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Aging

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Effect Of Stress Induced Premature Senescence On The Expression Of Heterogeneous Ribonucleoieoprotein, Yuriy Pechenyy Jan 2018

The Effect Of Stress Induced Premature Senescence On The Expression Of Heterogeneous Ribonucleoieoprotein, Yuriy Pechenyy

Dissertations and Theses

The role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) in cellular senescence is yet to be defined. Cellular senescence is a terminal growth arrest in somatic cells. It is thought to be the consequence of telomeric shortening that acts as a DNA damage signal. Conversely, cells induced into premature senescence (SIPS) by oxidative stress, is independent of telomere attrition. Premature senescence has been proposed to be physiologically relevant as it can be induced by treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. In particular, we are studying the roles of hnRNP A1 and A2 in the maintenance of the senescence phenotype. hnRNPs are a family of ...


Mitochondrial Stress Restores The Heat Shock Response And Prevents Proteostasis Collapse During Aging, Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M. Brielmann, Mario F. Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M. Haynes, Richard I. Morimoto Nov 2017

Mitochondrial Stress Restores The Heat Shock Response And Prevents Proteostasis Collapse During Aging, Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M. Brielmann, Mario F. Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M. Haynes, Richard I. Morimoto

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the programmed repression of the heat shock response (HSR) accompanies the transition to reproductive maturity, leaving cells vulnerable to environmental stress and protein aggregation with age. To identify the factors driving this event, we performed an unbiased genetic screen for suppressors of stress resistance and identified the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) as a central regulator of the age-related decline of the HSR and cytosolic proteostasis. Mild downregulation of ETC activity, either by genetic modulation or exposure to mitochondria-targeted xenobiotics, maintained the HSR in adulthood by increasing HSF-1 binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment at HSF-1 target ...


Age-Associated Microrna Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality And Age-Related Traits, Tianxiao Huan, George Chen, Chunyu Liu, Anindya Bhattacharya, Jian Rong, Brian H. Chen, Sudha Seshadri, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Martin G. Larson, Joanne M. Murabito, Daniel Levy Oct 2017

Age-Associated Microrna Expression In Human Peripheral Blood Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality And Age-Related Traits, Tianxiao Huan, George Chen, Chunyu Liu, Anindya Bhattacharya, Jian Rong, Brian H. Chen, Sudha Seshadri, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E. Freedman, Martin G. Larson, Joanne M. Murabito, Daniel Levy

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Recent studies provide evidence of correlations of DNA methylation and expression of protein-coding genes with human aging. The relations of microRNA expression with age and age-related clinical outcomes have not been characterized thoroughly. We explored associations of age with whole-blood microRNA expression in 5221 adults and identified 127 microRNAs that were differentially expressed by age at P < 3.3 x 10(-4) (Bonferroni-corrected). Most microRNAs were underexpressed in older individuals. Integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression revealed changes in age-associated mRNA expression possibly driven by age-associated microRNAs in pathways that involve RNA processing, translation, and immune function. We fitted a linear model to predict 'microRNA age' that incorporated expression levels of 80 microRNAs. MicroRNA age correlated modestly with predicted age from DNA methylation (r = 0.3) and mRNA expression (r = 0.2), suggesting that microRNA age may complement mRNA and epigenetic age prediction models. We used the difference between microRNA age and chronological age as a biomarker of accelerated aging (Deltaage) and found that Deltaage was associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.1 per year difference, P = 4.2 x 10(-5) adjusted for sex and chronological age). Additionally, Deltaage was associated with coronary heart disease, hypertension, blood pressure, and glucose levels. In conclusion, we constructed a microRNA age prediction model based on whole-blood microRNA expression profiling. Age-associated microRNAs and their targets have potential utility to detect accelerated aging and to predict risks for age-related diseases. Wiley and Sons Ltd.


Cross-Sectional Relations Of Whole-Blood Mirna Expression Levels And Hand Grip Strength In A Community Sample, Joanne M. Murabito, Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson Aug 2017

Cross-Sectional Relations Of Whole-Blood Mirna Expression Levels And Hand Grip Strength In A Community Sample, Joanne M. Murabito, Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression with emerging data suggesting miRNAs play a role in skeletal muscle biology. We sought to examine the association of miRNAs with grip strength in a community-based sample. Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Generation 3 participants (n = 5668 54% women, mean age 55 years, range 24, 90 years) underwent grip strength measurement and miRNA profiling using whole blood from fasting morning samples. Linear mixed-effects regression modeling of grip strength (kg) versus continuous miRNA 'Cq' values and versus binary miRNA expression was performed. We conducted an integrative miRNA-mRNA coexpression analysis and examined the enrichment of biologic pathways ...


