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2014

Microbiology

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Effect Of Α-Synuclein Overexpression On Presynaptic Terminals Of C. Elegans, Christian Silvestri Nov 2014

Effect Of Α-Synuclein Overexpression On Presynaptic Terminals Of C. Elegans, Christian Silvestri

Senior Theses

Parkinson's disease is a non-treatable neurological disorder that can lead to an inability to control one’s own muscles, causing rigidness and lack of movement. α-Synuclein is a protein that has been found in aggregate forms in PD patients and seems to bind to synaptic vesicle membranes and aid in vesicle transporting. This research focuses on the effect that over-expressed forms of α-synuclein have on presynaptic terminals of C. elegans. To examine this relationship we constructed transgenic animals expressing α-synuclein throughout the nervous system of wild type C. elegans. The α-synuclein strain had disruption of the puncta along the ...


Intercellular Cooperation And Competition In Brain Cancers: Lessons From Drosophila And Human Studies, Indrayani Waghmare, Austin Roebke, Mutsuko Minata, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano Nov 2014

Intercellular Cooperation And Competition In Brain Cancers: Lessons From Drosophila And Human Studies, Indrayani Waghmare, Austin Roebke, Mutsuko Minata, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano

Biology Faculty Publications

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary brain cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. GBM tumors contain heterogeneous cellular components, including a small subpopulation of tumor cells termed glioma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are characterized as chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-resistant cells with prominent tumorigenic ability. Studies in Drosophila cancer models demonstrated that interclonal cooperation and signaling from apoptotic clones provokes aggressive growth of neighboring tumorigenic clones, via compensatory proliferation or apoptosis induced proliferation. Mechanistically, these aggressive tumors depend on activation of Jun-N-terminal kinase (upstream of c-JUN), and Drosophila Wnt (Wg) in the apoptotic clones. Consistent with these nonmammalian studies, data from several mammalian ...


Modulation Of Host Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates By Salmonella Effector Protein Sopb, Heather L. Piscatelli Oct 2014

Modulation Of Host Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates By Salmonella Effector Protein Sopb, Heather L. Piscatelli

Open Access Dissertations

Salmonella spp. are gram negative bacteria capable of infecting a number of eukaryotic hosts. In humans, Salmonella infection can range anywhere from acute gastroenteritis to typhoid fever which can oftentimes be fatal.Salmonella are facultative intracellular pathogens that have acquired the ability to enter non-phagocytic cells such as those lining the intestinal epithelium. Uptake into epithelial cells is mediated by the Salmonellapathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) encoded type III secretion system (T3SS), a needle-like complex composed of over 20 proteins that translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Salmonella possess a second type III secretion system encoded on ...


Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli Sep 2014

Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of gynecological cancer related deaths in women. In 2014, the estimated number of deaths due to ovarian cancer is 14,270 with occurrence of over 22, 240 new cases (National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html). Despite improvement in treatment strategies, the 5-year survival rate is still below 50% mainly due to chemoresistance and relapse. Amplification of chromosomal region 3q26 is a common characteristic in various epithelial cancers including ovarian cancer. This region harbors various oncogenes including the TGFβ signaling mediators EVI1 and SnoN/SkiL, PKCι and ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Sinorhizobium Meliloti Cell Cycle-Related Genes In The Δcbra Mutant And Root Nodules Of Medicago Sativa, Corey S. Hazekamp Aug 2014

Transcriptional Regulation Of Sinorhizobium Meliloti Cell Cycle-Related Genes In The Δcbra Mutant And Root Nodules Of Medicago Sativa, Corey S. Hazekamp

Graduate Masters Theses

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative alphaproteobacterium and nitrogen-fixing symbiont, which undergoes a novel cell cycle modification during its' host-microbe interaction. I intend to monitor the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes during free-loving growth, in addition to monitoring their expression during symbiosis. Using genes known to be regulated by CtrA in C. crescentus or predicted to be regulated by CtrA in S. meliloti, I aim to show how certain cell cycle genes are regulated in S. meliloti. In C. crescentus, CtrA acts as a transcription factor that is active when phosphorylated and inactive when not phosphorylated. In S. meliloti, CbrA ...


