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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 339

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Endothelial Protein Kinase Map4k4 Promotes Vascular Inflammation And Atherosclerosis, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Athanasia Skoura, Anouch Matevossian, Laura V. Danai, Wei Zheng, Christian Cortes, Samit K. Bhattacharya, Myriam Aouadi, G. Nana Hagan, Joseph Yawe, Pranitha Vangala, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Marcus P. Cooper, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Leonard Buckbinder, Michael P. Czech Dec 2015

Endothelial Protein Kinase Map4k4 Promotes Vascular Inflammation And Atherosclerosis, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Athanasia Skoura, Anouch Matevossian, Laura V. Danai, Wei Zheng, Christian Cortes, Samit K. Bhattacharya, Myriam Aouadi, G. Nana Hagan, Joseph Yawe, Pranitha Vangala, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Marcus P. Cooper, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Leonard Buckbinder, Michael P. Czech

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Signalling pathways that control endothelial cell (EC) permeability, leukocyte adhesion and inflammation are pivotal for atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Here we demonstrate that the Sterile-20-like mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4), which has been implicated in inflammation, is abundantly expressed in ECs and in atherosclerotic plaques from mice and humans. On the basis of endothelial-specific MAP4K4 gene silencing and gene ablation experiments in Apoe(-/-) mice, we show that MAP4K4 in ECs markedly promotes Western diet-induced aortic macrophage accumulation and atherosclerotic plaque development. Treatment of Apoe(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-) mice with a selective small-molecule MAP4K4 inhibitor also markedly reduces atherosclerotic ...


In Vivo Single-Particle Imaging Of Nuclear Mrna Export In Budding Yeast Demonstrates An Essential Role For Mex67p, Carlas Smith, Azra Lari, Carina Patrizia. Derrer, Anette Ouwehand, Ammeret Rossouw, Maximiliaan Huisman, Thomas Dange, Mark Hopman, Aviva Joseph, Daniel Zenklusen, Karsten Weis, David Grünwald, Ben Montpetit Dec 2015

In Vivo Single-Particle Imaging Of Nuclear Mrna Export In Budding Yeast Demonstrates An Essential Role For Mex67p, Carlas Smith, Azra Lari, Carina Patrizia. Derrer, Anette Ouwehand, Ammeret Rossouw, Maximiliaan Huisman, Thomas Dange, Mark Hopman, Aviva Joseph, Daniel Zenklusen, Karsten Weis, David Grünwald, Ben Montpetit

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

Many messenger RNA export proteins have been identified; yet the spatial and temporal activities of these proteins and how they determine directionality of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex export from the nucleus remain largely undefined. Here, the bacteriophage PP7 RNA-labeling system was used in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to follow single-particle mRNP export events with high spatial precision and temporal resolution. These data reveal that mRNP export, consisting of nuclear docking, transport, and cytoplasmic release from a nuclear pore complex (NPC), is fast ( approximately 200 ms) and that upon arrival in the cytoplasm, mRNPs are frequently confined near the nuclear envelope. Mex67p functions ...


A Role For Ehd Family Endocytic Regulators In Endothelial Biology, Alexandra E. J. Moffitt Dec 2015

A Role For Ehd Family Endocytic Regulators In Endothelial Biology, Alexandra E. J. Moffitt

Theses & Dissertations

Endocytic trafficking is an essential process in eukaryotic cells, specifically for the transport of nutrients, membrane components, and receptors. Cargo destined for endocytic traffic is internalized at the cell surface via clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways, and brought to the early or sorting endosomes. From there, cargo is further trafficked to lysosomes for degradation, trafficked to other compartments in the cell, or recycled back to the cell surface (either directly or via the endocytic recycling compartment).

Mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins, or EHD proteins (EHD1 to 4), are a family of highly conserved ATPases that function as key regulators of ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan Dec 2015

The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan

Theses & Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ErbB2 (Her2) is overexpressed in 20 -30% of invasive breast cancers and this overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and shorter overall as well as disease-free survival. Aberrant expression of ErbB2 through gene amplification, transcriptional deregulation and/or altered endocytic trafficking results in overexpression of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane and biases ErbB2 from primarily ligand-driven hetero-dimerization under normal expression conditions to increased ligand-independent homo-dimer and hetero-dimer formation and consequent activation. C-terminus of HSC70-Inteeracting protein (CHIP)/STIP1-homologous U-Box containing protein 1 (STUB1) is an HSP90/HSC70 interacting negative co-chaperone known to promote ubiquitination ...


Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox Dec 2015

Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory study investigated three aspects of introductory undergraduate biology students’ understanding about cells. The study, which took place at the University of Maine with voluntary students in Basic Biology (“BIO100”) in the summer and fall of 2009, examined (1) students’ pre-course perceptions of cells as they exist in a living context and (2) gains in students’ perception and knowledge about cells after completing the one-semester course (BIO100). Results are based on lecture exam scores, pre-post surveys developed as a part of this thesis, and interviews with two groups of biology students. A total of 498 students participated in the ...


Acute Methamphetamine Exposure Affects Histone Modifying Enzymes And Cytokine Production In Macrophages, Ariel Burns Dec 2015

Acute Methamphetamine Exposure Affects Histone Modifying Enzymes And Cytokine Production In Macrophages, Ariel Burns

Theses & Dissertations

The effects of methamphetamine (Meth) in the periphery are not well studied and a comprehensive investigation on the effects and molecular mechanism will give insight into why Meth users are at an increased risk of infections. For this reason, we use macrophages as a model for the immune system dysregulation seen in Meth abusers and also because macrophages are a long-lived cell that HIV infects and persists in. We aimed to determine the effects of Meth on the cytokine production, histone modifying enzymes and the corresponding histone post-translational modifications, and the molecular mechanism in HIV-infected human macrophages treated with combination ...


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen Dec 2015

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The following work demonstrates that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles in dynamic gene expression than they do in steady-state. Histone modifications have been associated with transcription activity. However, previous analyses of gene expression in mutants affecting histone modifications show limited alteration. I systematically dissected the effects of 83 histone mutants and 119 gene deletion mutants on gene induction/repression in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, I observed far more changes in gene induction/repression than changes in steady-state gene expression. The extensive dynamic gene expression profile of histone mutants and gene deletion mutants also allowed me ...


Trpm7 Function In Zebrafish Dopaminergic Neurons, Amanda R. Decker Dec 2015

Trpm7 Function In Zebrafish Dopaminergic Neurons, Amanda R. Decker

Theses and Dissertations

TRPM7 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-like 7) is an ion channel necessary for the proper development of many cell types. Insight into the precise role of the channel in different cells has been hampered by the lethality of knocking out the gene in model organisms such as the mouse. Here I examine a zebrafish that has a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding Trpm7. First, I show that trpm7 is important for the function of developing dopaminergic neurons in the zebrafish. Second, I examine the interaction between trpm7 and the related gene vmat2 in order to develop a cellular mechanism of ...


Parn Deadenylase Is Involved In Mirna-Dependent Degradation Of Tp53 Mrna In Mammalian Cells, Xiaokan Zhang, Emral Devany, Michael R. Murphy, Galina Glazman, Mirjana Persaud, Frida E. Kleiman Dec 2015

Parn Deadenylase Is Involved In Mirna-Dependent Degradation Of Tp53 Mrna In Mammalian Cells, Xiaokan Zhang, Emral Devany, Michael R. Murphy, Galina Glazman, Mirjana Persaud, Frida E. Kleiman

Publications and Research

mRNA deadenylation is under the control of cis-acting regulatory elements, which include AU-rich elements (AREs) and microRNA (miRNA) targeting sites, within the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs. Deadenylases promote miRNA-induced mRNA decay through their interaction with miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). However, the role of poly(A) specific ribonuclease (PARN) deadenylase in miRNA-dependent mRNA degradation has not been elucidated. Here, we present evidence that not only ARE- but also miRNA-mediated pathways are involved in PARN-mediated regulation of the steady state levels of TP53 mRNA, which encodes the tumor suppressor p53. Supporting this, Argonaute-2 (Ago-2), the core component of ...


Investigation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transformation In Two Regenerable Tissue Culture Systems, Atiyyah S. Ferouz Dec 2015

Investigation Of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transformation In Two Regenerable Tissue Culture Systems, Atiyyah S. Ferouz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The genetic engineering of plants allows for the modification of plant genomes, subsequently improving plant traits. There are, however, plants recalcitrant to established transformation methods, requiring the implementation of novel techniques. This study investigates the viability of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) transformation using Tat2, a CPP with demonstrated transformation efficiency in plant and animal systems, in two regenerable tissue culture systems, soybean somatic embryos and Arabidopsis protoplasts. Assessments of complex formation, Tat2 cellular translocation, complex uptake, and CPP-mediated transformation were carried out. The results show the formation of a Tat2-plasmid complex and the uptake of Tat2 ...