Mass-Spectrometry Based Proteomics Of Age-Related Changes In Murine Microglia, Antwoine Flowers Mar 2017

Mass-Spectrometry Based Proteomics Of Age-Related Changes In Murine Microglia, Antwoine Flowers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The last century has seen a steady increase in the extension of the average lifespan. This has concomitantly produced higher incidences of age-related chronic degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Age is the single greatest risk factor for the development of not just these degenerative conditions but cancer as well. The aged niche undergoes a number of maladaptive changes that allow underlying conditions to present and progress. Exactly which changes, contribute to the progression of which disease is currently an area of intense study. However, these answers often present therapeutic targets for disease prevention. Age is characterized ...


Age-Associated Methylation Suppresses Spry1, Leading To A Failure Of Re-Quiescence And Loss Of The Reserve Stem Cell Pool In Elderly Muscle., Anne Bigot, William J Duddy, Zamalou G Ouandaogo, Elisa Negroni, Virginie Mariot, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Brennan Harmon, Aurore Wielgosik, Camille Loiseau, Joseph Devaney, Julie Dumonceaux, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Stéphanie Duguez Nov 2015

Age-Associated Methylation Suppresses Spry1, Leading To A Failure Of Re-Quiescence And Loss Of The Reserve Stem Cell Pool In Elderly Muscle., Anne Bigot, William J Duddy, Zamalou G Ouandaogo, Elisa Negroni, Virginie Mariot, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Brennan Harmon, Aurore Wielgosik, Camille Loiseau, Joseph Devaney, Julie Dumonceaux, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Stéphanie Duguez

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

The molecular mechanisms by which aging affects stem cell number and function are poorly understood. Murine data have implicated cellular senescence in the loss of muscle stem cells with aging. Here, using human cells and by carrying out experiments within a strictly pre-senescent division count, we demonstrate an impaired capacity for stem cell self-renewal in elderly muscle. We link aging to an increased methylation of the SPRY1 gene, a known regulator of muscle stem cell quiescence. Replenishment of the reserve cell pool was modulated experimentally by demethylation or siRNA knockdown of SPRY1. We propose that suppression of SPRY1 by age-associated ...


Using C. Elegans For Aging Research, Heidi A. Tissenbaum Jan 2015

Using C. Elegans For Aging Research, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Over a century ago, the zoologist Emile Maupas first identified the nematode, Rhabditis elegans, in the soil in Algiers. Subsequent work and phylogenic studies renamed the species Caenorhabditis elegans or more commonly referred to as C. elegans; (Caeno meaning recent; rhabditis meaning rod; elegans meaning nice). However, it was not until 1963, when Sydney Brenner, already successful from his work on DNA, RNA, and the genetic code, suggested the future of biological research lay in model organisms. Brenner believed that biological research required a model system that could grow in vast quantities in the lab, were cheap to maintain and ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes Jan 2015

High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project was developed to identify novel methods for high-throughput culturing and screening of C. elegans to investigate age-related metabolic changes and to survey the proteomic and metabolomic factors associated with age-related changes. To accomplish these goals we developed a novel way to grow C. elegans in liquid culture in 96-well microplates for several weeks without suffering significant fluid loss due to evaporation and without needing to shake or unseal the plates for aeration. We also developed methods for assaying the total volume of live C. elegans in microplate cultures using a fluorescence microplate reader and for performing RNAi experiments ...


Immunosenescence In B Cells: A Study On Changes In Immunoregulator Expression And Metabolism With Age, Senthil Kannan Jan 2015

Immunosenescence In B Cells: A Study On Changes In Immunoregulator Expression And Metabolism With Age, Senthil Kannan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

There is a vital need for better vaccines for the aging population, and especially better vaccines to influenza viruses. To address this, I studied immunosenescence in B cells and antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in mice and humans. In humans, I measured humoral immune responses to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) during the 2011-12 and 2012-13 influenza seasons. ASCs in the aged were observed to have decreased expression of the defining markers CD27 and CD38. Aged ASCs also expressed lower levels of B and T Lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on their surface. Expression of BTLA inversely correlated with age and appeared ...


