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Cell Biology Commons

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2014

GSBS Student Publications

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Articles 1 - 6 of 6

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Calcium-Dependent Protease As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Wolfram Syndrome, Simin Lu, Clay F. Semenkovich, Peter A. Greer, Fumihiko Urano Dec 2014

A Calcium-Dependent Protease As A Potential Therapeutic Target For Wolfram Syndrome, Simin Lu, Clay F. Semenkovich, Peter A. Greer, Fumihiko Urano

GSBS Student Publications

Wolfram syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by diabetes and neurodegeneration and considered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disease. Despite the underlying importance of ER dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome and the identification of two causative genes, Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) and Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), a molecular mechanism linking the ER to death of neurons and β cells has not been elucidated. Here we implicate calpain 2 in the mechanism of cell death in Wolfram syndrome. Calpain 2 is negatively regulated by WFS2, and elevated activation of calpain 2 by WFS2-knockdown correlates with cell death. Calpain activation is also induced ...


Morning And Evening Oscillators Cooperate To Reset Circadian Behavior In Response To Light Input, Pallavi Lamba, Diana Wentworth, Patrick Emery, Yong Zhang May 2014

Morning And Evening Oscillators Cooperate To Reset Circadian Behavior In Response To Light Input, Pallavi Lamba, Diana Wentworth, Patrick Emery, Yong Zhang

GSBS Student Publications

Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM), and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET). However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M) and the evening (E) oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in ...


Angiomotins Link F-Actin Architecture To Hippo Pathway Signaling, Sebastian Mana-Capelli, Murugan Paramasivam, Shubham Dutta, Dannel Mccollum May 2014

Angiomotins Link F-Actin Architecture To Hippo Pathway Signaling, Sebastian Mana-Capelli, Murugan Paramasivam, Shubham Dutta, Dannel Mccollum

GSBS Student Publications

The Hippo pathway regulates the transcriptional coactivator YAP to control cell proliferation, organ size, and stem cell maintenance. Multiple factors, such as substrate stiffness, cell density, and G protein-coupled receptor signaling, regulate YAP through their effects on the F-actin cytoskeleton, although the mechanism is not known. Here we show that angiomotin proteins (AMOT130, AMOTL1, and AMOTL2) connect F-actin architecture to YAP regulation. First, we show that angiomotins are required to relocalize YAP to the cytoplasm in response to various manipulations that perturb the actin cytoskeleton. Second, angiomotins associate with F-actin through a conserved F-actin-binding domain, and mutants defective for F-actin ...


Arf4 Is Required For Mammalian Development But Dispensable For Ciliary Assembly, John A. Follit, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Julie A. Jonassen, Tingting Huang, Jaime A. Rivera-Perez, Kimberly D. Tremblay, Gregory J. Pazour Feb 2014

Arf4 Is Required For Mammalian Development But Dispensable For Ciliary Assembly, John A. Follit, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Julie A. Jonassen, Tingting Huang, Jaime A. Rivera-Perez, Kimberly D. Tremblay, Gregory J. Pazour

GSBS Student Publications

The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at the Golgi complex and deemed a key regulator of ciliary protein trafficking. In this work, we show that Arf4 binds to the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS) of fibrocystin. Knockdown of Arf4 indicates that it is not absolutely required for trafficking of the fibrocystin ...


Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang Feb 2014

Smurf2 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Aging, Charusheila Ramkumar, Yahui Kong, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Hong Zhang

GSBS Student Publications

The age-dependent decline in the self-renewal capacity of stem cells plays a critical role in aging, but the precise mechanisms underlying this decline are not well understood. By limiting proliferative capacity, senescence is thought to play an important role in age-dependent decline of stem cell self-renewal, although direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is largely lacking. We have previously identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 as a critical regulator of senescence. In this study, we found that mice deficient in Smurf2 had an expanded hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment in bone marrow under normal homeostatic conditions, and this expansion was associated ...


The Long Noncoding Rna Thril Regulates Tnfalpha Expression Through Its Interaction With Hnrnpl, Zhonghan Li, Ti-Chun Chao, Kung-Yen Chang, Nianwei Lin, Veena S. Patil, Chisato Shimizu, Steven R. Head, Jane C. Burns, Tariq M. Rana Jan 2014

The Long Noncoding Rna Thril Regulates Tnfalpha Expression Through Its Interaction With Hnrnpl, Zhonghan Li, Ti-Chun Chao, Kung-Yen Chang, Nianwei Lin, Veena S. Patil, Chisato Shimizu, Steven R. Head, Jane C. Burns, Tariq M. Rana

GSBS Student Publications

Thousands of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian genome, many of which have important roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we used a custom microarray to identify lincRNAs associated with activation of the innate immune response. A panel of 159 lincRNAs was found to be differentially expressed following innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Among them, linc1992 was shown to be expressed in many human tissues and was required for induction of TNFalpha expression. Linc1992 bound specifically to heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL) and formed a functional linc1992-hnRNPL complex that regulated transcription of ...