Hd2d Is A Regulator Of Abscisic Acid Responses In Arabidopsis, Joshua A. Farhi Dec 2015

Hd2d Is A Regulator Of Abscisic Acid Responses In Arabidopsis, Joshua A. Farhi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Histone deacetylases have important roles in development and stress response in plants. To further investigate their function, the HD2D gene, of the plant specific HD2 family, was studied. An hd2d-1 mutant and two HD2D overexpression lines were used in this study. Germination was delayed in hd2d-1 and HD2D overexpression seeds only in the presence of ABA. HD2D was found to positively regulate the expression of members of the ABA-response pathway (ABI1, ABI5, and RD29A) leading to increased resistance to drought and salinity treatments. Furthermore, HD2D expression delayed flowering by positively regulating FLC expression. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, the HD2D protein ...


Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth Ryder, Tanja Dominko Dec 2015

Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth Ryder, Tanja Dominko

Sakthikumar Ambady

BACKGROUND: Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury - by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. RESULTS: We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules ...


Ggggcc Microsatellite Rna Is Neuritically Localized, Induces Branching Defects, And Perturbs Transport Granule Function, Alondra Schweizer Burguete, Sandra Almeida, Fen-Biao Gao, Robert Kalb, Michael R. Akins, Nancy M. Bonini Dec 2015

Ggggcc Microsatellite Rna Is Neuritically Localized, Induces Branching Defects, And Perturbs Transport Granule Function, Alondra Schweizer Burguete, Sandra Almeida, Fen-Biao Gao, Robert Kalb, Michael R. Akins, Nancy M. Bonini

Open Access Articles

Microsatellite expansions are the leading cause of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that GGGGCC and CAG microsatellite repeat RNAs associated with C9orf72 in ALS/FTD and with polyglutamine diseases, respectively, localize to neuritic granules that undergo active transport into distal neuritic segments. In cultured mammalian spinal cord neurons, the presence of neuritic GGGGCC repeat RNA correlates with neuronal branching defects and the repeat RNA localizes to granules that label with FMRP, a transport granule component. Using a Drosophila GGGGCC expansion disease model, we characterize dendritic branching defects that are modulated by FMRP and Orb2. The human orthologues of these ...


Near-Infrared Photoactivatable Control Of Ca Signaling And Optogenetic Immunomodulation, Lian He, Yuanwei Zhang, Guolin Ma, Peng Tan, Zhan Jun Li, Shengbing Zhang, Xiang Wu, Ji Jing, Shaohai Fang, Lijuan Zhou, Youjun Wang, Yun Huang, Patrick Hogan, Gang Han, Yubin Zhou Dec 2015

Near-Infrared Photoactivatable Control Of Ca Signaling And Optogenetic Immunomodulation, Lian He, Yuanwei Zhang, Guolin Ma, Peng Tan, Zhan Jun Li, Shengbing Zhang, Xiang Wu, Ji Jing, Shaohai Fang, Lijuan Zhou, Youjun Wang, Yun Huang, Patrick Hogan, Gang Han, Yubin Zhou

Open Access Articles

The application of current channelrhodopsin-based optogenetic tools is limited by the lack of strict ion selectivity and the inability to extend the spectra sensitivity into the near-infrared (NIR) tissue transmissible range. Here we present an NIR-stimulable optogenetic platform (termed "Opto-CRAC") that selectively and remotely controls Ca2+ oscillations and Ca2+-responsive gene expression to regulate the function of non-excitable cells, including T lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. When coupled to upconversion nanoparticles, the optogenetic operation window is shifted from the visible range to NIR wavelengths to enable wireless photoactivation of Ca2+-dependent signaling and optogenetic modulation of immunoinflammatory responses. In a ...


Preventing Thymus Involution In K5.Cyclin D1 Transgenic Mice Sustains The Naïve T Cell Compartment With Age, Michelle L. Bolner Dec 2015

Preventing Thymus Involution In K5.Cyclin D1 Transgenic Mice Sustains The Naïve T Cell Compartment With Age, Michelle L. Bolner

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The thymus maintains T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity through perpetual release of self-MHC restricted naive T cells. However, thymus involution during the aging process reduces naïve T cell output, leading to defective immune responsiveness to newly encountered antigens. We have found that early thymus involution precipitates the age-associated shift favoring memory T cell dominancy in young control mice. Furthermore, we have shown that age-related thymus involution is prevented in mice expressing a keratin 5 promoter-driven Cyclin D1 (K5.D1) transgene in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Thymopoiesis occurs normally in K5.D1 transgenic thymi and sustains T cell output to ...