Karst Estuaries: A Newly Described Ecosystem Governed By Aquifer Hydrology, Damian M. Menning Aug 2014

Karst Estuaries: A Newly Described Ecosystem Governed By Aquifer Hydrology, Damian M. Menning

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this dissertation is to define the hydrological, geochemical, and biological characteristics of a Karst Estuary. These types of estuaries represent a unique ecosystem created by freshwater inputs from direct flow through karst conduits and/or diffuse flow through a karst matrix. In order to determine the characteristics of a Karst Estuary we monitored short-term tidal fluctuations, long-term rainfall patterns, aquifer levels, spring discharge, multiple geochemical parameters, microbial communities in the water column and sediment, and macrofaunal communities in the sediment along a transect from a submarine spring through the Gulf of Mexico. Four sites were selected ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Differential Development Of Cellular Mechanisms In Type I Interferon Production And Response, Ruoxing Wang Aug 2014

Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Differential Development Of Cellular Mechanisms In Type I Interferon Production And Response, Ruoxing Wang

Dissertations

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been recognized as a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Intensive research over the past decade has led to the possibility that ESC-derived cells will be used for the treatment of human diseases. However, increasing evidence indicates that ESC-derived cells generated by the current differentiation methods are not fully functional. It is recently recognized that ESC-derived cells lack innate immunity to a wide range of infectious agents and inflammatory cytokines. When used in patients, ESC-derived cells would be placed in wounded sites that are exposed to various pathogens and inflammatory cytokines; therefore, their viability and ...


Energy Stress Causes Chaperones To Assemble Into Cytoplasmic Complexes, Kimberly J. Cope Aug 2014

Energy Stress Causes Chaperones To Assemble Into Cytoplasmic Complexes, Kimberly J. Cope

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The majority of proteins require molecular chaperones to assist their folding into tertiary and quaternary structures. Certain stresses can compromise the weak hydrophobic forces responsible for these structures and lead to protein unfolding, misfolding, and aggregation. Aggregates of proteins are hallmarks of devastating diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Fortunately, bacteria, plants, and fungi have a potent disaggregase, named Hsp104 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, heat-induced aggregates, termed Q-bodies, were found to contain three molecular chaperones: Hsp70, Hsp104, and Hsp42. Their coalescence from small puncta into larger inclusions required Hsp104. During glucose deprivation, a stress that ...


Genomic Predictors Of Drug Response To The Alpha-Specific Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3ka-Alpha) Inhibitor Byl719 In Head And Neck Cancers, Giananthony T. Rizzo Jul 2014

Genomic Predictors Of Drug Response To The Alpha-Specific Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3ka-Alpha) Inhibitor Byl719 In Head And Neck Cancers, Giananthony T. Rizzo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PIK3CA is the only frequently mutated, druggable oncogene in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), with PIK3CA point mutations and gene amplification rates of 17.5% and 40% respectively, with higher rates in HPV-positive disease. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of BYL719, an α-specific PI3K inhibitor in HNSCC cell lines.

All cell lines with PIK3CA hotspot point mutations or gene amplifications will be sensitive to BYL719.

Twenty-eight HNSCC cell lines were subjected to increasing concentrations of BYL719 and cell viability was measured over time. Cell lines were screened for activating PIK3CA hotspot mutations and ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford Jun 2014

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


The Role Of The N-Terminus On The Enzymatic Activity Of Dutpase From Dictyostelium Discoideum, Kyle C. Varon Jun 2014

The Role Of The N-Terminus On The Enzymatic Activity Of Dutpase From Dictyostelium Discoideum, Kyle C. Varon

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) (EC 3.6.1.23) converts dUTP to dUMP, thus shifting the dUTP to dUMP ratio in the cell. The molecule dUTP is subject to mis-incorporation into DNA due to lack of distinguishing by DNA polymerase. Uracil incorporation can be repaired with base excision repair mechanisms but may create overwhelming DNA strand breaks proving to be detrimental to the cell. Most dUTPases of eukaryotes are homotrimeric and contain five highly conserved motifs responsible for catalysis and substrate binding. Many dUTPases of eukaryotes possess a leading and core region in their sequence. The core region is ...


Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel Jun 2014

Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a common target of several unrelated viruses that have evolved convergent strategies to redirect host ubiquitin machinery to serve their own needs. Members of the genus Chlorovirus, a group of large dsDNA viruses that infect certain freshwater chlorella-like green algae, encode a conserved Skp1 homolog and ankyrin-repeat (ANK) proteins, some of which contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related viral PRANC domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of chlorovirus proteins either interact with or imitate the key components of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box) ubiquitin ligases. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two functional classes ...


Functional Analysis Of Cytosolic Hsp70 Nucleotide Exchange Factor Networks In Yeast, Jennifer Lynn Abrams May 2014

Functional Analysis Of Cytosolic Hsp70 Nucleotide Exchange Factor Networks In Yeast, Jennifer Lynn Abrams

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones play critical roles in protein homeostasis via an ATP-dependent folding cycle. Cytosolic Hsp70s in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ssa and Ssb, interact with up to three distinct nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) homologous to human counterparts; Sse1/Sse2/HSP110, Fes1/HspBP1, and Snl1/Bag1. In an effort to understand the differential functional contributions of the cytosolic NEFs to protein homeostasis (“proteostasis”), I carried out comparative genetic, biochemical and cell biological analyses. For these studies, I developed protocols to monitor protein disaggregation and reactivation in a near real-time coupled assay that revealed the importance of ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek May 2014

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold Apr 2014

Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak Mar 2014

Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak

Biology Faculty Publications

The transcription factor AmrZ regulates genes important for P. aeruginosa virulence, including type IV pili, extracellular polysaccharides, and the flagellum; however, the global effect of AmrZ on gene expression remains unknown, and therefore, AmrZ may directly regulate many additional genes that are crucial for infection. Compared to the wild type strain, a ΔamrZ mutant exhibits a rugose colony phenotype, which is commonly observed in variants that accumulate the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Cyclic di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE). We hypothesized that AmrZ limits the intracellular accumulation of c-di-GMP through transcriptional repression ...


Higher-Level Production Of Volatile Fatty Acids In Vitro By Chicken Gut Microbiotas Than By Human Gut Microbiotas As Determined By Functional Analyses, Fang Lei, Yeshi Yin, Yuezhu Wang, Bo Deng, Hongwei Yu, Lanjuan Li, Charlie Xiang, Shengyue Wang, Baoli Zhu, Xin Wang Feb 2014

Higher-Level Production Of Volatile Fatty Acids In Vitro By Chicken Gut Microbiotas Than By Human Gut Microbiotas As Determined By Functional Analyses, Fang Lei, Yeshi Yin, Yuezhu Wang, Bo Deng, Hongwei Yu, Lanjuan Li, Charlie Xiang, Shengyue Wang, Baoli Zhu, Xin Wang

Hongwei Yu

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the composition and function of gut microbiota. Here, we compared the bacterial compositions and fermentation metabolites of human and chicken gut microbiotas. Results generated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region showed the compositions of human and chicken microbiotas to be markedly different, with chicken cecal microbiotas displaying more diversity than human fecal microbiotas. The nutrient requirements of each microbiota growing under batch and chemostat conditions were analyzed. The results showed that chicken cecal microbiotas required simple sugars and peptides to maintain ...