The Effects Of Supplemented Metabolites On Lifespan And Stress Response Pathways In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Clare B. Edwards Jan 2015

The Effects Of Supplemented Metabolites On Lifespan And Stress Response Pathways In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Clare B. Edwards

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how metabolites contribute to anaplerosis, antioxidant effects, and hormetic pathways during aging is fundamental to creating supplements and dietary habits that may decrease age-associated disease and decline, thus improving the quality of life in old age. In order to uncover metabolic pathways that delay aging, the effects of large sets of metabolites associated with mitochondrial function on lifespan were investigated.

Malate, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite, increased lifespan and thermotolerance in C. elegans. Addition of fumarate and succinate also extended lifespan and all three metabolites activated nuclear translocation of the cytoprotective DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor and protected from ...


Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

We have isolated a candidate Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) type II receptor complementary DNA from an embryonic rat urogenital ridge library and have studied its binding to MIS, its developmental pattern of expression and tissue distribution. By in situ hybridization with a full-length riboprobe, the receptor is expressed in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the Mullerian duct at embryonic days 14, 15, and 16 and in tubular and follicular structures of the rat fetal gonads. Expression of the messenger RNA was also seen in the granules cells and seminiferous tubules of pubertal gonads. Northern analysis revealed that the MIS type II ...


Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck Sep 2014

Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a 140-kilodalton homodimeric glycoprotein that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts in male embryos, and may also have a role in both males and females in the regulation of germ cell maturation. We examined the ontogeny of MIS messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat testes from midgestation through adulthood and found two discrete MIS mRNA species that are developmentally regulated. The larger 2.0-kilobase species is abundant at embryonic day 14, then decreases in late gestation, and is barely detectable after birth. The smaller 1.8-kilobase species is first noted at embryonic day 18 and is ...


Predictors Of Serum Dioxin, Furan, And Pcb Concentrations Among Women From Chapaevsk, Russia, Olivier Humblet, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Oleg Sergeyev, Claude Emond, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Mary Lee, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser Sep 2014

Predictors Of Serum Dioxin, Furan, And Pcb Concentrations Among Women From Chapaevsk, Russia, Olivier Humblet, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Oleg Sergeyev, Claude Emond, Linda Birnbaum, Jane Burns, Larisa Altshul, Donald Patterson, Wayman Turner, Mary Lee, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23-52 years were collected between 2003-2005 as part of the Russian Children's Study. Serum dioxin, furan, and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). The median total PCB concentrations and ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) production in rat testes from the late fetal to the adult period and its modulation by gonadotropins in neonatal testes were studied using immunohistochemistry, northern analysis, and a graded organ culture bioassay for MIS. The intense immunohistochemical staining for MIS seen in fetal and newborn testes began to decrease gradually after the third postnatal day, then decreased dramatically on the fifth postnatal day. MIS immunohistochemical activity was then present at a low level until about the 20th postnatal day, after which it was barely detectable. The testes from rats treated with FSH at birth showed a ...


Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Postnatal Leydig cell (LC) development in mice has been assumed empirically to resemble that of rats, which have characteristic hormonal profiles at well-defined maturational stages. To characterize the changes in LC function and gene expression in mice, we examined reproductive hormone expression from birth to 180 days, and quantified in vivo and in vitro production of androgens during sexual maturation. Although the overall plasma androgen and LH profiles from birth through puberty were comparable to that of rats, the timing of developmental changes in androgen production and steroidogenic capacity of isolated LCs differed. In mice, onset of androgen biosynthetic capacity ...


Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping Sep 2014

Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a glycoprotein hormone produced in Sertoli cells of the fetal and postnatal testis, and granulosa cells of the pubertal ovary. We examined MIS expression in a nonhuman primate, the cynomolgus macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis), to define an animal model for studying MIS gene regulation. Changes in testicular MIS mRNA with age were assessed by in situ hybridization of prepubertal to adult testes, Northern analysis of pubertal and adult specimens, and determination of serum MIS concentrations from infancy to adulthood. We found that MIS expression was highest in the youngest animals and decreased progressively with increasing ...


Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang Feb 2014

Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang

GSBS Student Publications

The age-dependent decline in the self-renewal capacity of stem cells plays a critical role in aging, but the precise mechanisms underlying this decline are not well understood. By limiting proliferative capacity, senescence is thought to play an important role in age-dependent decline of stem cell self-renewal, although direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is largely lacking. We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 as a critical regulator of senescence. In this study, we found that mice deficient in Smurf2 had an expanded hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment in bone marrow under normal homeostatic conditions, and this expansion was associated ...


