have studied its binding to MIS, its developmental pattern of expression and tissue distribution. By in situ hybridization with a full-length riboprobe, the receptor is expressed in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the Mullerian duct at embryonic days 14, 15, and 16 and in tubular and follicular structures of the rat fetal gonads. Expression of the messenger RNA was also seen in the granules cells and seminiferous tubules of pubertal gonads. Northern analysis revealed that the MIS type II ...


Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck Sep 2014

Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a 140-kilodalton homodimeric glycoprotein that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts in male embryos, and may also have a role in both males and females in the regulation of germ cell maturation. We examined the ontogeny of MIS messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat testes from midgestation through adulthood and found two discrete MIS mRNA species that are developmentally regulated. The larger 2.0-kilobase species is abundant at embryonic day 14, then decreases in late gestation, and is barely detectable after birth. The smaller 1.8-kilobase species is first noted at embryonic day 18 and is ...


The Influence Of Endocrine Disruptors On Pubertal Timing, Elka Jacobson-Dickman, Mary Lee Sep 2014

The Influence Of Endocrine Disruptors On Pubertal Timing, Elka Jacobson-Dickman, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overview of the effects of endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic studies in humans support animal data demonstrating that exposures to endocrine-disrupting compounds have pronounced effects on pubertal timing and that the timing of endocrine-disrupting compound exposure and the specific agent causes different outcomes. Recent studies confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and phytoestrogens on delaying onset of puberty and demonstrate an association of phthalates and polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier breast development and menarche, respectively. These studies, however, are complicated by mixed exposures of compounds which individually may have opposing actions on the reproductive axis ...


Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration After Ethylene Dimethanesulphonate Ablation, Antonio Salva, Matthew Hardy, Xiufeng Wu, Chantal Sottas, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration After Ethylene Dimethanesulphonate Ablation, Antonio Salva, Matthew Hardy, Xiufeng Wu, Chantal Sottas, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

The postnatal development of Leydig cell precursors is postulated to be controlled by Sertoli cell secreted factors, which may have a determinative influence on Leydig cell number and function in sexually mature animals. One such hormone, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), has been shown to inhibit DNA synthesis and steroidogenesis in primary Leydig cells and Leydig cell tumor lines. To further delineate the effects of MIS on Leydig cell proliferation and steroidogenesis, we employed the established ethylene dimethanesulphonate (EDS) model of Leydig cell regeneration. Following EDS ablation of differentiated Leydig cells in young adult rats, recombinant MIS or vehicle was delivered ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Is Present In Embryonic Testes Of Dogs With Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Vicki Meyers-Wallen, Mary Lee, T. Manganaro, T. Kuroda, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Is Present In Embryonic Testes Of Dogs With Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Vicki Meyers-Wallen, Mary Lee, T. Manganaro, T. Kuroda, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) causes regression of the Mullerian ducts during a critical period in embryonic development in male mammals. In Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), an autosomal recessive trait in humans and dogs, the Mullerian ducts fail to regress in otherwise normal males. Previously we reported that PMDS-affected dogs produce bioactive testicular MIS postnatally. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PMDS-affected canine embryos appropriately express MIS mRNA and protein during the critical period for Mullerian duct regression. Homozygous (PMDS-affected) and normal canine embryos were removed from timed pregnancies. Gonadal sex and the degree of Mullerian ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) production in rat testes from the late fetal to the adult period and its modulation by gonadotropins in neonatal testes were studied using immunohistochemistry, northern analysis, and a graded organ culture bioassay for MIS. The intense immunohistochemical staining for MIS seen in fetal and newborn testes began to decrease gradually after the third postnatal day, then decreased dramatically on the fifth postnatal day. MIS immunohistochemical activity was then present at a low level until about the 20th postnatal day, after which it was barely detectable. The testes from rats treated with FSH at birth showed a ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Testosterone Synthesis In Adult Rats, V. Sriraman, E. Niu, J. Matias, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Testosterone Synthesis In Adult Rats, V. Sriraman, E. Niu, J. Matias, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a gonadal hormone that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts during male sexual differentiation. Postnatally, MIS inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of immature Leydig cells, and transgenic mice that overexpress MIS have decreased serum testosterone concentrations. To elucidate the effects of MIS on androgen regulation in the postnatal testis, we examined testosterone synthesis in adult Sprague-Dawley rats following intratesticular and intraperitoneal injections of MIS. Intratesticular MIS injection achieved high local concentrations of MIS (574.0 +/- 60.0 ng/mL) at 4 hours, with a corresponding decline in serum testosterone concentrations to 0.7 +/- 0.1 ...


Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Postnatal Leydig cell (LC) development in mice has been assumed empirically to resemble that of rats, which have characteristic hormonal profiles at well-defined maturational stages. To characterize the changes in LC function and gene expression in mice, we examined reproductive hormone expression from birth to 180 days, and quantified in vivo and in vitro production of androgens during sexual maturation. Although the overall plasma androgen and LH profiles from birth through puberty were comparable to that of rats, the timing of developmental changes in androgen production and steroidogenic capacity of isolated LCs differed. In mice, onset of androgen biosynthetic capacity ...