Candida Albicans Als5p Amyloid In Host-Microbe Interactions: A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Study, Michael Bois Feb 2014

Candida Albicans Als5p Amyloid In Host-Microbe Interactions: A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Study, Michael Bois

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Candida albicans, a dimorphic fungus and an opportunistic pathogen, possesses a myriad of adherence factors including members of the agglutinin-like sequence (Als) family of mannoproteins. The adhesin Als5p mediates adhesion to many substrates, and is upregulated during commensal interactions, but is downregulated during active C. albicans infections[1]. An amyloid forming core sequence at residues 325-331 has been shown to be important for Als5p function, because a single amino acid substitution at position 326 (V326N) greatly reduces Als5p-mediated adherence[2]. We evaluated the role of Als5p in host-microbe interactions, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a host model and feeding them Saccharomyces ...


Ebna1-Specific T Cell Responses During Persistent Rhesus Lcv Infection And The Development Of A Novel Therapeutic Prototype Vaccine For Ebv-Associated Diseases, Rachel Mandy Leskowitz Jan 2014

Ebna1-Specific T Cell Responses During Persistent Rhesus Lcv Infection And The Development Of A Novel Therapeutic Prototype Vaccine For Ebv-Associated Diseases, Rachel Mandy Leskowitz

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The impact of EBV on human health is substantial, but vaccines that prevent primary EBV infections or treat EBV-associated diseases are not yet available. The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is an important target for vaccination because it is the only protein expressed in all forms of latency and in all EBV-associated malignancies. The overarching goal throughout this dissertation was to determine if EBNA1 is a suitable target for vaccine development. This was addressed in two ways. First, because an improved understanding of EBNA1-specific T cell responses benefits EBV vaccine development, we characterized responses against EBNA1 of the EBV-homologous rhesus ...


Distinct Patterns Of Ccr5 Versus Alternative Coreceptor Dependence In Non-Natural Host Versus Natural Host Simmian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Sarah Tc Elliott Jan 2014

Distinct Patterns Of Ccr5 Versus Alternative Coreceptor Dependence In Non-Natural Host Versus Natural Host Simmian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Sarah Tc Elliott

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Natural host sooty mangabeys infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) exhibit high plasma viral loads without widespread CD4+ T cell loss. By contrast, non-natural host rhesus macaques experimentally infected with related SIV exhibit high viral loads but display subsequent CD4+ T cell loss and progression to AIDS, analogous to the effects of HIV-1 infection in humans. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these discrepant outcomes, including infection of distinct target cells in vivo. Cell targeting is substantially determined at the level of viral entry. Prior work demonstrated that sooty mangabey infection occurs in the absence of functional coreceptor CCR5 ...


Characterizing Dsrna Production In Virus-Infected Fish Cells, Amal Brek Aloufi Jan 2014

Characterizing Dsrna Production In Virus-Infected Fish Cells, Amal Brek Aloufi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Viral dsRNA is produced by almost all viruses sometime during their replicative cycle. These viral nucleic acids are potent inducers of both innate and adaptive immune responses, and are therefore considered important immuno-modulators. Previous studies have shown that viruses produce dsRNA when replicating in mammalian cells; however, to date no one has demonstrated viral dsRNA production in virus infected fish cells. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate dsRNA production by fish viruses in fish cells, verifying production and performing initial characterization of the dsRNA molecules being produced. Three different rainbow trout cell lines were used in this ...


The Innate Antiviral Effects Of Extracellular Viral Dsrna In Rainbow Trout Cells, Sarah J. Poynter Jan 2014

The Innate Antiviral Effects Of Extracellular Viral Dsrna In Rainbow Trout Cells, Sarah J. Poynter

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules are a potent pathogen-associated molecular pattern and play a crucial role in the innate immune response. During a viral infection, extracellular and intracellular dsRNA can initiate pathways resulting in the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The accumulation of ISGs within a cell results in a protective antiviral state. This study used both commercially available dsRNA (poly I:C) and in vitro transcribed dsRNA molecules, based on the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genome sequence, as stimuli to investigate the effects of these molecules on the innate immune response in rainbow ...