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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Prostaglandin Signaling Temporally Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling During Drosophila Oogenesis, Andrew James Spracklen Jul 2014

Prostaglandin Signaling Temporally Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling During Drosophila Oogenesis, Andrew James Spracklen

Theses and Dissertations

Prostaglandins (PGs) are small, lipid signaling molecules produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. PG signaling regulates many processes including pain, inflammation, fertility, cardiovascular function and disease, and cancer. One mechanism by which PG signaling exerts its function is by regulating the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton; however, the exact mechanisms remain largely undefined.

Drosophila oogenesis provides an ideal system to determine how PG signaling regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Drosophila follicles, or eggs, pass through 14 well- characterized, morphologically defined stages of development. Each developing follicle is comprised of 16 interconnected germline-derived cells (15 nurse cells and 1 oocyte) that are ...


The Roles Of Myosin Xi And Rop In Moss Tip Growth, Graham M. Burkart May 2014

The Roles Of Myosin Xi And Rop In Moss Tip Growth, Graham M. Burkart

Doctoral Dissertations

Because of the large number of myosin XI and ROP genes found in many angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role with respect to tip growth. In contrast, there are only two myosin XI genes in four ROP genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. To determine their role in tip growth using a loss-of-function approach, I used RNA interference (RNAi) and found that both of these proteins are essential for tip growth. Consistent with a role in tip growth, I show that a functional, full-length fusion of mEGFP to myosin XI accumulates at a subcortical, apical region ...


Functional Analysis Of Moss Class Viii Myosin And Its Role In Plant Cell Division, Shu-Zon Wu May 2014

Functional Analysis Of Moss Class Viii Myosin And Its Role In Plant Cell Division, Shu-Zon Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

The moss Physcomitrella patens is a great model system for studying plant gene function using reverse genetic approaches. It undergoes efficient gene-targeting by homologous recombination, allowing the generation of specific gene knockout and tagging a gene at its endogenous locus. Additionally, RNAi is quite effective in P. patens, providing an effective tool for rapid gene silencing and phenotypic characterization. Taking advantage of these features, this dissertation described the establishment of a system to perform an unbiased gene-by-gene RNAi assay to screen for tip growth phenotypes in P. patens. A small set of RNAi constructs were tested, within them one gene ...


Dephosphorylation Of Iqg1 By Cdc14 Temporally Regulates Actin Ring Formation, Daniel Patrick Miller Jan 2014

Dephosphorylation Of Iqg1 By Cdc14 Temporally Regulates Actin Ring Formation, Daniel Patrick Miller

Masters Theses

"Cytokinesis is the final step in cell division when the cell separates the cytoplasm by contracting a ring composed of filamentous actin (F-actin) and type II myosin. Iqg1, an IQGAP family member, is an essential scaffolding protein in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) required for actin recruitment to, and contraction of, the actomyosin ring. Actin is recruited by the calponin homology domain (CHD) in anaphase after Iqg1 is localized to the bud neck. Consensus sites for the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Cdc28 were identified flanking the CHD. This led us to the hypothesis that phosphorylation of Iqg1 by Cdc28 negatively regulates actin ...


Opposing Actin Networks Modulate The Mechano-Activation Of The Integrin Lfa-1 During Immunological Synapse Formation, William Andrew Comrie Jan 2014

Opposing Actin Networks Modulate The Mechano-Activation Of The Integrin Lfa-1 During Immunological Synapse Formation, William Andrew Comrie

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Formation of a functional immune response requires the regulated transfer of information between T cells, and APCs, which leads to a variety of functional outcomes. In many cases this information transfer occurs at a regulated area of cell - cell contact termed the immunological synapse (IS). In T cells responding to APCs there is a robust accumulation of F-actin on the T cell side of the synapse. This F-actin response is characterized by robust polymerization at the periphery of the contact site followed by centripetal flow of the network towards the center of the IS. While it is well known that ...


The Role Of The Exocyst In Membrane Deformation, Cell Migration And Exocytosis, Yuting Zhao Jan 2014

The Role Of The Exocyst In Membrane Deformation, Cell Migration And Exocytosis, Yuting Zhao

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Dynamic shape changes of the plasma membrane are fundamental to many processes ranging from morphogenesis and cell migration to phagocytosis and viral propagation. In this study, I showed that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, induces tubular membrane invaginations towards the lumen of synthetic vesicles in vitro and generates actin-free protrusions on the surface of cells. Analyses using Exo70 mutants suggest that Exo70 generates negative membrane curvature through an oligomerization-based mechanism. The membrane-deformation function of Exo70 is likely to be independent of the other exocyst subunits. Exo70 thus represents a novel membrane-deforming protein for plasma membrane remodeling. Directional cell ...