The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy Dec 2015

The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with roughly 300,000 cancer related deaths occurring globally each year. The survival of patients with HNSCC has not changed significantly over the past decade, leading investigators to search for promising molecular targets. To identify new treatment targets and biomarkers that could better guide therapy, we previously characterized the genomic alterations from primary HNSCC patient samples. We were among the first to discover that NOTCH1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in this cancer type. The spectrum of inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in HNSCC ...


Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao Dec 2015

Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Calcification occurs often in the atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary heart disease and animals with hypercholesterolemia, such as apolipoprotein-E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the development of calcification in atherosclerosis remains unclear. ApoE acts as a lipid transporter, but also has been recognized as a potential regulator of osteogenesis. Little information is available as to whether ApoE has any direct impact on osteogenesis and calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several signal transduction pathways play a role in regulation of calcification, including the Wnt/β-catenin system and potentially GTAP, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme responsible for ...


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd Dec 2015

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and is ...


Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen Dec 2015

Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) are derived from extraembryonic tissue of the embryo and first appear at stage X of development. They enter the bloodstream and migrate to the genital ridge, unite with somatic tissue to form a developing gonad, and then differentiate to sperm or ova (Fujimoto et al., 1976). Understanding molecular features of both male and female PGCs not only clarify the differentiation mechanism of such cells toward different germ lines, but will also help in selecting for highly productive types of commercial chicken. Most previous studies focused on the location of PGCs (Eyal-Giladi et al., 1981; Swift ...


Dab2 Plays A Role In The Post-Endocytic Trafficking Of Vegfr2, Shivangi Makarand Inamdar Dec 2015

Dab2 Plays A Role In The Post-Endocytic Trafficking Of Vegfr2, Shivangi Makarand Inamdar

Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a crucial process under both physiological and pathological conditions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and its cognate receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) are key regulators of angiogenesis. Plasma membrane (PM) levels of VEGFR2 are regulated by de novo synthesis, and by both exocytic and endocytic trafficking. VEGF-binding to VEGFR2 induces phosphorylation of key tyrosine residues located in the cytosolic domain of the receptor, followed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and signal transduction leading to vascular morphogenesis. Disabled protein 2 (Dab2) is a cytosolic, clathrin-adaptor protein that is known to regulate endocytosis of certain cell surface receptors ...


Characterization Of Embryonic Stem Cell-Differentiated Cells As Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rachael N. Kuehn Dec 2015

Characterization Of Embryonic Stem Cell-Differentiated Cells As Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rachael N. Kuehn

Honors Theses

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to their ability to differentiate into different cell types while still maintaining a high proliferation capacity, have been considered as a potential cell source in regenerative medicine. However, current ESC differentiation methods are low yielding and create heterogeneous cell populations. If transplanted in the human body, differentiated ESCs could be rejected by the immune system, form tumors, or may not function normally within the human body. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a type of adult stem cell typically derived from bone marrow, have proved to be excellent candidates in clinical applications due ...


Role Of Stat3 In Human Nk Cell Functions, Prasad V. Phatarpekar Dec 2015

Role Of Stat3 In Human Nk Cell Functions, Prasad V. Phatarpekar

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which play a critical role in the immune response against malignant cells and microbial infections. NK cells are equipped with activating receptors, which upon detecting ligands expressed on stressed cells induce cytolytic activity of NK cells. Stimulation of NK cell proliferation and priming of NK cytolytic capability are accomplished by cytokines, which mediate their signals mainly through JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Previously, we found that K562 cells genetically modified to express membrane bound IL-21 (mbIL-21), which predominantly activates STAT3, induce robust expansion and activation of human NK cells. Further investigations revealed role of STAT3 ...


Response Of Bacterial Cells To Fluctuating Environment, Sudip Nepal Dec 2015

Response Of Bacterial Cells To Fluctuating Environment, Sudip Nepal

Theses and Dissertations

We have studied morphological and genomic variations occurring in a mesophilic bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a wide range of continuous and fluctuating hydrostatic pressures. For all the studies here the temperature is maintained at 37◦C, the optimal growth tem- perature of E. coli at atmospheric pressure. Cell division is inhibited at high hydrostatic pressures resulting in an increase of cell length. The increase of cell-length depends on the extent and duration of the stress applied on bacterial cells. We have studied the effect of high pressure stress in three different conditions – (i) Wild-type cells (almost no genetic ...


