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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Pubertal And Adult Leydig Cell Function In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance-Deficient Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Stephen Baker, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Pubertal And Adult Leydig Cell Function In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance-Deficient Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Stephen Baker, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) causes Mullerian duct regression during sexual differentiation and regulates postnatal Leydig cell development. MIS knockout (MIS-KO) mice with targeted deletions of MIS develop Leydig cell hyperplasia, but their circulating androgen concentrations are reportedly unaltered. We compared reproductive hormone profiles, androgen biosynthesis, and the expression of key steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in MIS-KO and wild-type (WT) mice at puberty (36 d) and sexual maturity (60 d). In pubertal animals, basal testosterone and LH concentrations in plasma were lower in MIS-KO than WT mice, whereas human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone concentrations were similar. In adults, basal LH, and both ...


P19ink4d And P18ink4c Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors In The Male Reproductive Axis, Gregory Buchold, Patricia Magyar, Ramamani Arumugam, Mary Lee, Deborah O'Brien Sep 2014

P19ink4d And P18ink4c Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors In The Male Reproductive Axis, Gregory Buchold, Patricia Magyar, Ramamani Arumugam, Mary Lee, Deborah O'Brien

Mary M. Lee

The loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) p18(Ink4c) and p19(Ink4d) leads to male reproductive defects (Franklin et al., 1998. Genes Dev 12: 2899-2911; Zindy et al., 2000. Mol Cell Biol 20: 372-378; Zindy et al., 2001. Mol Cell Biol 21: 3244-3255). In order to assess whether these inhibitors directly or indirectly affect male germ cell differentiation, we examined the expression of p18(Ink4c) and p19(Ink4d) in spermatogenic and supporting cells in the testis and in pituitary gonadotropes. Both p18(Ink4c) and p19(Ink4d) are most abundant in the testis after 18 days of age and are ...


Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Developmental Expression Of A Candidate Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor, Jose Teixeira, Wei He, Paresh Shah, Nobuyuki Morikawa, Mary Lee, Elizabeth Catlin, Peter Hudson, John Wing, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

We have isolated a candidate Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) type II receptor complementary DNA from an embryonic rat urogenital ridge library and have studied its binding to MIS, its developmental pattern of expression and tissue distribution. By in situ hybridization with a full-length riboprobe, the receptor is expressed in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the Mullerian duct at embryonic days 14, 15, and 16 and in tubular and follicular structures of the rat fetal gonads. Expression of the messenger RNA was also seen in the granules cells and seminiferous tubules of pubertal gonads. Northern analysis revealed that the MIS type II ...


Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck Sep 2014

Developmentally Regulated Polyadenylation Of Two Discrete Messenger Ribonucleic Acids For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Mary Lee, Richard Cate, Patricia Donahoe, Gerald Waneck

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a 140-kilodalton homodimeric glycoprotein that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts in male embryos, and may also have a role in both males and females in the regulation of germ cell maturation. We examined the ontogeny of MIS messenger RNA (mRNA) in rat testes from midgestation through adulthood and found two discrete MIS mRNA species that are developmentally regulated. The larger 2.0-kilobase species is abundant at embryonic day 14, then decreases in late gestation, and is barely detectable after birth. The smaller 1.8-kilobase species is first noted at embryonic day 18 and is ...


The Influence Of Endocrine Disruptors On Pubertal Timing, Elka Jacobson-Dickman, Mary Lee Sep 2014

The Influence Of Endocrine Disruptors On Pubertal Timing, Elka Jacobson-Dickman, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overview of the effects of endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic studies in humans support animal data demonstrating that exposures to endocrine-disrupting compounds have pronounced effects on pubertal timing and that the timing of endocrine-disrupting compound exposure and the specific agent causes different outcomes. Recent studies confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and phytoestrogens on delaying onset of puberty and demonstrate an association of phthalates and polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier breast development and menarche, respectively. These studies, however, are complicated by mixed exposures of compounds which individually may have opposing actions on the reproductive axis ...


Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration After Ethylene Dimethanesulphonate Ablation, Antonio Salva, Matthew Hardy, Xiufeng Wu, Chantal Sottas, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration After Ethylene Dimethanesulphonate Ablation, Antonio Salva, Matthew Hardy, Xiufeng Wu, Chantal Sottas, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

The postnatal development of Leydig cell precursors is postulated to be controlled by Sertoli cell secreted factors, which may have a determinative influence on Leydig cell number and function in sexually mature animals. One such hormone, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), has been shown to inhibit DNA synthesis and steroidogenesis in primary Leydig cells and Leydig cell tumor lines. To further delineate the effects of MIS on Leydig cell proliferation and steroidogenesis, we employed the established ethylene dimethanesulphonate (EDS) model of Leydig cell regeneration. Following EDS ablation of differentiated Leydig cells in young adult rats, recombinant MIS or vehicle was delivered ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Is Present In Embryonic Testes Of Dogs With Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Vicki Meyers-Wallen, Mary Lee, T. Manganaro, T. Kuroda, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Is Present In Embryonic Testes Of Dogs With Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Vicki Meyers-Wallen, Mary Lee, T. Manganaro, T. Kuroda, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) causes regression of the Mullerian ducts during a critical period in embryonic development in male mammals. In Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), an autosomal recessive trait in humans and dogs, the Mullerian ducts fail to regress in otherwise normal males. Previously we reported that PMDS-affected dogs produce bioactive testicular MIS postnatally. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PMDS-affected canine embryos appropriately express MIS mRNA and protein during the critical period for Mullerian duct regression. Homozygous (PMDS-affected) and normal canine embryos were removed from timed pregnancies. Gonadal sex and the degree of Mullerian ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) production in rat testes from the late fetal to the adult period and its modulation by gonadotropins in neonatal testes were studied using immunohistochemistry, northern analysis, and a graded organ culture bioassay for MIS. The intense immunohistochemical staining for MIS seen in fetal and newborn testes began to decrease gradually after the third postnatal day, then decreased dramatically on the fifth postnatal day. MIS immunohistochemical activity was then present at a low level until about the 20th postnatal day, after which it was barely detectable. The testes from rats treated with FSH at birth showed a ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Testosterone Synthesis In Adult Rats, V. Sriraman, E. Niu, J. Matias, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Testosterone Synthesis In Adult Rats, V. Sriraman, E. Niu, J. Matias, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a gonadal hormone that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts during male sexual differentiation. Postnatally, MIS inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of immature Leydig cells, and transgenic mice that overexpress MIS have decreased serum testosterone concentrations. To elucidate the effects of MIS on androgen regulation in the postnatal testis, we examined testosterone synthesis in adult Sprague-Dawley rats following intratesticular and intraperitoneal injections of MIS. Intratesticular MIS injection achieved high local concentrations of MIS (574.0 +/- 60.0 ng/mL) at 4 hours, with a corresponding decline in serum testosterone concentrations to 0.7 +/- 0.1 ...


Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Postnatal Leydig cell (LC) development in mice has been assumed empirically to resemble that of rats, which have characteristic hormonal profiles at well-defined maturational stages. To characterize the changes in LC function and gene expression in mice, we examined reproductive hormone expression from birth to 180 days, and quantified in vivo and in vitro production of androgens during sexual maturation. Although the overall plasma androgen and LH profiles from birth through puberty were comparable to that of rats, the timing of developmental changes in androgen production and steroidogenic capacity of isolated LCs differed. In mice, onset of androgen biosynthetic capacity ...


Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping Sep 2014

Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a glycoprotein hormone produced in Sertoli cells of the fetal and postnatal testis, and granulosa cells of the pubertal ovary. We examined MIS expression in a nonhuman primate, the cynomolgus macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis), to define an animal model for studying MIS gene regulation. Changes in testicular MIS mRNA with age were assessed by in situ hybridization of prepubertal to adult testes, Northern analysis of pubertal and adult specimens, and determination of serum MIS concentrations from infancy to adulthood. We found that MIS expression was highest in the youngest animals and decreased progressively with increasing ...


Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor Expression And Function In Purified Rat Leydig Cells, Mary Lee, C. Seah, P. Masiakos, Chantal Sottas, F. Preffer, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy Sep 2014

Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor Expression And Function In Purified Rat Leydig Cells, Mary Lee, C. Seah, P. Masiakos, Chantal Sottas, F. Preffer, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS), a gonadal hormone in the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, induces Mullerian duct involution during male sexual differentiation. Mice with null mutations of the MIS ligand or receptor develop Leydig cell hyperplasia and neoplasia in addition to retained Mullerian ducts, whereas MIS-overexpressing transgenic mice have decreased testosterone concentrations and Leydig cell numbers. We hypothesized that MIS directly modulates Leydig cell proliferation and differentiated function in the maturing testis. Therefore, highly purified rat Leydig and Sertoli cells were isolated to examine cell-specific expression, binding, and function of the MIS type II receptor. These studies revealed that this receptor is ...


A Single Base Pair Mutation Encoding A Premature Stop Codon In The Mis Type Ii Receptor Is Responsible For Canine Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Wenfang Wu, Shengqin Wan, Pujar Shashikant, Mark Haskins, Donald Schlafer, Mary Lee, Vicki Meyers-Wallen Sep 2014

A Single Base Pair Mutation Encoding A Premature Stop Codon In The Mis Type Ii Receptor Is Responsible For Canine Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Wenfang Wu, Shengqin Wan, Pujar Shashikant, Mark Haskins, Donald Schlafer, Mary Lee, Vicki Meyers-Wallen

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a secreted glycoprotein in the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth factors, mediates regression of the Mullerian ducts during embryonic sex differentiation in males. In persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS), rather than undergoing involution, the Mullerian ducts persist in males, giving rise to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina. Genetic defects in MIS or its receptor (MISRII) have been identified in patients with PMDS. The phenotype in the canine model of PMDS derived from the miniature schnauzer breed is strikingly similar to that of human patients. In this model, PMDS is inherited as a sex-limited ...


Isolation Of The Rat Gene For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Christopher Haqq, Mary Lee, Richard Tizard, Mark Wysk, Janice Demarinis, Patricia Donahoe, Richard Cate Sep 2014

Isolation Of The Rat Gene For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Christopher Haqq, Mary Lee, Richard Tizard, Mark Wysk, Janice Demarinis, Patricia Donahoe, Richard Cate

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a testicular glycoprotein also known as anti-Mullerian hormone, plays a key role in male sexual development by causing regression of the Mullerian duct, the anlagen of the uterus, the Fallopian tubes, and part of the vagina. MIS is also expressed in the postnatal ovary, but its precise function is still not known. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the rat MIS gene. Rat MIS is encoded in five exons and is synthesized as a precursor of 553 amino acids, containing a 24-amino-acid leader. Based on homology with human MIS, we predict that the rat ...


Effect Of E. Coli Endotoxin On Mammalian Cell Growth And Recombinant Protein Production, J. Epstein, Mary Lee, C. Kelly, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Effect Of E. Coli Endotoxin On Mammalian Cell Growth And Recombinant Protein Production, J. Epstein, Mary Lee, C. Kelly, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression In Granulosa And Sertoli Cells Coincides With Their Mitotic Activity, Seiichi Hirobe, Wei He, Mary Lee, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression In Granulosa And Sertoli Cells Coincides With Their Mitotic Activity, Seiichi Hirobe, Wei He, Mary Lee, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

In males, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) mRNA was first detected on the medial aspect of the urogenital ridge early on the morning of day 13 of gestation before testicular differentiation was evident, and localized to the more obvious Sertoli cells later on embryonic day 13. MIS transcripts remained at maximal levels between 14.5 and 17.5 days gestation, while the Mullerian duct involutes, and remained high until birth. MIS gene expression decreased progressively after birth and, as germ cell meiosis increased, became barely detectable in the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. In female rats, MIS mRNA was first ...


Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok Jan 2014

Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Chondrocytes respond to biomechanical and bioelectrochemical stimuli by secreting appropriate extracellular matrix proteins that enable the tissue to withstand the large forces it experiences. Although biomechanical aspects of cartilage are well described, little is known of the bioelectrochemical responses. The focus of this study is to identify bioelectrical characteristics of human costal cartilage cells using dielectric spectroscopy.

METHODS: Dielectric spectroscopy allows non-invasive probing of biological cells. An in house computer program is developed to extract dielectric properties of human costal cartilage cells from raw cell suspension impedance data measured by a microfluidic device. The dielectric properties of chondrocytes are ...