Effect Of Long Term Rapamycin Treatment On Mtor Signalling Network In Colon And Liver Of C57bl/6 Mice, John Sorge Jan 2014

Effect Of Long Term Rapamycin Treatment On Mtor Signalling Network In Colon And Liver Of C57bl/6 Mice, John Sorge

Wayne State University Theses

Many studies have investigated the effects of rapamycin on aging and cancer. However, the effects of long-term rapamycin supplementation on a cancer model have not been performed. This is the first study that investigates the effects of long-term supplementation of rapamycin in a cancer model. ACF analysis of colon tissues in mice showed no significant difference between controls and those supplemented with rapamycin. Factors such as energy balance, cellular environment, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and more have been assessed in this study. The duration of rapamycin supplementation seems to play an important role in the protection against cancer. Ultimately, this ...


Examining Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Homeostasis, Activation And Fate Determination, Crystal Dawn Pulliam Jan 2014

Examining Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Homeostasis, Activation And Fate Determination, Crystal Dawn Pulliam

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is essential for respiration, mobility, reproduction and metabolism. Deficits in muscle function due to disease, injury or age reduce both quality of life and lifespan. Muscles are long-lived tissues that require maintenance to retain functional integrity throughout the life of an organism. Satellite cells are the adult stem cells responsible for muscle repair and maintenance. Upon myotrauma, satellite cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate, and terminally differentiate to repair the muscle. In uninjured tissue, satellite cells are quiescent and infrequently proceed through myogenesis for muscle maintenance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate satellite cell quiescence and activation are poorly ...


Effects Of Altering The Peroxisomal Redox State In Models Of Degenerative Disease, Courtney Rose Giordano Jan 2014

Effects Of Altering The Peroxisomal Redox State In Models Of Degenerative Disease, Courtney Rose Giordano

Wayne State University Dissertations

Peroxisomes are important regulators of cellular redox balance and function as a signaling platform to regulate anti-aging metabolic and communication networks. In addition the organelle has emerged as a major player in maintaining cellular ROS at an optimal level. At such levels, these ROS are involved in initiation of signaling cascades and that produce an array of anti-aging and disease processes. However, as cells age over time, ROS amass within the peroxisome and elsewhere in the cell. This leads to an imbalance in oxidative homeostasis and results in compromised signaling networks. The goal of this dissertation was to treat disease ...


Subcellular Analysis Of The Disulfide Proteome In P66shc Expressing Nerve Cells, Tyler Cann Jan 2013

Subcellular Analysis Of The Disulfide Proteome In P66shc Expressing Nerve Cells, Tyler Cann

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The longevity associated protein p66Shc has been suggested to regulate organismal lifespan through initiation of apoptotic pathways. Following stress-induced translocation into the mitochondria, p66Shc promotes increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and triggers poorly defined downstream signaling events that lead to decreased cell viability. Protein disulfide bonding has recently emerged as aROSdependent post-translational modification that regulates protein function and signaling processes. Using the mouse hippocampal HT-22 cell line, I sought to determine the changes in the disulfide proteome associated with p66Shc mediatedROSproduction. Through Redox 2D-SDSPAGEanalysis of mitochondrial and cytosolic extracts, redox sensitive proteins altered by p66Shc mediatedROSformation were identified. Of ...


The Combination Of Aging And Inflammation Interact To Produce Specific Changes In Bdnf Protein Isoform Expression, Bdnf-Dependent Signaling And Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity, Giuseppe Paolo Cortese Jan 2013

The Combination Of Aging And Inflammation Interact To Produce Specific Changes In Bdnf Protein Isoform Expression, Bdnf-Dependent Signaling And Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity, Giuseppe Paolo Cortese

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The goals of this research were to investigate the combined effects of aging and inflammation on brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) protein biology and BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. For the past two decades neurotrophin research has generated a large body of evidence supporting the role for neurotrophins in facilitating multiple forms of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the effects that both aging and neuroinflammation may impose on these neurotrophin-related pathways.

To carry out the experiments in this study we utilized multiple models: (1) A rodent model of aging and inflammation using young (3-month-old ...