Compounds Released From Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect On Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis And Their Biological Activity, Angele Djioleu Dec 2015

Compounds Released From Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect On Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis And Their Biological Activity, Angele Djioleu

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds ...


Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae Dec 2015

Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent findings of brown adipocytes and brown-like or beige adipocytes, capable of dissipating energy as heat, in adult humans have promised new hope for obesity treatment and prevention. Understanding of the regulation of brown and beige adipocytes will provide novel strategies to reach the goal. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are responsible for inflammation in adipose tissue, which leads to adipose dysfunction and obesity associated chronic diseases. It has been shown that PRR activation induces inflammation, leading to insulin resistance in white adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the roles of PRR activation in brown adipocytes and brown adipose tissue ...


Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper Dec 2015

Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

We have now examined the erythroid phenotype in this zebrafish strain carrying a ZFN genomic knockout of piezo1. Genotyping was performed as previously described. In contrast to the anemic phenotype observed in zebrafish subjected to morpholino knockdown of piezo, the genomic ZFN knockout of piezo1 did not segregate either with anemia in the 3-dpf embryo or with dysmorphic erythrocyte morphology in the adult fish.


Intraflagellar Transport Is Essential For Mammalian Spermiogenesis But Is Absent In Mature Sperm, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Gregory J. Pazour, George B. Witman Dec 2015

Intraflagellar Transport Is Essential For Mammalian Spermiogenesis But Is Absent In Mature Sperm, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Gregory J. Pazour, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

Drosophila sperm are unusual in that they do not require the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system for assembly of their flagella. In the mouse, the IFT proteins are very abundant in testis, but we here show that mature sperm are completely devoid of them, making the importance of IFT to mammalian sperm development unclear. To address this question, we characterized spermiogenesis and fertility in the Ift88(Tg737Rpw) mouse. This mouse has a hypomorphic mutation in the gene encoding the IFT88 subunit of the IFT particle. This mutation is highly disruptive to ciliary assembly in other organs. Ift88(-/-) mice are completely sterile ...


The Role Of G-Protein Signaling In Pathogenesis In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Brant Smith Dec 2015

The Role Of G-Protein Signaling In Pathogenesis In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Brant Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Gray leaf spot, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize worldwide. C. zeae-maydis orients hyphal growth towards stomata (stomatal tropism) and forms infectious structures (appressoria) that are necessary for successful infection. Although some genes involved in pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis have been identified, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In fungi, heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits (α, β, and γ) and mediate responses to environmental stimuli. They regulate diverse functions, including nutrient detection, virulence, fungal development, conidiation, secondary metabolism, and pathogenesis in many plant pathogenic fungi. This research explored the role ...


Leptin Regulates The Expression Of Autophagy-Related Genes In Chickens, Peter Olawale Ishola Dec 2015

Leptin Regulates The Expression Of Autophagy-Related Genes In Chickens, Peter Olawale Ishola

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy or cellular self-digestion, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is conserved from yeast to human, plays a key role in recycling cellular constituents, including damaged organelles. It also plays a pivotal role in the adaptation of cells to a plethora of distinct stressors including starvation. Autophagy has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast, but little is known in avian species. Thus, the major objective of the present study was to determine the effects of leptin on autophagy-related genes in chicken hypothalamus, muscle and liver. Leptin is an adipocytokine that is mostly produced by white adipose cells in mammals (as ...


Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour Dec 2015

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (Epa) From Porphyridium Cruentum: Increasing Growth And Productivity Of The Microalgae For Pharmaceutical Products, Maryam Asgharpour

Theses and Dissertations

One of the major nutritional requirements in our diet is an adequate intake of omega-3 specially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In the present study, the effects of two temperatures (16°C & 20˚C) and light intensities (140 & 180µE/M2.S) and four nitrate levels (0.075, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7g/L) on the cell growth and lipid productivity of Porphyridium cruentum, one of the most promising oil-rich species of microalgae, were investigated. A growth comparison was carried out using pure CO2 and 5% CO2/air. Additionally, the ratio of the fatty acids with omega-3 and omega-6 groups at ...