Dysregulated Fgf And P38 Mapk Signaling Underlies Loss Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal In Aging Skeletal Muscle, Jennifer Delaney Bernet Jan 2013

Dysregulated Fgf And P38 Mapk Signaling Underlies Loss Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal In Aging Skeletal Muscle, Jennifer Delaney Bernet

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass, skeletal muscle function and decreased regenerative capacity. A number of skeletal muscle-specific physiological decrements may contribute to sarcopenia; among these is an age-related impairment of satellite cells, the skeletal muscle stem cells required for muscle regeneration. I find that cell-autonomous deficits underlie a loss of self-renewal in aging satellite cells. The decline in self-renewal implicates altered p38αβ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, which is activated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and involved in satellite cell activation, differentiation and self-renewal in young satellite cells. Asymmetric activation of active ...


Regulation And Dynamic Behavior Of The Heat Shock Transcription Factor Hsf-1 In C. Elegans, Elizabeth A. Morton Jan 2013

Regulation And Dynamic Behavior Of The Heat Shock Transcription Factor Hsf-1 In C. Elegans, Elizabeth A. Morton

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Eukaryotic cells respond to heat stress by activating the transcription factor HSF1. In addition to its role in stress response, HSF1 also functions in protein homeostasis, aging, innate immunity, and cancer. Despite prominent HSF1 involvement in processes pertinent to human health and disease, there are still gaps in our understanding of HSF1. For example, controversy exists regarding the localization of HSF1, the identity of HSF1 regulators, and the function and conservation of heat-induced HSF1 stress granules. Many of the physiological roles for HSF1 have been defined using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, yet little is known about how the molecular ...


Influenza Virus Infection: The Impact Of Physical Activity On The Aging Immune System And Obesity-Associated Immune Impairments, Kristi J. Warren Jan 2012

Influenza Virus Infection: The Impact Of Physical Activity On The Aging Immune System And Obesity-Associated Immune Impairments, Kristi J. Warren

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The role exercise plays in the modulation of the immune response has been a topic of interest to exercise immunologists for the last two to three decades. Some important issues that remain to be addressed include exercise-training induced adaptations of immune response, along with the effect of exercise dose on immune function. Results from multiple studies have determined that a high dose of exercise to exhaustion causes immune impairments and a poor infectious disease outcome in animal models. A moderate dose of exercise appears to improve disease outcome to infection. However, the mechanisms by which different doses of exercise affect ...


Short Telomeres In Short-Lived Males: What Are The Molecular And Evolutionary Causes?, Stephanie Jemielity, Masayuki Kimura, Karen M. Parker, Joel D. Parker, Xiaojian Cao, Abraham Aviv, Laurent Keller Apr 2007

Short Telomeres In Short-Lived Males: What Are The Molecular And Evolutionary Causes?, Stephanie Jemielity, Masayuki Kimura, Karen M. Parker, Joel D. Parker, Xiaojian Cao, Abraham Aviv, Laurent Keller

Joel D Parker

Telomere length regulation is an important aspect of cell maintenance in eukaryotes, since shortened telomeres can lead to a number of defects, including impaired cell division. Although telomere length is correlated with lifespan in some bird species, its possible role in aging and lifespan determination is still poorly understood. Here we investigate telomere dynamics (changes in telomere length and attrition rate) and telomerase activity in the ant Lasius niger, a species in which different groups of individuals have evolved extraordinarily different lifespans. We found that somatic tissues of the short-lived males had dramatically shorter telomeres than those of the much ...


Expression Of Rag2 And V(D)J Recombinase Activity Are Reduced In Aged Mice As A Result Of Changes In The Bone Marrow Microenvironment: A Dissertation, Joseph E. Labrie Iii Feb 2004

Expression Of Rag2 And V(D)J Recombinase Activity Are Reduced In Aged Mice As A Result Of Changes In The Bone Marrow Microenvironment: A Dissertation, Joseph E. Labrie Iii

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Both humans and mice display an age-related decline in immunity. Reduced generation of mature B cells may be a contributing factor due to reduced entry of mature B cells with novel B cell receptors and specificity for pathogens into the mature B cell pool. In aged mice the numbers of B cell precursors within the bone marrow are diminished; there is a severe reduction in numbers of pre-B cells and an increase in numbers of re-circulated mature B cells. Other defects in developing B cells include reduced expression of rag1 and rag2 when measured in total bone marrow precursor populations ...